Advanced Methods in Delivery System Research - Planning, Executing, Analyzing, and Reporting Research on Delivery System Improvement

Webinar #5: Mixed Methods (Slide Presentation)

This slide presentation was presented at a webinar on December 3, 2013.

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Advanced Methods Webinars: Integrating Mixed Methods in Health Services and Delivery System Research

Presenters:

Benjamin Crabtree, PhD
Michael K. Magill, MD
Debra L. Scammon, PhD
Andrada Tomoaia-Cotisel, MHA, PhD(c)
Moderator: Michael I. Harrison, PhD

Sponsored by AHRQ’s Delivery System Initiative in partnership with the AHRQ PCMH program

December 3, 2013

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Speaker Introductions

Ben Crabtree is a medical anthropologist. He is Professor and Director of Research at the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.

Michael Magill is Chairman of the University of Utah School of Medicine Department of Family and Preventive Medicine; Executive Medical Director, University of Utah Health Plans; and Director of Research, University of Utah Community Clinics/Community Physicians Group.

Debra Scammon is Emma Eccles Jones Professor of Marketing; Director, Masters of Healthcare Administration, David Eccles School of Business; and Adjunct Professor, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine at the University of Utah.

Andrada Tomoaia-Cotisel is a Research Associate, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Utah; and a Doctoral candidate, Department of Health Services Research and Policy, Faculty of Public Health Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

To the left of each description is an image of the speaker.

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Integrating Mixed Methods in Health Services and Research

Benjamin F. Crabtree, PhD
(Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School)

William L. Miller, MD, MA
(Lehigh Valley Health Network)

Advanced Methods Webinar

December 3, 2013

On the upper left of the slide is the seal and logo for the Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.

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Attributes of Mixed Methods Research

  • Rigorous collection and analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data.
  • Qualitative and quantitative data are mixed (integrate or link) by combining them sequentially or by embedding.
  • Can be incorporated in a single study or in multiple phases of a program of research.
  • Designs are framed within a broader framework or theoretical lens.
  • Data are combined or integrated into specific mixed methods research designs that direct the study.

See: Creswell J, Plano-Clark V. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, 2nd Edition. Sage Pubs, 2011.

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FYI: Qualitative Data Collection 

Include:

  • Interviews (e.g. key informant, depth, focus group).
  • Observations (e.g. unstructured, structured, participant).
  • Recordings (e.g. video and audio).
  • Existing documents (e.g. memos, reports, charts, etc.).

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Lots of Mixed Methods Resources – Journal Articles

  • Curry, L. A., H. M. Krumholz, A. O’Cathain, V. L. Plano Clark, E. Cherlin, and E. H. Bradley. 2013. “Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research.” Circulation 6 (1): 119–23.
  • Palinkas, L. A., S. M. Horwitz, P. Chamberlain, M. S. Hurlburt, and J. Landsverk. 2011. “Mixed-Methods Designs in Mental Health Services Research: A Review.” Psychiatric Services 62 (3): 255–63.
  • Zhang, W., and S. Watanabe-Galloway. 2013. “Using Mixed Methods Effectively in Prevention Science: Designs, Procedures, and Examples.” Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research [Epub ahead of print].

Above the journal article citations are images of the front covers of the Journal of Mixed Methods Research and HSR.

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Lots of Mixed Methods Resources – Books

Images of the covers of 5 different books on mixed methods.

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Best Practices for Mixed Methods Research in the Health Sciences

http://obssr.od.nih.gov/mixed_methods_research/pdf/Best_Practices_for_Mixed_Methods_Research.pdf

Commissioned by: Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR).

Image of the participants in an NIH workshop on best practices in mixed methods research.

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A New Resource:

Image of the front cover of the December 2013 issue of HSR devoted to mixed methods research.

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Health Services Research Theme Issue
Vol. 48, No. 6, Part II December 2013

  • Miller WL, Crabtree BF, Harrison MI, Fennell ML. Integrating Mixed Methods in Health Services and Delivery Systems Research (Editorial).
  • Fetters MD, Curry LA, Creswell JW. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs – Principles and Practices.
  • Bowers B, Cohen LW, Elliot AE, et al. Creating and Supporting a Mixed Methods Health Services Research Team.
  • Scammon DL, Tomoaia-Cotisel A, Day, RL, et al. Connecting the Dots and Merging Meaning: Using Mixed Methods to Study Primary Care Delivery Transformation.
  • Zickmund SL, Yang S. Mulvey EP, et al. Predicting Cancer Mortality: Developing a New Cancer Care Variable Using Mixed Methods and the Quasi-Statistical Approach.
  • Hamilton AB, Cohen AN, Glover DL, et al. Implementation of Evidence-Based Employment Services in Specialty Mental Health.
  • Gilmer TP, Katz ML, Stefancic A, Palinkas LA. Variation in the Implementation of California’s Full Service Partnerships for Persons with Serious Mental Illness.

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Three Basic Designs

  • Sequential Exploratory
  • Sequential Explanatory
  • Convergent

To the left of the text is an image of the beginning of the HSR article by Michael D. Fetters, et al.

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Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design

Image of a flowchart:

Qualitative Data and Results → Quantitative Data and Results → Interpretation

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Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Design

Image of a flowchart:

Quantitative Data and Results → Qualitative Data and Results → Interpretation

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Convergent Mixed Methods Design

Image of a flowchart:

Quantitative data collection and analysis and Qualitative data collection & analysis both lead to Compare or relate, which leads to Interpretation.

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Four Advanced Frameworks

  • Multistage
  • Intervention
  • Case Study
  • Participatory

Methods Level Integration

  • Connecting
  • Building
  • Merging
  • Embedding

Interpretation & Reporting Level Integration

  • Narrative weaving
  • Data transformation
  • Joint display

To the left of the text is an image of the journal article titled "Achieving Interation in Mixed Methods Designs-Principles and Practices".

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HSR Theme Issue Includes Diverse Content!

  • Miller WL, Crabtree BF, Harrison MI, Fennell ML. Integrating Mixed Methods in Health Services and Delivery Systems Research (Editorial).
  • Fetters MD, Curry LA, Creswell JW. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs – Principles and Practices.
  • Bowers B, Cohen LW, Elliot AE, et al. Creating and Supporting a Mixed Methods Health Services Research Team.
  • Scammon DL, Tomoaia-Cotisel A, Day, RL, et al. Connecting the Dots and Merging Meaning: Using Mixed Methods to Study Primary Care Delivery Transformation.
  • Zickmund SL, Yang S. Mulvey EP, et al. Predicting Cancer Mortality: Developing a New Cancer Care Variable Using Mixed Methods and the Quasi-Statistical Approach.
  • Hamilton AB, Cohen AN, Glover DL, et al. Implementation of Evidence-Based Employment Services in Specialty Mental Health.
  • Gilmer TP, Katz ML, Stefancic A, Palinkas LA. Variation in the Implementation of California’s Full Service Partnerships for Persons with Serious Mental Illness.

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Crabtree & Miller Lessons from 20 Years of Mixed Methods Research

  • Remember the research questions!
  • Mixed methods research is best done in collaborative teams.
  • Collaborative teams take time and relationship building (see Bowers, et al. and Scammon, et al. in HSR Theme Issue).
  • Think of both individual projects, but also a program of research with multiple projects.
  • Reporting stories to accompany numbers provides an effective means for engaging readers and policy makers.
  • Too often, quantitative approaches are misapplied to phenomena requiring qualitative or mixed methods.
  • Ensure the strengths and weaknesses of each selected method complement each other.
  • Continually evaluate methodology throughout the study.

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The "Mixed Methods Research" Works Best in Teams

Image showing the different member specialties of a research team.

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HSR Theme Issue Article by Scammon, et al. illustrates many of the core attributes of mixed methods designs.

Image of the beginning of the Scammon, et al. journal article.

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Connecting the Dots and Merging Meaning: Using Mixed Methods to Study Primary Care Delivery Transformation

Advanced Methods Webinar
December 3, 2013

Debra L. Scammon, Ph.D.
Andrada Tomoaia-Cotisel, M.P.H., M.H.A., Ph.D. Candidate
Michael K. Magill, M.D.

Health Services Research
Vol. 48, No 6, Part II, December 2013

At the top of the slide and thereafter for the Scammon set it displays University of Utah.

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Acknowledgements

This project was supported by grants R18HS019136 and R18HS020106 from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ).

The content of this presentation is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the AHRQ.

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Retrospective Study of Primary Care Redesign

Study Aims:

Image of three different ovals. The top oval has text in it stating: Document Transformation, Process of Change, Contextualization. The middle oval states: Experiences With Transformation. The bottom oval states: Outcomes of Change.

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Trans-disciplinary Team

  • Debra Scammon, Ph.D., Marketing and Consumer Behavior Researcher.
  • Andrada Tomoaia-Cotisel, M.P.H., M.H.A., doctoral candidate in Public Health .
  • Julie Day, M.D., Family Medicine Physician and Quality Medical Director, Community Clinics.
  • Rachel Day, Research Associate and Technical Writer.
  • Jaewhan Kim, Ph.D., Biostatician and Health Economist.
  • Norman Waitzman, Ph.D., Health Economist.
  • Timothy Farrell, M.D., Geriatrician and Family Medicine Physician.
  • Michael Magill, M.D., Family Medicine Physician and Executive Medical Director University of Utah Health Plans (PI)

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Overview of Study Aims and Mixed Methods

Flowchart showing the different methods that are used to achieve the study aims that are also illustrated in Slide 22.

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Connections Across Researchers and Methods

Flowchart showing the relations between the different researchers and methods.

Interviewer: Clinic Characterization Audit, Employee Interviews, and In-Clinic Observations.

Project Coordinator: Patient Focus Groups and Employee Surveys.

Observers: Clinic Characterization Audit and In-Clinic Observations.

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Data Collection and Analysis Across Time

Flowchart showing the data collection and analysis timeline.

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Capitalize Upon Existing Data

  • Operations data already collected by the organization we were studying.
  • Infrastructure for collecting and reporting these data was already in place.
  • Consider nature of operations data.
  • Consider realities of extracting necessary data

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Plan New Data Collection Carefully

  • Fit within workflow of the operational clinics.
  • Participants may need to adjust schedules.
  • Relevant to leadership and managers while meeting the needs of the research.
  • Be realistic about time required to obtain data.
  • Be flexible.
  • Report to management regarding implications of findings.

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Merging Data to Make Meaning

An example...

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Does Performance Vary Among Teams?

CBD Implementation
(Selected Measures from Planned Care)
Team 1 Led by Provider A Team 5 Led by Provider B
Labs done prior to visit 0% 80%
AVS given to patient 36% 75%

 

Commitment to the Visions

“but I’m also one of the busiest providers … [so] it’s more a matter of you know, what works for me.” – Provider A (Team 1)

 

“… somebody comes in for bronchitis and… hasn’t had a mammogram; hasn’t had a colonoscopy; hasn’t had a flu shot… you have to slow down to provide all of those quality issues that you need...” – Provider B (Team 5)

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Is Implementation Higher Among Those Emphasizing Quality Over Productivity?

Remember Team 5 had higher implementation...

Quality Scores
(13 months average scores; % of eligible patients receiving recommended screening)
Team 1 Led by Provider A Team 5 Led by Provider B
Coronary artery disease 77% 91%
Diabetes 65% 78%
Heart Failure 40% 38%
Preventive Care 49% 80%
Total 54% 80%
Productivity
(3 months average; relative value units)
Team 1 Led by Provider A Team 5 Led by Provider B
Work RVUs (ratio) 1.94 1
Appointment count (ratio) 1.47 1

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Does Attempting to Increase Either (or Both) Put a Burden on the Care Team?

Remember Team 5 had higher quality scores...

Employee Surveys
(average for the team)
Team 1 Led by Provider A Team 5 Led by Provider B
Teamness (higher = better) 71 56
Professional Efficacy (higher = better) 26 27
Exhaustion (lower = better) 9 20
Cynicism (lower = better) 11 15

Description of How the Team Functions

“… [we drop in] all the history from any labs done; any radiology done… we get those [specialty] results and we have them sitting on the desk in the room for the visit.” – MA (Team 5)

 

“with other doctors, yes. [On Team 1], no... we have so many regulars…” – Provider A (Team 1)

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Insights from Mixed Methods on Practice Redesign

Using mixed methods, we were able to:

  • Document variation in implementation & outcomes.
  • Elucidate tension between productivity and quality:
    • Explore differences in the way providers approach redesign.
    • Explore differences in MAs’ ability to implement.
    • Elucidate resulting impact on team members.

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Value of Mixed Methods Research

  • Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process.
  • Mixed methods revealed a more complete understanding of the transformation process.

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Value of Mixed Methods Research

  • Facilitated more effective engagement between research team and CC leadership.
  • Provided evidence base to support on-going practice redesign.
  • Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence.

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Conclusions

  • Gained a more nuanced perspective on implementation:
    • Appreciate multiple perspectives;
    • Revealed different aspects of change process and outcomes;
    • Extracted richer meaning than that available from any single source.

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Conclusions

  • Enhanced access to and interpretation of data:
    • Inclusion of multi-disciplinary research team with members from inside and outside the organization.

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Conclusions

  • Facilitated exploration of interactions between components of a complex redesign effort:
    • Highlighted tensions created through interdependencies.

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Questions?

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Thank You for Attending!

Papers from the HSR special issue are available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1475-6773/earlyview.

For more information about the AHRQ PCMH Research Methods briefs, please visit: http://pcmh.ahrq.gov/page/evidence-and-evaluation.

Other Webinars in the AHRQ Advanced Methods Series are available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/systems/system/advanced-methods/index.html.

Page last reviewed April 2014
Internet Citation: Advanced Methods in Delivery System Research - Planning, Executing, Analyzing, and Reporting Research on Delivery System Improvement: Webinar #5: Mixed Methods (Slide Presentation). April 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/prevention-chronic-care/improve/coordination/webinar05/mixedmethods.html