NHRQ Efficiency Measurement: Potentially Avoidable Hospitalization Trends & Costs

On September 14, 2009, Roxanne M. Andrews, Ph.D. made this presentation at the 2009 Annual Conference.

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Slide 1. NHQR Efficiency Measurement: Potentially Avoidable Hospitalization Trends and Costs

NHQR Efficiency Measurement: Potentially Avoidable Hospitalization Trends & Costs

Roxanne M. Andrews, Ph.D.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets
September 14, 2009

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Slide 2. What are potentially avoidable hospitalizations?

What are potentially avoidable hospitalizations?

  • Hospitalizations that may be preventable with high quality primary & preventive care
  • Commonly measured by examining hospitalizations for specific conditions—“ambulatory care sensitive conditions”
  • Example: Asthma
    • Patients may be hospitalized for asthma if they do not receive adequate outpatient care, or primary care practitioners do not adhere to practice guidelines or prescribe appropriate treatments.
  • As an efficiency measure, it is assumed that hospitalizations for these conditions are more costly than good quality outpatient care.

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Slide 3. How are potentially avoidable hospitalizations measured in the NHQR?

How are potentially avoidable hospitalizations measured in the NHQR?

  • AHRQ Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs)
    • One module of the AHRQ Quality Indicators software
    • Set of measures to identify hospitalizations for "ambulatory care sensitive conditions" (ACSCs) in adult populations.
  • PQIs use existing hospital discharge data, based on readily available data elements
  • PQIs adjust for age and gender of the population
  • All the hospitalizations are not preventable, but these are areas where improvements in outpatient & preventive care could reduce U.S. hospital costs

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Slide 4. Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) Composite Measures

Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) Composite Measures

  • Chronic
    • Diabetes complications - short term
    • Diabetes complications - long term
    • Uncontrolled diabetes
    • Lower extremity amputation
    • COPD
    • Hypertension
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Angina without procedure
    • Adult asthma
  • Acute
    • Dehydration
    • Bacterial pneumonia
    • Urinary tract infection

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Slide 5. Data Source: Nationwide Inpatient Sample

Data Source: Nationwide Inpatient Sample

  • Part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project family of databases
  • Designed for national estimates related to U.S. hospitalizations
  • Uses all-payer hospital administrative (billing) data
  • Based on data supplied by state data organizations
  • A 20% stratified sample of U.S. hospitals (all discharges from the hospital)

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Slide 6. Measures in the NHQR

Measures in the NHQR

  • Trends in PQI composite rates
    • Per 100,000 population
  • Trends in national costs for PQI composite
    • Adjust for inflation (gross domestic product implicit price deflator)
    • Deflate hospital charges to hospital costs using HCUP cost-to-charge ratios
    • Costs represent the hospitals' cost of production
      • Not what was paid
      • Does not include physician costs billed separately

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Slide 7. National trends in potentially avoidable hospitalization rates, by type of condition

National trends in potentially avoidable hospitalization rates, by type of condition

An graph of the Hospitalizations per 100,000 population is shown.

Note: Adults only. Rates are adjusted for age & gender.
Source: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample

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Slide 8. Trends in national hospital costs of potentially avoidable hospitalizations

Trends in national hospital costs of potentially avoidable hospitalizations

A graph of the Costs (in billions of 2005 $) is shown.

Note: Adults only.
Source: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample

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Slide 9. Comments

Comments

  • Previous literature indicates variations in preventable hospitalization rates by race, SES and geographic location
  • NHDR illustrates variations by race & SES in individual PQIs
  • NHQR State Snapshots illustrates variations by State in individual PQIs
  • AHRQ Preventable Hospitalization Costs mapping software can identify counties with high costs for PQI conditions

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Slide 10. Regional variations in Overall PQI Composite rate

Regional variations in Overall PQI Composite rate

Region20002005
Northeast2055.933
 
1761.125
Midwest1819.91
 
1871.853
South2241.706
 
2145.53
West1460.331
 
1332.092

 

Slide 11

Slide 11 Image. Comments

Comments

  • Examining the variations in potentially avoidable hospitalizations offer opportunities to identify communities and populations for targeted interventions
  • These interventions could lead to improvements in one dimension of efficiency
Current as of February 2009
Internet Citation: NHRQ Efficiency Measurement: Potentially Avoidable Hospitalization Trends & Costs. February 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/news/events/conference/2009/andrews/index.html