Model for Change (text description)
The logo of the Department of Defense is on the page.
The Model for Change is a flowchart that begins with Transformational Change
Factors. Change factors are divided into three levels and two columns, A and
B. On the organizational level are a) safety culture and transparency/trust
and b) systems-efficacy and learning environment. On the leadership level are
a) lead the way; establish the sense of urgency; create a vision or gain—plan
and prepare; develop a coalition—assess environment and b) communication
process; enable change to last; empower others to act; short term wins; and
sustain/improvement. On the individual level are a) pre-training experience
and b) self efficacy and training motivation.
Column A of Transformational Change Factors flows down to pre-training measurement,
which includes knowledge, skills, and attitudes. There is a bidirectional flow
from Column B of Transformational Change Factors to post-training measurement,
which includes knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and to training transfer.
An area labeled Interventions is below Transformational Change Factor, between
column A and B. A third arrow flows down from Transformational Change Factors
Pre-training measurement flows through level 2 evaluation to the Intervention
section of the chart. Intervention includes tools and methods (linked with
a bidirectional arrow) which both flow to training. Training includes training
objectives: competencies— knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Competencies
are at level 1 evaluation.
Interventions flow toward post-training measurement (level 2 evaluation)
and to training transfer (level 3 evaluation).
Transformational Change Factors and the Intervention section both flow toward
outcomes: (illegible) patient outcomes, improved staff and patient satisfaction,
improved processes, staff retention and decreased claims. Outcomes include
level 4 evaluations and sentinel event. An arrow leads from outcomes, through
report card, back to Transformational Change Factors. An arrow leads from outcomes
back to training in the interventions section.
Additional bidirectional arrows connect report card to sentinel event, and
connect interventions to report card, level 2 evaluation, and level 3 evaluation.
Sources: Salas E and Cannon-Bowers JA. Training and retraining:
A handbook for business, industry, government, and the military. Tobias S and
Fletcher JD (editors), McMilan: NY, 2000: 312-335.
Kirkpatric, D. Model for summative evaluation. 1976.
Kotter JP. Leading change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 1996.
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