Composite-Level and Item-Level Results by Staff Position

2012 Preliminary Comparative Results

Tables 22 through 25 indicate the average percent positive scores on the survey composites and items across pharmacies, broken out by staff position. Only the staff positions for which at least 20 pharmacies had at least one respondent in the position are included: pharmacists and pharmacy technicians.

Pharmacists were more positive than pharmacy technicians on all composites except for Staffing, Work Pressure, and Pace. Pharmacists were also more positive than pharmacy technicians on most of the survey’s items.

Note: The number of pharmacies and respondents in each staff position is shown in each table. However, the precise number of pharmacies and respondents corresponding to each data cell in a table varies because of individual nonresponse/missing data. 

Table 22. Composite-Level Average Percent Positive Response by Staff Position

  Staff Position
Patient Safety Culture Composites Pharmacist Pharmacy Technician
# Pharmacies 53 55
# Respondents 141 234
1. Patient Counseling 92% 90%
2. Communication Openness 92% 84%
3. Overall Perceptions of Patient Safety 87% 81%
4. Organizational Learning—Continuous Improvement 93% 81%
5. Teamwork 86% 78%
6. Communication About Prescriptions Across Shifts 87% 78%
7. Communication About Mistakes 85% 80%
8. Response to Mistakes 87% 76%
9. Staff Training and Skills 80% 79%
10. Physical Space and Environment 77% 71%
11. Staffing, Work Pressure, & Pace 41% 42%
Average Across Composites 82% 76%

Note: Data are not shown for respondents who selected "Pharmacy clerk," "Pharmacy student intern/extern," or "None of the above/Other" and those with missing information. 

Table 23. Item-Level Average Percent Positive Response by Staff Position

  Staff Position
Survey Items by Composite Pharmacist Pharmacy Technician
# Pharmacies 53 55
# Respondents 141 234
1. Patient Counseling    
1. We encourage patients to talk to pharmacists about their medications. (B2) 95% 91%
2. Our pharmacists spend enough time talking to patients about how to use their medications. (B7) 85% 88%
3. Our pharmacists tell patients important information about their new prescriptions. (B11) 95% 92%
2. Communication Openness    
1. Staff ideas and suggestions are valued in this pharmacy. (B1) 89% 76%
2. Staff feel comfortable asking questions when they are unsure about something. (B5) 93% 89%
3. It is easy for staff to speak up to their supervisor/manager about patient safety concerns in this pharmacy. (B10) 93% 86%
3. Overall Perceptions of Patient Safety    
1. This pharmacy places more emphasis on sales than on patient safety. (C3R) 80% 80%
2. This pharmacy is good at preventing mistakes. (C6) 92% 78%
3. The way we do things in this pharmacy reflects a strong focus on patient safety. (C9) 89% 86%
4. Organizational Learning—Continuous Improvement    
When a mistake happens, we try to figure out what problems in the work process led to the mistake. (C2) 96% 88%
When the same mistake keeps happening, we change the way we do things. (C5) 93% 77%
Mistakes have led to positive changes in this pharmacy. (C10) 89% 77%
Teamwork    
Staff treat each other with respect. (A2) 83% 78%
Staff in this pharmacy clearly understand their roles and responsibilities. (A4) 89% 76%
Staff work together as an effective team. (A9) 87% 80%

Note: Data are not shown for respondents who selected "Pharmacy clerk," "Pharmacy student intern/extern," or "None of the above/Other" and those with missing information. The item’s survey location is shown after the item text. An “R” indicates a negatively worded item, where the percent positive response is based on those who responded “Strongly disagree” or “Disagree,” or “Never” or “Rarely” (depending on the response category used for the item).

Table 23. Item-level Results by Staff Position, continued

  Staff Position
Survey Items by Composite Pharmacist Pharmacy Technician
# Pharmacies 53 55
# Respondents 141 234
6. Communication About Prescriptions Across Shifts    
1. We have clear expectations about exchanging important prescription information across shifts. (B4) 91% 81%
2. We have standard procedures for communicating prescription information across shifts. (B6) 83% 76%
3. The status of problematic prescriptions is well communicated across shifts. (B14) 88% 77%
7. Communication About Mistakes    
Staff in this pharmacy discuss mistakes. (B8) 82% 72%
When patient safety issues occur in this pharmacy, staff discuss them. (B13) 91% 83%
3. In this pharmacy, we talk about ways to prevent mistakes from happening again. (B15) 82% 84%
8. Response to Mistakes    
1. Staff are treated fairly when they make mistakes. (C1) 90% 76%
2. This pharmacy helps staff learn from their mistakes rather than punishing them. (C4) 90% 80%
3. We look at staff actions and the way we do things to understand why mistakes happen in this pharmacy. (C7) 89% 82%
4. Staff feel like their mistakes are held against them. (C8R) 79% 67%
9. Staff Training and Skills    
1. Technicians in this pharmacy receive the training they need to do their jobs. (A3) 80% 84%
2. Staff in this pharmacy have the skills they need to do their jobs well. (A6) 88% 84%
3. Staff who are new to this pharmacy receive adequate orientation. (A8) 72% 71%
4. Staff get enough training from this pharmacy. (A10) 80% 75%

Note: Data are not shown for respondents who selected "Pharmacy clerk," "Pharmacy student intern/extern," or "None of the above/Other" and those with missing information. The item’s survey location is shown after the item text. An “R” indicates a negatively worded item, where the percent positive response is based on those who responded “Strongly disagree” or “Disagree,” or “Never” or “Rarely” (depending on the response category used for the item).

Table 23. Item-level Results by Staff Position, continued

  Staff Position
Survey Items by Composite Pharmacist Pharmacy Technician
# Pharmacies 53 55
# Respondents 141 234
10. Physical Space and Environment    
1. This pharmacy is well organized. (A1) 91% 81%
2. This pharmacy is free of clutter. (A5) 75% 64%
3. The physical layout of this pharmacy supports good workflow. (A7) 64% 67%
11. Staffing, Work Pressure, & Pace    
1. Staff take adequate breaks during their shifts. (B3) 56% 53%
2. We feel rushed when processing prescriptions. (B9R) 5% 18%
3. We have enough staff to handle the workload. (B12) 65% 53%
4. Interruptions/distractions in this pharmacy (from phone calls, faxes, customers, etc.) make it difficult for staff to work accurately. (B16R) 37% 42%

Note: Data are not shown for respondents who selected "Pharmacy clerk," "Pharmacy student intern/extern," or "None of the above/Other" and those with missing information. The item’s survey location is shown after the item text. An “R” indicates a negatively worded item, where the percent positive response is based on those who responded “Strongly disagree” or “Disagree,” or “Never” or “Rarely” (depending on the response category used for the item). 

Table 24. Documenting Mistakes by Staff Position

  Staff Position
Survey Items Pharmacist Pharmacy Technician
# Pharmacies 53 55
# Respondents 141 234
When a mistake reaches the patient and could cause harm but does not, how often is it documented? (D1)    
Always documented 1% 1%
Most of the time documented 1% 2%
Sometimes documented 4% 8%
Rarely documented 20% 12%
Never documented 74% 76%
When a mistake reaches the patient but has no potential to harm the patient, how often is it documented? (D2)    
Always documented 1% 2%
Most of the time documented 1% 5%
Sometimes documented 9% 7%
Rarely documented 27% 16%
Never documented 62% 71%
When a mistake that could have harmed the patient is corrected BEFORE the medication leaves the pharmacy, how often is it documented? (D3)    
Always documented 23% 17%
Most of the time documented 26% 18%
Sometimes documented 26% 14%
Rarely documented 15% 23%
Never documented 9% 28%

Note: Data are not shown for respondents who selected "Pharmacy clerk," "Pharmacy student intern/extern," or "None of the above/Other" and those with missing information. 

Table 25. Results for Overall Rating on Patient Safety by Staff Position

  Staff Position
Overall Rating on Patient Safety Pharmacist Pharmacy Technician
# Pharmacies 53 55
# Respondents 141 234
Excellent 35% 42%
Very Good 53% 40%
Good 10% 11%
Fair 3% 6%
Poor 0% 1%

Note: Data are not shown for respondents who selected "Pharmacy clerk," "Pharmacy student intern/extern," or "None of the above/" and those with missing information.

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Current as of September 2012
Internet Citation: Composite-Level and Item-Level Results by Staff Position: 2012 Preliminary Comparative Results. September 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/patientsafetyculture/pharmacy/2012/levels-by-staff.html