Appendix G (continued, 3): Characteristics of Health Care Efficiency Measures Published in Peer-Reviewed Literature [1982-2006]

Health Care Efficiency Measures: Identification, Categorization, and Evaluation

*Explanatory variables: PR=Provider characteristics, AC=Area characteristics, PT=Patient characteristics, CM=Case mix adjustment, PM=Payment method

Contents
United States Only - Unit of Observation: Hospital
    Unit of Observation: Hospital (Continued)
United States Only - Unit of Observation: Physician
United States Only - Unit of Observation: Health Plans
United States Only - Unit of Observation: Nurses

United States Only - Unit of Observation: Other

United States Only - Unit of Observation: Nurses N=3

Author,
year
Type of
paper
Unit of
observation
Sample
size
Data
source
Time frameYearsInputsOutputsPRACPTCMPMMethodData on
reliability,
sensitivity
analysis,
validity
reported?
Carter M et al., 2000135DescriptiveNurse4 NursesPrimary dataLongitudinal1997-1998Nurse labor costs
Financial
Hosp days
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Dexter F et al., 1998136DescriptiveNurseNRNot specifiedN/AYrs
N/R
Number of nurses
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
     Ratios, SimulationNo /No /No
Chumbler NR et al., 2000137ResearchNurse293 NursesPrimary dataCross-sectional1998Nurse time
Physical
Non-physician visit
Health services
X    RatiosNo /No /No

*Explanatory variables: PR=Provider characteristics, AC=Area characteristics, PT=Patient characteristics, CM=Case mix adjustment, PM=Payment method

Return to Top

United States Only - Unit of Observation: Other N=20

Author,
year
Type of
paper
Unit of
observation
Sample
size
Data
source
Time frameYearsInputsOutputsPRACPTCMPMMethodData on
reliability,
sensitivity
analysis,
validity
reported?
Skinner J et al., 2001138ResearchGeographic region, Medicare program306 Geographic regionsSecondary dataCross-sectional1995-1996Total costs
Financial
Health outcomes Health outcome X X X Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
Ashby J et al., 2000139DescriptiveMedicare programNRSecondary dataTime series1985-1996Total costs
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
   X RatiosNo /No /No
       Hosp days
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
   X RatiosNo /No /No
Ozcan YA et al., 1994140ResearchArea agency on aging25 Area agencies on agingSecondary dataCross-sectional1991Total costs
Financial
Meals, Supportive services
Health services
XX   DEANo /No /No
Mansley EC et al., 2002141ResearchCancer detection program19 Cancer detection programsSecondary dataLongitudinal1991-1996Total costs
Financial
Covered lives
Health services
XX   Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
       Total costs
Financial
Outpatient procedure
Health services
XX   Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
       Total costs
Financial
 XX   Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
Tyler LH et al., 1995142ResearchCommunity mental health center39 Community mental health centersSecondary dataCross-sectional1992-1993Number of administrative staff(p), Number of other personnel(p), Operating cost(f)
Physical
Financial
Covered lives
Health services
X    DEANo /Yes/No
Yeh J et al., 1997143ResearchCommunity-based youth service40 Community-based youth servicesPrimary dataCross-sectionalYrs
N/R
Administrative expenditures, Direct costs
Financial
Services provided
Health services
 X   DEANo /No /No
DiJerome L et al., 1999144DescriptiveCost centersNRData source N/AN/AYrs
N/A
Other time
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Other time
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of other personnel
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Number of other personnel
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Other time
Physical
Week, month, or year of care provided
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Productive manhours
Physical
Inpatient procedure
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Productive manhours
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Ozgen H et al., 2002145ResearchDialysis centers791 Dialysis centersSecondary dataCross-sectional1997Number of physicians(p), Number of nurses(p), Number of other personnel(p), Equipment (counts)(p), Operating cost(f)
Physical
Financial
Outpatient procedure, Training, Home treatment
Health services
XX   DEANo /No /No
Ozcan YA et al., 1996146ResearchGeographic region298 Geographic regionsSecondary dataLongitudinal1989-1993Number of physicians, Number of nurses, Number of administrative staff, Number of technical staff, Number of other personnel
Physical
Physician visit, Hosp discharge
Health services
 X X DEANo /No /No
Ozcan YA, 1995147ResearchGeographic region319 Geographic regionsSecondary dataCross-sectional1990Number of other personnel(p), Beds (counts)(p), Other counts(p), Operating cost(f)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Hosp discharge
Health services
 X X DEANo /Yes/No
Okunade AA, 2001148ResearchHospital pharmacyNRPrimary dataTime series1981-1990Drug capital costs(f), Total costs(f), Wage rate/wages(p)
Physical
Financial
Hosp days
Health services
     Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
Wan TT et al., 2003149Research, Develop methodologyIntegrated delivery systems100 Integrated delivery systemsSecondary dataLongitudinal1998-2000Beds (counts), Number of outpatient surgical centers, Number of facilities in the network
Physical
Outpatient procedure, Inpatient procedure, Hosp discharge
Health services
     DEANo /No /No
       Hosp days
Physical
Hosp discharge
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Beds (counts)
Physical
Hosp days
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Wan TT et al., 2002150DescriptiveIntegrated delivery systems973 Integrated delivery systemsSecondary dataCross-sectional1997-1998Number of physicians, Beds (counts)
Physical
Outpatient procedure, Inpatient procedure, Hosp discharge
Health services
X    DEANo /No /No
       Total costs
Financial
Hosp discharge
Health services
X  X Ratios, Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
Andes S et al., 2002151ResearchMedical groups115 Primary health centersSecondary dataCross-sectional1999Number of nurses, Number of administrative staff, Number of technical staff, Other counts
Physical
Charges
Health services
     DEANo /No /No
Schinnar AP et al., 1990152ResearchMental health care program54 Mental health care programsSecondary dataCross-sectional1984-1985Other time
Physical
Week, month, or year of care provided
Health services
X    DEA, Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
       Other time
Physical
Non-physician visit
Health services
X    DEA, Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
       Other labor costs, Other costs
Financial
Week, month, or year of care provided, Non-physician visit
Health services
X    DEA, Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
       Other costs
Financial
Non-physician visit
Health services
X    DEA, Other regression-based approachNo /No /No
Ozcan YA et al., 1999153ResearchOrgan procurement organization64 Organ procurement organizationsSecondary dataCross-sectional1995Number of other personnel(p), Operating cost(f), "Hospital development formalization index"(p), Referrals(p)
Physical
Financial
Organs recovered
Health services
X    DEANo /Yes/No
Larson EH et al., 2001154DescriptiveOther clinician2,921 CliniciansSecondary dataCross-sectional1993-1994Other time
Physical
Non-physician visit
Health services
XX   RatiosNo /No /No
Boston DW, 1991155DescriptiveOther clinician6 CliniciansPrimary dataLongitudinal1986Other time
Physical
Non-physician visit
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Other time
Physical
Charges
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
       Total charges
Financial
Non-physician visit
Health services
     RatiosNo /No /No
Alexander JA et al., 1998156ResearchOutpatient substance abuse treatment organizations618 Outpatient substance abuse treatment organizationsPrimary dataCross-sectional1995Other time(p), Total costs(f)
Physical
Financial
Week, month, or year of care provided
Health services
XX   DEA, Other regression-based approachNo /Yes/No
Sinay T, 2001157ResearchPrimary health center163 Primary health centersSecondary dataCross-sectional1994Number of physicians(p), Number of nurses(p), Number of other personnel(p), Other capital costs(f)
Physical
Financial
Physician visit, Non-physician visit
Health services
     DEANo /Yes/No

*Explanatory variables: PR=Provider characteristics, AC=Area characteristics, PT=Patient characteristics, CM=Case mix adjustment, PM=Payment method

Page last reviewed April 2008
Internet Citation: Appendix G (continued, 3): Characteristics of Health Care Efficiency Measures Published in Peer-Reviewed Literature [1982-2006]: Health Care Efficiency Measures: Identification, Categorization, and Evaluation. April 2008. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/efficiency/hcemappg4.html