The research plan is the main part of a grant application describing
a principal investigator's proposed research, stating its importance
and how it will be conducted. A typical research plan has four main
A. Specific Aims
B. Background and Significance
C. Preliminary Studies and Progress Report
D. Research Design and Methods
The research plan should be written to address the following questions:
- What do you intend to do?
- Why is the work important?
- What has already been done?
- How are you going to do the work?
The specific aims is a formal statement of the objectives and milestones
of a research project in a grant application. The purpose of this
section is to clearly and concisely describe what the proposed research
is intended to accomplish.
- Should include specific research objectives.
- Should be hypothesis-based.
- Objectives should be obtainable within the proposed timeframe.
- Study aims should fit together in an overall framework.
- Study should be well-focused rather than broad and diffuse.
One page is recommended for the specific aims section.
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Background and Significance
The background and significance section states the research problem
including the proposed rationale, current state of knowledge and
potential contributions and significance of the research to the
- Critically evaluate existing knowledge, including background
literature and relevant data.
- References should reflect an updated knowledge of the field.
- Specify existing gaps that the project is intended to fill.
- Discussion should convey the importance and relevance of the
- Highlight potential policy or practice impacts.
- Highlight why research findings are important beyond the confines
of the specific research project (e.g., significance; how research
results can be applied).
Two to three pages is recommended for the background and significance
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Preliminary Studies and Progress Reports
The preliminary results section describes prior work by the investigators
relevant to the proposed project. In a new application, the preliminary
results are important to establish the experience and competence
of the applicant to pursue the proposed research project and to
provide support for the study hypotheses and research design.
In a competing renewal application, this section becomes a progress
report, describing studies performed during the last grant period.
The progress report should include a summary of the previous application's
specific aims and importance of the findings.
- Discuss how previous work leads to the current proposal.
- Emphasize how the previous work demonstrates feasibility of
- If you do not have the required expertise for a specific methodology,
enlist a collaborator or consultant (include a letter of support
or agreement—Section J of the Research Plan).
- Accuracy and overall presentation are important in figures,
tables and graphs.
Six to eight pages is recommended for the narrative portion of
the preliminary studies and progress report section.
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Research Design and Methods
The purpose of the research design and methods section is to describe
how the research will be carried out. This section is critical for
demonstrating that the applicant has developed a clear, organized
and thoughtful study design.
- Should provide an overview of the proposed design and conceptual
- Study goals should relate to proposed study hypotheses.
- Include details related to specific methodology; explain why
the proposed methods are the best to accomplish study goals.
- Describe any novel concepts, approaches, tools or techniques.
- Include details of how data will be collected and results analyzed.
- Consider required statistical techniques.
- Include proposed work plan and timeline.
- Consider and discuss potential limitations and alternative approaches
to achieve study aims.
Do not exceed 25 pages for Items A-D, including all table and
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Current as of February 2005
Essentials of the Research Plan. Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/fund/esstplan.htm