Appendix G (continued): Characteristics of Health Care Efficiency Measures Published in Peer-Reviewed Literature [1982-2006]

Health Care Efficiency Measures: Identification, Categorization, and Evaluation

Contents
United States Only - Unit of Observation: Hospital
    Unit of Observation: Hospital (Continued)
United States Only - Unit of Observation: Physician
United States Only - Unit of Observation: Health Plans
United States Only - Unit of Observation: Nurses

United States Only - Unit of Observation: Other

United States Only - Unit of Observation: Hospital N=93 (Continued)

Author,
year
Type of
paper
Unit of
observation
Sample
size
Data
source
Time frameYearsInputsOutputsPRACPTCMPMMethodData on
reliability,
sensitivity
analysis,
validity
reported?
Rosko MD, 199951ResearchHospital3,262 HospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1994Other capital costs(f), Total costs(f), Wage rate/wages(p)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp discharge, Hosp days
Health services
XX X SFANo /Yes/No
Chern JY et al., 200052ResearchHospital80 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1984-1993Number of other personnel(p), Beds (counts)(p), Other counts(p), Other costs(f)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp discharge
Health services
X  X DEANo /No /No
                
Frech HE et al., 200053ResearchHospital378 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1983-1984-1990-1991Number of physicians(p), Operating cost(f), Total assets(p)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp discharge, Training
Health services
XX   SFA, Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
Harris J et al., 200054ResearchHospital20 HospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1991-1993Number of other personnel(p), Beds (counts)(p), Other counts(p), Operating cost(f)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp discharge
Health services
   X DEANo /Yes/No
100 Top Hospitals, 200155DescriptiveHospital887,172 Patients, 707 HospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1998Hosp days
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
X XX RatiosNo /No /No
       Total costs
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
X XX RatiosNo /No /No
       ICU-related ancillary cost
Financial
ICU days
Health services
X XX RatiosNo /No /No
Brown HS, 200156ResearchHospital613 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1992-1996Other capital costs(f), Beds (counts)(p) personnel(p), Number of other
Physical
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
XXXX SFANo /Yes/No
Folland ST et al., 200157Research, Develop methodologyHospital2,007 HospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1985Other capital costs(f), Total costs(f), Wage rate/wages(p)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp days
Health services
XX   SFAYes/Yes/No
Li T et al., 200158ResearchHospital90 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1988-1993Other capital costs(f), Total costs(f), Wage rate/wages(p)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp days
Health services
X  X SFANo /Yes/No
Rosko MD, 200159ResearchHospital1,966 HospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1997Other capital costs(f), Total costs(f), Wage rate/wages(p)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp discharge
Health services
XX X SFANo /Yes/No
Brown HS, 200360ResearchHospital613 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1992-1996Number of other personnel(p), Other capital costs(f), Beds (counts)(p)
Physical
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
X  X SFANo /Yes/No
100 Top Hospitals, 200361DescriptiveHospitalNRNot specifiedLongitudinalYrs
N/R
Other labor costs, Total costs
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
  X  RatiosNo /No /No
       Beds (counts)
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of other personnel
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
   X RatiosNo /No /No
Chu HL et al., 200462ResearchHospital246 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1997-1999Number of other personnel(p), Nurse time(p), Other time(p), Equipment capital costs(f), Other capital costs(f), Supplies (counts)(p)
Physical
Financial
Inpatient procedure, Physician visit, Hosp discharge, Hosp days
Health services
XX X DEANo /No /No
Jordan SD, 199463DescriptiveHospital160 Patients, 2 HospitalsPrimary dataCross-sectionalYrs
N/R
Nurse labor costs, Other labor costs
Financial
Charges
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Young ST, 199264ResearchHospital22 HospitalsNot specifiedCross-sectionalYrs
N/R
Other time
Physical
Fill rate, Inventory turns, Purchase price index
Other
     Ratios, DEANo /No /No
Bellin E et al., 200465Descriptive, Develop methodologyHospital department1,733 PatientsPrimary dataLongitudinal2001-2002Hosp days
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
  X  Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
Mathiasen RA et al., 200166DescriptiveHospital department57 PatientsPrimary data, Secondary dataLongitudinal1997-1998Hosp days
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
  XX RatiosNo /No /No
       Total costs
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
  XX RatiosNo /No /No
Kyriacou DN et al., 199967DescriptiveHospital department826 PatientsPrimary dataLongitudinal1993-1998Hosp days
Physical
Emergency visit
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Finkler MD et al., 199368ResearchHospital department9 Hospital deptsPrimary dataCross-sectionalYrs
N/R
Physician time, Nurse time
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
   X DEANo /Yes/No
Wilson GW et al., 198269ResearchHospital department922 Hospital deptsSecondary dataCross-sectionalYrs
N/R
Number of technical staff(p), Equipment capital costs(f)
Physical
Financial
Procedure
Health services
XX   DEA, Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
Seltzer SE et al., 199870DescriptiveHospital department2 Hospital deptsPrimary dataLongitudinal1992-1996Total costs
Financial
Inpatient procedure
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Total costs
Financial
Relative value unit
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of other personnel
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of other personnel
Physical
Relative value unit
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Sternick E, 199071DescriptiveHospital departmentNRNot specifiedCross-sectionalYrs
NR
Other labor costs, Other capital costs, Total costs
Financial
Charges
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Ozgen H et al., 200472ResearchHospital department, Dialysis centers140 Dialysis centersSecondary dataLongitudinal1994-2000Number of physicians(p), Number of nurses(p), Number of technical staff(p), Number of other personnel(p), Equipment capital costs(f), Drug capital costs(f), Supply capital costs(f), Other capital costs(f), Equipment (counts)(p)
Physical
Financial
Outpatient procedure(s), Training(other), Home dialysis treatments(s)
Health services
Other
     Malmquist or other index numbers, DEANo /No /No
Starfield B et al., 199473DescriptiveHospital department, Primary health center135 Primary health centersSecondary dataCross-sectional1998Total costs
Financial
Week, month, or year of care provided
Health services
   X RatiosNo /No /No
Wang BB et al., 199974ResearchHospital, Geographic region6,010 Hospitals, 314 Geographic regionsSecondary dataLongitudinal1989-1993Number of other personnel(p), Beds (counts)(p), Total costs(f)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp discharge
Health services
XX X DEANo /No /No
Goodman DC et al., 200675DescriptiveHospital, Geographic region306 Geographic regions, 97 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1999-2001Number of physicians
Physical
Covered lives
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Dewar DM et al., 200076ResearchHospital, Health plan39,697 PatientsSecondary dataLongitudinal1992-1996Total costs
Financial
Health outcome
Health outcomes
  XX RatiosNo /No /No
Conrad D et al., 199677ResearchHospital, Health plan44,397 Patients, 37 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1991-1992Total costs
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
XXXX Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
Broyles RW, 199078ResearchHospital, Hospital department81 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1979-1982Direct costs
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
X X  X Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
       Direct costs
Financial
Hosp days
Health services
XX X Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
       Service volume
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
XX X Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
       Service volume
Physical
Hosp days
Health services
XX X Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
DeLia D et al., 200279ResearchHospital, Primary health center155 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1997-1999Number of physicians, Number of nurses, Number of other personnel, Other counts
Physical
Physician visit
Health services
     Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
Burgess,James FJr et al., 199380ResearchHospital, Veterans Affairs89 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1985-1987Number of nurses, Number of other personnel, Physician time, Beds (counts)
Physical
Outpatient procedure, Inpatient procedure, Physician visit, Hosp discharge, Hosp days
Health services
     DEANo /No /No
Hao S et al., 199481ResearchHospital, Veterans Affairs93 HospitalsNot specifiedCross-sectional1988Number of physicians, Number of nurses, Beds (counts)
Physical
Inpatient procedure, Physician visit, Hosp discharge, Emergency visit
Health services
X    DEANo /No /No
       Beds (counts)
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
       Beds (counts)
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
       Beds (counts)
Physical
Physician visit
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of nurses
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of nurses
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of nurses
Physical
Physician visit
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of physicians
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of physicians
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of physicians
Physical
Physician visit
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No
Burgess JF et al., 199582ResearchHospital, Veterans Affairs1,545 HospitalsPrimary data, Secondary dataLongitudinal1984-1988Number of nurses, Number of technical staff, Number of other personnel, Beds (counts), Other counts
Physical
Outpatient procedure, Inpatient procedure, Physician visit, Hosp discharge, Hosp days
Health services
X  X Malmquist or other index numbersNo /No /No
Burgess JF et al., 199683ResearchHospital, Veterans Affairs2,246 HospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1987-1988Number of nurses, Number of other personnel, Beds (counts)
Physical
Outpatient procedure, Inpatient procedure, Physician visit, Hosp discharge, Hosp days
Health services
   X DEANo /No /No
Burgess JF et al., 199884ResearchHospital, Veterans Affairs1,545 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1984-1988Number of nurses, Number of other personnel, Beds (counts)
Physical
Outpatient procedure, Inpatient procedure, Physician visit, Hosp discharge, Hosp days
Health services
   X DEANo /No /No
Bannick RR et al., 199585ResearchHospital, Veterans Affairs284 HospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1989Number of physicians(p), Number of nurses(p), Number of other personnel(p), Beds (counts)(p), Other counts(p), Operating cost(f)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp days
Health services
     DEANo /No /No
Harrison JP et al., 200586ResearchHospital, Veterans Affairs121 HospitalsSecondary dataLongitudinal1998-2001Number of other personnel(p), Beds (counts)(p), Total costs(f)
Physical
Financial
Inpatient procedure, Physician visit, Hosp days
Health services
     DEANo /No /No
Sexton TR et al., 198987ResearchHospital, Veterans Affairs159 HospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1985Number of physicians(p), Number of nurses(p), Number of technical staff(p), Equipment capital costs(f), Other capital costs(f)
Physical
Financial
Relative value unit
Health services
X    DEANo /No /No
Eastaugh SR, 200288ResearchNurse, Hospital37 HospitalsPrimary dataLongitudinal1997-2000Other capital costs(f) Other time(p), Nurse time(p),
Physical
Financial
Relative value unit
Health services
     SFANo /No /No
Weingarten SR et al., 200289ResearchPhysician, Hospital301 PhysiciansPrimary dataCross-sectional1997Hosp days
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
   X RatiosNo /No /No
Auerbach AD et al., 200290ResearchPhysician, Hospital5,308 PatientsSecondary dataLongitudinal1997-1999Hosp days
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Total costs
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Ghosh D et al., 200391Research, Develop methodologyPhysician, Hospital department1 Hospital deptsPrimary dataCross-sectional1997Total costs
Financial
Physician visit
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Total charges
Financial
Physician visit
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Brenn BR et al., 200392DescriptivePhysician, Hospital department2,226 PatientsPrimary dataLongitudinal2000Physician time
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Ozcan YA et al., 199693ResearchPsychiatric hospital85 Psychiatric hospitalsSecondary dataCross-sectional1990Number of other personnel(p), Supply capital costs(f), Beds (counts)(p)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp discharge
Health services
XX X DEANo /No /No

*Explanatory variables: PR=Provider characteristics, AC=Area characteristics, PT=Patient characteristics, CM=Case mix adjustment, PM=Payment method

Current as of April 2008
Internet Citation: Appendix G (continued): Characteristics of Health Care Efficiency Measures Published in Peer-Reviewed Literature [1982-2006]: Health Care Efficiency Measures: Identification, Categorization, and Evaluation. April 2008. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/efficiency/hcemappg2.html