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1 12 percent of active patients in overall practice.
2 Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, Public Law 111-3, 111th Cong., 1st sess. (February 4, 2009).
3 Search terms in PubMed included "health care quality," "limited English proficiency," "language barrier," and "health care disparity." Selected articles from this review are cited due to space limitations. Few studies were identified that reported no language proficiency effects, suggesting the possibility that the literature base itself is biased toward reporting positive effects. The few studies reporting no effects had methodological issues (Enguidanos and Rosen, 1997; Estrada et al., 1990; Stone et al., 1998).
4 New York State requires translation and interpretation services by pharmacies (Office of the Attorney General, 2008).
5 Lau v Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974).
6 Department of Justice. 42 U.S.C. Chapter 20 § 1973aa-1a. The Public Health and Welfare Act, Elective Franchise.
7 TTY stands for TeleTYwriter or text telephone, and TDD is telecommunication device for deaf persons.
8Department of Justice. 28 CFR Part 36 § 36.303. ADA Standards for Accessible Design (July 1, 1994).
9 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Public Law 115-5 § 3002(b)(2)(B)(vii), 111th Cong., 1st Sess. (February 17, 2009).
10 Personal communication, O. Tiutin, Contra Costa Health Plan, August 4, 2009.
11 CDC has access on its website to a limited set of informational materials based on top languages spoken in the United States: Spanish, German, Italian, Russian, Vietnamese, Chinese, French, Tagalog (CDC, 2008).
12 Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, Public Law 110-275 § 118, 110th Cong., 2nd sess. (July 15, 2008).
13 Health Care Language Assistance Act of 2003, California S.B. 853 § 1367 (October 8, 2003).
14 California Health and Safety Code § 1259 (January 12, 2009).
15 California Code of Regulations, Title 9 § 1810.410 (f) (3).
16 Health Care Language Assistance Act of 2003, California S.B. 853 § 1367 (October 8, 2003).
17 Personal communication, E. Sanchez, California Managed Risk Medical Insurance Board, July 20, 2009. Languages include English (46.1 percent of applicants), Spanish (45.3 percent), Asian (6.3 percent, including Cantonese, Chinese, Korean, Mandarin and Vietnamese), and other languages (2.1 percent, including Russian, Farsi, Armenia, Tagalog, Arabic, Hmong, Japanese, Cambodian, Thai, Hebrew, Lao, Portuguese, Samoan, Polish, Turkish, French, Mien, Llacano, Italian, and American Sign Language).
18 Personal communication, H. Shin, U.S. Census Bureau, July 13, 2009.
19 During July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005, interpretation was provided in Superior Court for 77 languages across 83,548 events, with 16 major languages accounting for most events (New Jersey Courts, 2009).
20 Personal communication, H. Shin, U.S. Census Bureau, July 13, 2009.
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