84. Treatment Recommendations: Counseling (Continued)
Variables associated with higher or lower abstinence rates
|Variables associated with higher abstinence rates|
Ready to change
Moderate to high self-efficacy
Supportive social network
|Tobacco user reports a strong motivation to quit.
Tobacco user is ready to quit within a 1-month period.
Tobacco user is confident in his or her ability to quit.
A smoke-free workplace and home; friends who do not smoke in the quitter's presence.
|Variables associated with lower abstinence rates|
|High nicotine dependence
Psychiatric comorbidity and substance use
High stress level
Exposure to other smokers
|Tobacco user smokes heavily (≥20 cigarettes/day), and/or has first cigarette of the day within 30 minutes after waking in the morning.
Tobacco user has currently elevated depressive symptoms, active alcohol abuse, or schizophrenia. Stressful life circumstances and/or recent or anticipated major life changes (e.g., divorce, job change).
Other smokers in the household.