Mutual Support: Classroom Slides

TeamSTEPPS® Long-Term Care Version: Module 5

The Long-Term Care version of TeamSTEPPS adapts the core concepts of the TeamSTEPPS program to reflect the environment of nursing homes and other other long-term care settings such as assisted living and continuing care retirement communities. The examples, discussions, and exercises below are tailored to the long-term care environment.

Contents


Slide 1: Mutual Support

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"A chain is only as strong as its weakest link."

–Author Unknown

Image: Two penguins are hiding behind a snowdrift; one penguin is holding the other up on his shoulders so the second penguin can look over the snowdrift's top.

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Slide 2: Objectives

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  • Define mutual support.
  • Discuss task assistance and the types of feedback.
  • Describe advocacy, assertion, and the Two-Challenge rule.
  • Discuss "CUS" and "DESC script" techniques.
  • Discuss common approaches to conflict resolution.
  • List barriers, tools, strategies, and outcomes of mutual support.

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Slide 3: TeamSTEPPS

TeamSTEPPS logo. For details, go to [D] Text Description.

[D] Select for Text Description

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Slide 4: Mutual support

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Mutual support is the essence of teamwork

  • Protects team members from work overload situations that may reduce effectiveness and increase the risk of error.

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Slide 5: Task Assistance

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Team members foster a climate in which it is expected that assistance will be actively sought and offered as a method for reducing the occurrence of error.

"In support of patient safety, it's expected!"

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Slide 6: Task Assistance

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Image: Two penguins are hiding behind a snowdrift; one penguin is holding the other up on his shoulders so the second penguin can look over the snowdrift's top.

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Slide 7: Discussion: Task Assistance

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  • In which situations can task assistance be used?
  • How can you make this a daily practice on your unit?
  • How can you build it into your work environment to achieve a culture focused on resident safety?

"Ask for help... Offer help"

'Roll 'Em!' Play Video (icon: penguin film director)
Task Assistance (Flash video, 22 sec.; 4.4 MB) (Plugin Software Help)

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Slide 8: What Is Feedback?

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"Feedback is the giving, seeking, and receiving of performance-related information among the members of a team."
(Dickinson and McIntyre, 1997)

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Slide 9: Types of Feedback

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  • Can be formal or informal.
  • Constructive feedback:
    • Is considerate and task specific, and focuses attention on performance and away from the individual (Baron, 1988).
    • Is provided by all team members.
  • Evaluative feedback:
    • Helps the individual by comparing behavior to standards or to the individual's own past performance (London, Larson, and Thisted, 1999).
    • Most often used by an individual in a coaching or mentoring role.

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Slide 10: Characteristics of Effective Feedback

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Good Feedback is—

  • Timely.
  • Respectful.
  • Specific.
  • Directed toward improvement:
    • Helps prevent the same problem from occurring in the future.
  • Considerate.

"Feedback is where the learning occurs."

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Slide 11: A Feedback Scenario

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A staff development nurse watches a nursing assistant use a mechanical lift to transfer a resident from the bed to a chair. The nurse pulls the nursing assistant aside and reminds her of the proper positioning of the lift pad, showing the nursing assistant which landmarks to use. She explains how the resident's position can affect the function of the lift and that friction and sheer to the resident's skin can result when the resident is not positioned properly.

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Slide 12: Providing Feedback Effectively

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Select the penguin director icon below to access the video.

'Roll 'Em!' Play Video (icon: penguin film director)
Feedback (Flash® video, 11 sec.; 2.3 MB) (Plugin Software Help)

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Slide 13: Advocacy, Assertion, and Conflict Resolution

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Images: A penguin in a red medical assistant's shirt with a stethoscope and clipboard chart stands beside a bed where another penguin lies sleeping. The medical assistant penguin listens to an enthusiastic small penguin who is jumping up and down. Two penguins play hockey.

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Slide 14: An Advocacy and Assertion Scenario

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A high school senior working in the dietary department is wheeling the steam-tray table down the hall after dinner. Ahead of her she sees a nursing assistant escort a resident into his room and close the door. As she passes the room, she hears a raised voice and believes it to be the nursing assistant. She feels she should knock on the door or tell someone but doesn't. She says to herself, "No, I'm just in high school and working in the kitchen. It's not my place. Plus, who would believe me?"

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Slide 15: Advocacy and Assertion

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  • Advocate for the resident:
    • Invoked when team members' viewpoints don't coincide with that of a decisionmaker.
  • Assert a corrective action in a firm and respectful manner.

Images: A penguin in a red medical assistant's shirt with a stethoscope and clipboard chart stands beside a bed where another penguin lies sleeping. The medical assistant penguin listens to an enthusiastic small penguin who is jumping up and down.

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Slide 16: The Assertive Statement

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  • Respect and support authority.
  • Clearly assert concerns and suggestions.
  • Use an assertive statement (nonthreatening and ensures that critical information is addressed)
    • Make an opening.
    • State the concern.
    • State the problem.
    • Offer a solution.
    • Reach an agreement.

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Slide 17: Conflict Resolution Options

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Information Conflict (We have different information!) → Two-Challenge Rule.

Image: A penguin in a chef's outfit is talking with a penguin in a Hawaiian shirt. The chef penguin "speaks" a red square. The Hawaiian-shirted penguin "speaks" a green circle.

Personal Conflict (Hostile and harrassing behavior) → DESC script.

Image: Two penguins argue with each other.

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Slide 18: Two-Challenge Rule

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Images: A penguin in a blue shirt is talking to a penguin in a medical assistant's green shirt and stethoscope. In Image 1, the blue-shirted penguin is speaking softly; in Image 2, he is shouting with his wings upraised.

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Slide 19: Two-Challenge Rule

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Invoked when an initial assertion is ignored...

  • It is your responsibility to assertively voice your concern at least two times to ensure that it has been heard.
  • The member being challenged must acknowledge.
  • If the outcome is still not acceptable:
    • Take a stronger course of action.
    • Use supervisor or chain of command.

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Slide 20: Two-Challenge Rule

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Empower any member of the team to "stop the line" if he or she senses or discovers an essential safety breach.

This is an action never to be taken lightly and it requires immediate cessation of the process and resolution of the safety issue.

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Slide 21: Please Use CUS Words but only when appropriate!

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C—I am Concerned!

Image: A penguin in a green shirt looks concerned.

U—I am Uncomfortable!

Image: A penguin in a white shirt looks embarrassed.

S—This is a Safety Issue!

Image: A penguin in a blue shirt says "Stop!" and emphatically holds up crossed wings.

Select the penguin director icon below to access the video.

'Roll 'Em!' Play Video (icon: penguin film director)
CUS (Flash® video, 27 sec.; 5.5 MB) (Plugin Software Help)

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Slide 22: Conflict Resolution: DESC Script

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A constructive approach for managing and resolving conflict

DDescribe the specific situation.

EExpress your concerns about the action.

SSuggest other alternatives.

CConsequences should be stated.

Ultimately, consensus should be reached.

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Slide 23: DESC-It

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Let's "DESC-It!"

  • Have timely discussion.
  • Frame problem in terms of your own experience.
  • Use "I" statements to minimize defensiveness.
  • Avoid blaming statements.
  • Remember that critique is not criticism.
  • Focus on what is right, not who is right.

Image: A penguin in a white coat has a talk with a shame-faced smaller penguin.

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Slide 24: DESC Script in Action

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Select the penguin director icon below to access the video.

'Roll 'Em!' Play Video (icon: penguin film director)
DESC Script (Flash video, 1 min., 2 sec.; 12.6 MB) (Plugin Software Help)

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Slide 25: A DESC Scenario

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Two days ago, the charge nurse submitted a maintenance request to fix a window unit air conditioner. While in the resident's room, the nurse realizes it is warm and the air conditioner still isn't working properly. She checks the logbook and sees that the maintenance request has not been completed. She doesn't know that a new unit is being delivered today. Worried about the comfort of her resident, who has difficulty breathing in warm weather, she raises her voice at the director of maintenance in front of staff and residents, criticizing his work ethic.

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Slide 26: Common Approaches to Conflict Resolution

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Often used to manage conflict; however, typically do not result in the best outcome—

  • Compromise—Both parties settle for less.
  • Avoidance—Issues are ignored or sidestepped.
  • Accommodation—Focus is on preserving relationships.
  • Dominance—Conflicts are managed through directives for change.

Image: Two penguins argue.

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Slide 27: Collaboration

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  • Achieves a mutually satisfying solution resulting in the best outcome:
    • All Win!: Resident Care Team (team members, the team, and the resident).
    • Includes commitment to a common mission.
  • Meets goals without compromising relationships.

"True collaboration is a process, not an event."

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Slide 28: Mutual Support


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BarriersTools and StrategiesOutcomes
  • Hierarchical Culture.
  • Lack of Resources or Information.
  • Ineffective Communication.
  • Conflict.
  • Time.
  • Distractions.
  • Workload.
  • Fatigue.
  • Misinterpretation of Data.
  • Failure to Share Information.
  • Defensiveness.
  • Conventional Thinking.
  • Brief.
  • Huddle.
  • Debrief.
  • STEP.
  • Cross-Monitoring.
  • Feedback.
  • Advocacy and Assertion.
  • Two-Challenge Rule.
  • CUS.
  • DESC Script.
  • Collaboration.
  • Shared Mental Model.
  • Adaptability.
  • Team Orientation.
  • Mutual Trust.
  • Team Performance.
  • Resident Safety!

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Slide 29: Teamwork Actions

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  • Foster a climate supportive of task assistance.
  • Provide timely and constructive feedback.
  • Be assertive and advocate for the resident.
  • Use the Two-Challenge rule, CUS, and DESC script to resolve conflict.
  • Resolve conflict through collaboration—Create a "Win-Win-Win" situation.

"Those whom we support hold us up in life."
Marie von Ebner-Eschenbauch

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Current as of November 2012
Internet Citation: Mutual Support: Classroom Slides: TeamSTEPPS® Long-Term Care Version: Module 5. November 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/teamstepps/longtermcare/module5/slltcmutualsupp.html