The Spread Problem

Slide Presentation by Joe McCannon

On February 17, Joe McCannon made this slide presentation at the AHRQ Expert Meeting on the Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research.

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The Spread Problem

The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research: A Meeting of AHRQ Grantees, Experts, and Stakeholders

Joe McCannon

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

February 17, 2011

Slide 2

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Ground to Cover

  • The Spread Problem
  • A Possible Solution (Framework)
  • Open Questions
  • Your Ideas and Advice

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"I think when people look back at our time, they will be amazed at one thing more than any other. It is this — that we do know more about ourselves now than people did in the past, but that very little of this knowledge has been put into effect."
— Doris Lessing

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Why Do We Fail to Take Effective Practice to Scale?

  • Because we lack incentives to do so.

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Typical Explanation

A bulls-eye graphic depicting how we typically try to move effective practice to scale: We start with a little Research and Development (R&D), then move to a larger investment in prototyping, and then to extensive dissemination activities.

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A More Accurate Representation?

A bulls-eye graphic depicting how we typically try to move effective practice to scale: We start with a little Research and Development (R&D), then move to a larger investment in prototyping, and then to extensive dissemination activities.

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Why Do We Fail to Take Effective Practice to Scale?

  • Because we lack incentives to do so.
  • Because we don't expect to do so.

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Why Do We Fail to Take Effective Practice to Scale?

  • Because we lack incentives to do so.
  • Because we don't expect to do so.
  • Because we don't appreciate how large-scale change unfolds.

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A Sequence of Change

  1. An innovative discovery
  2. A demonstration in 50 hospitals
  3. Outstanding results in 4 states
  4. Interest from purchasers and payers
  5. A state law in 14 states
  6. A national mandate
  7. A part of graduate-level training
  8. An expectation and a standard
  9. Confidence in ability to make change
  10. More ambitious aims

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Why Do We Fail to Take Effective Practice to Scale?

  • Because we lack incentives to do so.
  • Because we don't expect to do so.
  • Because we don't appreciate how large-scale change unfolds.
  • Because we don't know how to do so (or at least we don't approach the challenge systematically enough).

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A Framework

A graphic depiction of the framework showing the six factors that influence the effectiveness of spreading health and public health interventions. The six factors are: current environment, foundation, framing, nature, structural context and method.

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Current Environment (Will)

  • Political and economic environment.
  • Leadership engagement.
  • Prioritization scheme.
  • Forces for change.
  • Incentives for change.

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Levers for Change

  • Payment
  • Transparency
  • Regulation
  • Sensationalism
  • Guilt
  • Recognition
  • Professionalism
  • Affection
  • Personal considerations (de-zombification)

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Foundation (Timing)

  • Prior work to establish efficacy.
  • Prior work to establish effectiveness on a smaller scale.
  • Degree of awareness.
  • Degree of confidence.

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Framing

  • Problem definition.
  • Explicit aim-setting.
  • Tacit aim-setting.
  • Operational image.
  • Narrative image (predicted sequence of change over time).

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Nature of the Intervention

  • Evidence base
  • Emotional resonance.
  • Simplicity.
  • Trial-ability/Observability.

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Structural Context

  • Local infrastructure.
  • Local patterns of behavior (centers of influence).
  • Rules base.
  • Financing paradigms.
  • Geography.

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Method

  • Technical approach to scale up OR
  • "Lever mix".
  • Data collection.
  • Recursive evaluation.
  • Knowledge management.
  • Logistics/resource management.

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Methods for Spread

  • Natural diffusion.
  • Breakthrough Series Collaborative model.
  • Extension agents.
  • Emergency mobilization.
  • Campaign model.
  • Social movements.
  • Wave sequence (wedge and spread).
  • Broad and deep.
  • Hybrid models.

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A Framework

A graphic depiction of the framework showing the six factors that influence the effectiveness of spreading health and public health interventions. The six factors are: current environment, foundation, framing, nature, structural context and method.

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How Do The Best Practitioners Stimulate Change at Scale and Spread Effective Practices?

They tend to address six key questions:

  1. How do you get people to care (and care enough to take action)?
  2. Where are you in the process of change (foundations/history)?
  3. What is your "hard count" (explicit and implicit aims) and your story for achieving it?
  4. What is the nature of your intervention?
  5. What is the nature of your social system?
  6. How will you spread your better practice (method)?

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Durable Lessons on Managing Change at Scale (What Do the Best Do?)

  • They attempt remarkable things (provocation and optimism).
  • They talk about justice.
  • They have a shared story.
  • They apply "many levers".
  • They play jazz.
  • They keep it simple (e.g., interventions, measurement systems).
  • They model trust (ecosystems not hierarchies; "distributed laboratories").
  • They seek affection and give recognition (recognition economy).
  • They break rules (avoid consensus, condense timeframes).
  • They go broad and deep.
  • They revere logistics ("Amateurs discuss strategy...")

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A Conference to Advance the State of the Science and Practice on Scale-up and Spread of Effective Health Programs (July 2010)

Sought to:

  • Review existing knowledge.
  • Identify challenges and gaps.
  • Set a research and practice agenda for immediate execution.

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Major Hills to Take...

  • Build the field.
  • Experiment with incentives.
  • Experiment with new methods and technologies.
  • Test new forms of evaluation.
  • Create and spread practical tools.

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Selected References

  • Massoud MR, Nielsen GA, Nolan K, Schall MW, Sevin C. A Framework for Spread. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2006.
  • Simmons R, Fajans P, Ghiron L. Scaling up health service delivery. Geneva: The World Health Organization, 2007.
  • Victora C, Hanson K, Bryce J, Vaughan P. Achieving universal coverage with health interventions. Lancet. 2004; 364: 1541-1548.
  • Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press; 2001.
  • Rogers E. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press, 1995.

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Selected References

  • Mangham LJ, Hanson K. "Scaling up in international health: what are the key issues?" Health Policy and Planning. 2010; 25:85-96.
  • Dougherty D, Conway P. The "3T's" Road Map to Transform US Health Care. JAMA. 2008; 299 (19):2319-2321.
  • Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O. Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations. Milbank Quarterly. 2004; 82: 581-629.
  • Cooley L., Kohl R. Scaling Up: From Vision to Large-scale Change. Washington, DC: Management Systems International, 2006.

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Selected References

  • McCannon CJ, Schall MW, Perla RJ. Planning for Scale: A Guide for Designing Large-Scale Improvement Initiatives. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2008.
  • McCannon CJ, Berwick DM, Massoud MR. The Science of Large-Scale Change in Global Health. JAMA. October 24/31, 2007; 298: 1937-1939.
  • Berwick DM. Disseminating innovations in health care. JAMA. 2003;289(15):1969-1975.
  • Bradach J. Scaling Impact. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Summer 2010. 
Page last reviewed May 2011
Internet Citation: The Spread Problem: Slide Presentation by Joe McCannon. May 2011. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/systems/system/delivery-system-initiative/mccannon/index.html