1. Hibbard J, Sofaer S. Best practices in public reporting No. 1: how to effectively present health care performance data to consumers. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; June 2010. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/pubrptguide1.htm. Accessed September 27, 2010.
2. Sofaer S, Hibbard J. Best practices in public reporting No. 2: maximizing consumer understanding of public comparative quality reports: effective use of explanatory information. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; June 2010. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/pubrptguide2.htm. Accessed September 27, 2010.
3. Berwick DM, James B, Coye MJ. Connections between quality measurement and improvement. Med Care 2003 Jan;41(1 Suppl):I30-38.
4. Hibbard JH. Engaging health care consumers to improve the quality of care. Med Care 2003 Jan;41(1 Suppl):I61-70.
5. Hibbard JH, Stockard J, Tusler M. Does publicizing hospital performance stimulate quality improvement efforts? Health Aff (Millwood) 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):84-94.
6. Marshall MN, Shekelle PG, Leatherman S, et al. The public release of performance data: what do we expect to gain? A review of the evidence. JAMA 2000 Apr 12;283(14):1866-74.
7. Fung CH, Lim YW, Mattke S, et al. Systematic review: the evidence that publishing patient care performance data improves quality of care. Ann Intern Med 2008 Jan 15;148(2):111-23.
8. Faber M, Bosch M, Wollersheim H, et al. Public reporting in health care: how do consumers use quality-of-care information? A systematic review. Med Care 2009 Jan;47(1):1-8.
9. Hibbard JH. What can we say about the impact of public reporting? Inconsistent execution yields variable results. Ann Intern Med 2008 Jan 15;148(2):160-1.
10. Romano PS, Rainwater JA, Antonius D. Grading the graders: how hospitals in California and New York perceive and interpret their report cards. Med Care 1999 Mar;37(3):295-305.
11. Tu JV, Donovan LR, Lee DS, et al. Effectiveness of public report cards for improving the quality of cardiac care: the EFFECT study: a randomized trial. JAMA 2009 Dec 2;302(21):2330-7.
12. Davis MM, Hibbard JH, Milstein A. Issue Brief: Consumer tolerance for inaccuracy in physician performance ratings: one size fits none. Washington, DC: Center for Studying Health System Change; March 2007.
13. Krumholz HM, Normand SLT. Public reporting of 30-day mortality for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. Circulation 2008 Sep;118(13):1394-7.
14. Romano PS, Hussey P, Ritley D. Selecting quality and resource use measures: a decision guide for community quality collaboratives. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; November 2009. AHRQ Pub. No. 09(10)-0073. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/perfmeasguide/. Accessed September 27, 2010.
15. National Quality Forum. Measure Evaluation Criteria. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum; August 2008. Available at: http://www.qualityforum.org/docs/measure_evaluation_criteria.aspx. Accessed September 27, 2010.
16. National Priorities Partnership. National priorities and goals: aligning our efforts to transform America's healthcare. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum; 2008. Available at: http://www.nationalprioritiespartnership.org/uploadedFiles/NPP/08-253-NQF%20ReportLo%5B6%5D.pdf [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed September 27, 2010.
17. McGlynn EA. Identifying, categorizing, and evaluating health care efficiency measures (prepared by the Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center—RAND Corporation, under Contract No. 282-00-0005-21). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2008. AHRQ Pub. No. 08-0030. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/efficiency/. Accessed September 27, 2010.
18. AQA parameters for selecting measures for physician performance. AQA Alliance; June 2009. Available at: http://www.aqaalliance.org/files/AQAParametersforSelectingAmbulatoryCare.pdf [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed September 27, 2010.
19. Remus D, Fraser I. Guidance for using the AHRQ quality indicators for hospital-level public reporting or payment. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004. AHRQ Pub. No. 04-0086-EF.
20. Guidance for using the AHRQ quality indicators for public reporting or payment, Appendix B: Public reporting evaluation framework—comparison of recommended evaluation criteria in five existing national frameworks. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004. Available at: http://www.qualityindicators.ahrq.gov/Archive/..%5CDownloads%5CModules_Non_Software%5CQI%20Reporting%5CModel%20Report%20Appendix%20B.pdf [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed September 27, 2010.
21. Pawlson LG, Scholle SH, Powers A. Comparison of administrative-only versus administrative plus chart review data for reporting HEDIS hybrid measures. Am J Manag Care 2007 Oct;13(10):553-8.
22. McGlynn EA, Adams J, Hicks J, et al. Creating a coordinated autos/UAW reporting system (CARS) for evaluating health plan performance. Santa Monica, CA: RAND; September 1999.
23. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hospital Compare. Available at: http://www.hospitalcompare.hhs.gov. Accessed September 27, 2010.
24. Pham HH, Schrag D, O'Malley AS, et al. Care patterns in Medicare and their implications for pay for performance. N Engl J Med 2007 Mar 15;356(11):1130-9.
25. Landon BE, O'Malley AJ, Keegan T. Can choice of the sample population affect perceived performance: implications for performance assessment. J Gen Intern Med 2010 Feb;25(2):104-9.
26. Mehrotra A, Adams JL, Thomas JW, et al. The effect of different attribution rules on individual physician cost profiles. Ann Intern Med 2010 May 18;152(10):649-54.
27. Atlas SJ, Grant RW, Ferris TG, et al. Patient-physician connectedness and quality of primary care. Ann Intern Med 2009 Mar 3;150(5):325-35.
28. Thomas JW, Ward K. Economic profiling of physician specialists: use of outlier treatment and episode attribution rules. Inquiry 2006 Fall;43(3):271-82.
29. Adams JL, Mehrotra A, Thomas JW, et al. Physician cost profiling -- reliability and risk of misclassification. N Engl J Med 2010 March 18;362(11):1014-21.
30. Adams JL, McGlynn EA, Thomas JW, et al. Incorporating statistical uncertainty in the use of physician cost profiles. BMC Health Serv Res 2010 March 5;10:57.
31. Safran DG, Karp M, Coltin K, et al. Measuring patients' experiences with individual primary care physicians. Results of a statewide demonstration project. J Gen Intern Med 2006 Jan;21(1):13-21.
32. Zaslavsky AM. Statistical issues in reporting quality data: small samples and casemix variation. Int J Qual Health Care 2001 Dec;13(6):481-8.
33. Sequist TD, Schneider EC, Li A, et al. Reliability of medical group and physician performance measurement in the primary care setting. Med Care 2011 Feb;49(2):126-31.
34. Scholle SH, Roski J, Adams JL, et al. Benchmarking physician performance: reliability of individual and composite measures. Am J Manag Care 2008 Dec;14(12):833-8.
35. Elliott M, Zaslavsky A, Cleary P. Are finite population corrections appropriate when profiling institutions? Health Serv Outcomes Res Methodol 2006;6(3):153-6.
36. Dimick JB, Staiger DO, Baser O, et al. Composite measures for predicting surgical mortality in the hospital. Health Aff (Millwood) 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4):1189-98.
37. Reeves D, Campbell SM, Adams J, et al. Combining multiple indicators of clinical quality: an evaluation of different analytic approaches. Med Care 2007 Jun ;45(6):489-96.
38. Shwartz M, Ash AS. Composite measures: matching the method to the purpose. November 2008. Available at: http://www.qualitymeasures.ahrq.gov/expert/expert-commentary.aspx?id=16464. Accessed September 27, 2010.
39. Reporting Measures for the CAHPS Clinician & Group Survey. CAHPS Clinician & Group Survey and Reporting Kit. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2007.
40. Feinstein AR. Multi-item "instruments" vs. Virginia Apgar's principles of clinimetrics. Arch Intern Med 1999 Jan 25;159(2):125-8.
41. Gandhi TK, Francis EC, Puopolo AL, et al. Inconsistent report cards: assessing the comparability of various measures of the quality of ambulatory care. Med Care 2002 Feb;40(2):155-65.
42. Jha AK, Li Z, Orav EJ, et al. Care in U.S. hospitals—the Hospital Quality Alliance program. N Engl J Med 2005 Jul 21;353(3):265-74.
43. Quality Indicators (AHRQ QI). Inpatient Quality Indicators Composite Measure Workgroup final report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; March 2008. Available at: http://www.qualityindicators.ahrq.gov/Downloads/Modules_Non_Software/Modules%20Composite%20development%20bullet/IQI%20Composite%20Development.pdf [Plugin Software Help]. Accesssed September 27, 2010.
44. Lied TR, Malsbary R, Eisenberg C, et al. Combining HEDIS indicators: a new approach to measuring plan performance. Health Care Financ Rev 2002 Summer;23(4):117-29.
45. Zaslavsky AM, Shaul JA, Zaborski LB, et al. Combining health plan performance indicators into simpler composite measures. Health Care Financ Rev 2002 Summer;23(4):101-15.
46. Timbie JW, Shahian DM, Newhouse JP, et al. Composite measures for hospital quality using quality-adjusted life years. Stat Med 2009 Apr 15;28(8):1238-54.
47. Nolan T, Berwick DM. All-or-none measurement raises the bar on performance. JAMA 2006 Mar 8;295(10):1168-70.
48. Van Matre JG. All-or-none measurement of health care quality. JAMA 2006 Jul 26;296(4):392; author reply 393.
49. Scholle SH, Roski J, Dunn DL, et al. Availability of data for measuring physician quality performance. Am J Manag Care 2009 Jan;15(1):67-72.
50. Hays RD, Fayers P. Reliability and validity (including responsiveness). In: Fayers P, Hays RD, eds. Assessing quality of life in clinical trials: methods and practice, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. pp. 25-39.
51. Adams JL. The reliability of provider profiling: a tutorial. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation; 2009. Available at: http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR653/. Accessed September 27, 2010.
52. Adams JL, Mehrotra A, McGlynn EA. Estimating reliability and misclassification in physician profiling. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation; 2010.
53. Adams JL, Mehrotra A, Thomas JW, et al. Physician cost profiling: reliability and risk of misclassification: detailed methodology and sensitivity analyses. Santa Monica, CA: RAND; 2010. Available at: http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR799/. Accessed September 27, 2010.
Return to Contents
AHRQ Publication No. 11-0093
Current as of September 2011
Friedberg MW, Damberg CL. Methodological Considerations in Generating Provider Performance Scores for Use in Public Reporting: A Guide for Community Quality Collaboratives. AHRQ Publication No. 11-0093, September 2011. Prepared by RAND Corporation under Contract No. HHSA290200810037C. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/value/perfscoresmethods/