Redesigning Hospital Care for Quality and Efficiency: Applications of Positive Deviance and Lean in Reducing MRSA (Text Version)

Slide presentation from the AHRQ 2009 conference.

On September 19, 2009, Bradley N. Doebbeling made this presentation at the 2009 Annual Conference. Select to access the PowerPoint® presentation (2.6 MB). Plugin Software Help.


Slide 1

Slide 1. Redesigning Hospital Care for Quality and Efficiency: Applications of Positive Deviance and Lean in Reducing MRSA

Redesigning Hospital Care for Quality and Efficiency : Applications of Positive Deviance, & Lean to Reduce MRSA

Brad Doebbeling, MD,  MSc
Director, IU Center for Health Services Research,
HSR Director, Regenstrief Institute,

Senior Scientist, VA HSR&D Center of Excellence

Med. Dept. Professor of Health Services Research, IU School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN

bdoebbel@iupui.edu

doebbeling@comcast.net

schoke@iupui.edu

Slide 2

Slide 2. Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Funding from AHRQ
    • Testing Techniques to Radically Reduce Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria HHSA2902006000131 (Completed).
    • Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) Initiative Assessment Program HHSA290200600013I (Current).
    • Implementing and Improving the Integration of Decision Support into Outpatient Clinical WorkflowHSA2902006000131(Current).
  • Funding from AHRQ and CDC
    • Testing Spread and Implementation of Novel MRSA-Reducing Practices HHSA290200600013 (Current).
  • Thanks to our collaborators, partners, providers, patients!

Slide 3

Slide 3. MRSA Phase One

MRSA Phase One

  • AHRQ funded proposal to reduce MRSA in hospitals over 18 months through the ACTION collaborative funding mechanism.
  • Our interventions were based on the Pittsburgh VAMC model as specified by AHRQ, using lean, organizational change and informatics (data exchange, reporting):
    • Conduct active surveillance of all incoming pts. in ICUs.
    • Improve rates of contact isolation.
    • Improve hand hygiene rates.
    • Organizational change.
    • Environmental decontamination.

Slide 4

Slide 4. MRSA Phase One

MRSA Phase One -

  • Indianapolis has unique health information exchange (RHIO)
    • Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC).
    • Includes nearly all of the healthcare systems in Indianapolis.
    • Spans >95% of all of the inpatient care in the city, expanding regionally.
  • The five competing health care systems have agreed to share information on their patients, to ensure safe and quality health care.

Slide 5

Slide 5. MRSA Background

MRSA Background

  • MRSA Burden
    • Over 126,000 persons are infected by MRSA in hospitals annually.
    • ~ 4 MRSA infections per 1,000 hospital discharges.
    • Over 5,000 die as a result of these infections.
    • Over $2.5 billion excess healthcare costs.
  • 1/3 patients acquiring MRSA will become infected.

Slide 6

Slide 6. Reservoir for the Spread of Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens

Reservoir for the Spread of Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens

  • Colonized patients, NOT just infected patients, can transmit AR pathogens to healthcare workers and other patients.
Unidentified Colonized PatientsClinical Cultures +
History of MRSA

Slide 7

Slide 7. Efficacy of Preventive Interventions

Efficacy of Preventive Interventions

  • Large body of consistent evidence that control is highly cost effective (Gould 2006).
  • Organizational Change initiatives (Lean, PD) effective reductions of MRSA 50-85% (Pittsburg, Indy, RWJ Beta 2008-9).
  • Active interventions to eliminate MRSA transmission shown to save money and lives (van Rijen & Kluytmans, 2009).
  • Innovative approaches to engage hospital staff to intervene and improve healthcare processes effective in reducing MRSA (Cooper 2005).
  • External pressure on hospitals to implement universal active MRSA surveillance. Several states and the VA mandated screening (Graham, 2007).

Slide 8

Slide 8. MRSA Phase One

MRSA Phase One

  • Our health care engineers partnered with and trained front-line workers to use lean-six sigma and positive deviance approaches.
  • Focused on sharing evidence and methods, coaching front-line staff teams to lead instituting systems changes to systematize processes and sustain practices.
  • Emphasized regular measurement and feedback of adherence to enhance adoption.
  • Weekly meeting of all hospital teams to identify barriers & facilitators, review and reinforce progress, share best practices, strategize about spread and solutions.

Slide 9

Slide 9. Lean Tools

Lean Tools

Define the ProblemProject Charter
Baseline Current ProcessesProcess Map
Check sheet
Process Observation Worksheet
Spaghetti Diagram
Identify Operational Barriers
Develop Future State ProcessLean Tools
Process Control StrategyProcess Control Plan

Slide 10

Slide 10. Admission Culture Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12/08)

Admission Culture Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12/08)

A-1: 93%

A-2: 96%

B-1: 95%

C-1: 97%

C-2: 96%

Slide 11

Slide 11. Hand Hygiene Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12/08)

Hand Hygiene Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12/08)

A-1: .85

A-2: .75

C-1: .72

C-2: .81

Slide 12

Slide 12. Contact  Isolation Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12-08)

Contact Isolation Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12-08)

A-1: .8

A-2: .75

C-1: .9

C-2: .9

Slide 13

Slide 13. An Operational Citywide Electronic Infection Control Network: Results from 1st Year

An Operational Citywide Electronic Infection Control Network: Results from 1st Year

  • Infection control is a regional problem, requiring a coordinated effort.
  • Created a citywide electronic notification system to prospectively track all known patients with MRSA.
  • Currently track 17,000 patients with a history of MRSA infection or colonization across Indianapolis.
  • Since May 2007, delivered 2698 admission alerts on patients with a history of MRSA, 19 percent based on data from another institution.
  • 20 infection control providers (ICPs) spanning 16 hospital.

Kho, Lemmon, Dexter, Doebbeling AMIA 2008.

Slide 14

Slide 14. MRSA Phase One Results

MRSA Phase One Results

  • Significant improvement in process measure adherence to 80->95%
  • Pre and post intervention results for first three hospitals suggest average of 60% reduction on study units over 9-12 months.
  • ~ 20% reduction MRSA infections hospital wide.
  • Reduction in level of MRSA among S. aureus.
  • Reduction in associated BSIs and UTIs.
  • Our success led to a follow-up contract funded by AHRQ and CDC.

Slide 15

Slide 15. MRSA Phase Two

MRSA Phase Two

  • Spreading the successful intervention of Phase One to more units in Indianapolis.
  • Recruited 4 Indy and 3 other hospital systems
    • University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario.
    • St. Patrick's Health, Missoula, Montana.
    • Maine Medical System, Providence, Maine.
  • Training and Coaching Using Experienced Integrated Positive Deviance with Lean Engineering Principals.

Slide 16

Slide 16. MRSA Phase Two

MRSA Phase Two

  • What is Positive Deviance?
  • Technique to engage front line staff in owning & improving processes and sustaining change.
  • Based on identification of practices of used by 'positively deviant' staff/departments.
  • Critical for staff involvement/buy-in.

Slide 17

Slide 17. Integrated Lean/PD approach

Integrated Lean/PD approach

Define the ProblemDiscovery
Baseline Current Processes
Identify
Operational Barriers
Develop Future State ProcessAction
Process Control
Strategy

Slide 18

Slide 18. Discovery and Action Dialogues

Discovery and Action Dialogues

  • Informal meetings held with front line staff to discuss the current status of the process.
  • Incorporate as much front line staff as possible.
  • The goal is to 'discover' the issues and potential solutions and then take 'action' as rapidly as possible.
  • It is easier to "act your way into a new way of thinking" than to "think your way into a new way to acting".

Slide 19

Slide 19. MRSA Phase Two

MRSA Phase Two

  • What's different in Phase Two besides spread to new systems?
  • Learning Collaborative: Teams from hospitals connect with teams from other hospitals employing the MRSA Intervention Bundle to foster learning and innovation.
  • More extensive activities to train interdisciplinary teams within each of the participating health systems (compared with first study).

Slide 20

Slide 20. MRSA Phase Two - Challenges

MRSA Phase Two- Challenges

  • Leadership engagement critical in times of financial and H1N1 challenges.
  • Data collection for research rigor may be too intensive for most community hospitals.
  • Hospitals need and desire regular feedback on impact of interventions.
  • Need a better electronic data collection infrastructure relating to displaying intervention success (outcome data).
  • Need better solutions to support long-distance collaboration, coaching, mentoring.
  • Need new mechanisms for academic achievement, paper writing, publishing of redesign papers, new journals, new toolkits.

Slide 21

Slide 21. MRSA Phase Two - Lessons Learned

MRSA Phase Two - Lessons Learned

  • System redesign approach of training, consultation and coaching front-line staff seems to be strong, sustained approach.
  • Importance of buy-in from highest institutional levels crucial.
  • Enthusiasm builds from within because redesign teams own it!
  • Informatics tool helpful in identifying great cross-over of MRSA patients in hospitals.

Slide 22

Slide 22. Conclusions from other recent AHRQ Work

Conclusions from other recent AHRQ Work

  • Hospital Acquired Infections Collaboratory has identified many important barriers, facilitators and positive deviant practices to reduce HAIs!
  • Usability assessments, including enthnographic observation, structured interviews and usability testing of prototypes valuable for improving CDS!—see Haggstrom et al, Saleem et al at AMIA 2009.
Current as of December 2009
Internet Citation: Redesigning Hospital Care for Quality and Efficiency: Applications of Positive Deviance and Lean in Reducing MRSA (Text Version). December 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/news/events/conference/2009/doebbeling/index.html