Appendix: Literature Cited and Reviewed

Environmental Scan - Health Risk Appraisals in Primary Care

Final report of environmental scan and expert panel meeting to learn more about how health risk assessments are being used in primary care and to identify the research gaps related to HA utilization and outcomes.

Literature Cited 

Aase, S. (2006, January). The road to wellville. Twin Cities Business, Accessed Feb. 15, 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tcbmag.com/industriestrends/healthcare/72389p1.aspx 

Baker, K., Goetzel, R. Z., Pei, X., Weiss, A., Bown, J., Tabrizi, M., Nelson, C., Metz, R., Pelletier, K., & Thompson, E. (2008). Using a return-on-investment estimation model to evaluate outcomes from an obesity management worksite health promotion program. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50(9):981-990. 

Beery, W. L., & Greenwald, H. P. (1996). A modified health risk appraisal as a component of a senior health promotion program. HMO Practice/HMO Group 10(2):91-94. 

Boudreau, F., Godin, G., Pineau, R., & Bradet, R. (1995). Health risk appraisal in an occupational setting and its impact on exercise behavior. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 37(9):1145-1150. 

Burton, L. C., Steinwachs, D. M., German, P. S., et al. (1995). Preventive services for the elderly: would coverage affect utilization and costs under Medicare? American Journal of Public Health 85(3):387-391. 

Eichler, K., Scrabal, C., Steurer, J., & Mann, E. (2007). Preventive health risk appraisal for older people and impact on GPs' patient management: A prospective study. Journal of Family Practice 24(6):604-609. 

Fries, J. F., McShane, D. (1998). Reducing need and demand for medical services in high-risk persons. A health education approach. Western Journal of Medicine 169(4):201-207. 

Galveston County Government Texas. (n.d.). Mandatory Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Information. Galveston County Government, Texas. Accessed Feb. 15, 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://www.co.galveston.tx.us/HR/Documents/HRA-info.pdf 

German, P. S., Burton, L. C., Shapiro, S., et al. (1995). Extended coverage for preventive services for the elderly: response and results in a demonstration population. American Journal of Public Health 85(3):379-386. 

Goetzel, R. Z., Luisi, D., Ozminkowski, R. J., Roemer, E., & Taher, S. (2008). Baseline characteristics of workers at ten New York City employers recruited for a private public research collaborative. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50(2):190-201. 

Greenwood, P. J., Ellis, L. B., & Gross, C. R. (1991). Knowledge gains from a computer-based health risk appraisal. Medical Care 173-176. 

Halpin, H. A., McMenamin, S. B., Schmittdiel, J., Gillies, R. R., Shortell, S. M., Randall, T., & Casalino, L. (2005). The routine use of health risk appraisals: Results from a national study of physician organizations. American Journal of Health Promotion 20(1):34-38. 

Kottke, T. E., Edwards, B. S., & Hagen, P. T. (1999). Counseling: implementing our knowledge in a hurried and complex world. Preventive Medicine 17(4):295-298. 

Krenkel, J., Gamett, K., Molini, M., Gerwech, C., & Plodkowski, R. (2008). Health risk appraisal and lifestyle education to improve weight loss outcomes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 108(9):A37. 

Levenkron, J. (1988). Patient priorities for behavioral change. Journal of General Internal Medicine 3(3):224-229. 

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (2009). Mayo clinic health assessment: Overview. Accessed Feb. 15, 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://www.mayoclinichealthsolutions.com/products/Mayo-Clinic-Health-Risk-Assessment/Mayo-Clinic-Health-Risk-Assessment.cfm 

Milwaukee Board of School Directors, & Milwaukee Teachers' Education Association. (2006). Collective bargaining agreement. Milwaukee, WI. 

Ozminkowski, R. J., Goetzel, R. Z., Wang, F., Gibson, T., Shechter, D., Musich, S., Bender, J., & Edington, D. W. (2006). The savings gained from participation in health promotion programs for Medicare beneficiaries. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48(11):1125-1132. 

Pronk, N. P. (2005). Incorporating exercise and diet recommendations into primary care practice. In A. McTiernan (Ed.): Cancer Prevention and Management through Exercise and Weight Control: Nutrition and Disease Prevention (Vol. 5, pp. 501-514). New York: CRC Press. 

Pronk, N. P., Boucher, J., Gehling, E., Boyle, R., & Jeffery, R. (2002). A platform for population-based weight management: Description of a health plan-based integrated systems approach. The American Journal of Managed Care 8(10):847-857. 

Rubinstein, L. S. P., Tucker, J., Maglione M., Morton, S., Roth, E., Chao, B,, Rhodes, S., Wu, S., Newberry, S. (2003). Health Risk Appraisals and Medicare.  Baltimore: US DHHS, HCFA. 

Scariati, P. D., & Williams, C. (2007). The utility of a health risk assessment in providing care for a rural free clinic population. Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care 1, 8-8. 

Smedley, B. D., Syme, S. L. (1999) Promoting health: Intervention strategies from social and behavioral research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 

Watson Wyatt Worldwide. (2008). Employer use of financial incentives to reward healthy behavior expected to surge. Watson Wyatt Worldwide. Accessed Feb. 15, 2009, from the World Wide Web: http://www.watsonwyatt.com/news/press.asp?ID=19144

Return to Contents 

Other Literature Reviewed 

Abresch, C., Johnson, C., & Abresch, B. Bringing health care inside. Business & Health 19(6):45-45. 

Accuracy of perceptions of heart attack risk: What influences perceptions and can they be changed? (1989). The American Journal of Public Health 79(12):1608-1612. 

Adams, J., Mackey, T., Lindenberg, J., & Baden, T. (1995). Primary care at the worksite: The use of health risk appraisal in a nursing center. AAOHN Journal 43(1):17-22. 

Addressing obesity and enhancing productivity. (2005). Promoting Healthy Weight, Healthy Lifestyles issue brief, 3 3. 

Ahmed, S. M., & Langley, A. E. (1998). Application of health risk appraisal in education: module on cardiovascular risk reduction. Medical Teacher 20(5):455-459. 

Anton, S. D. (2005). Do negative emotions predict alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity in older adults? Behavior Modification 29(4):677-688. 

Application of health appraisal in education: Module on cardiovascular risk reduction. (1998). Medical Teacher 20(5):455-459. 

Appraising health risk appraisal. (1987). The American Journal of Public Health 77(4):409-411. 

Are older hazardous and harmful drinkers less likely to participate in health-related behaviors and practices as compared with nonhazardous drinkers? (2001). Journal of the American Geriatric Society 49(4):421-430. 

Arena, V. C., Padiyar, K. R., Burton, W., N., & Schwerha, J. J. (2006). The impact of body mass index on short-term disability in the workplace. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48(11):1118-1124. 

Aronow, H. U., & Hahn, J. E. (2005). Stay well and healthy! Pilot study findings from an in-home preventive healthcare programme for persons ageing with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 18(2):163-173. 

Autrey, P. S. (1999). The determinants of exercise behavior: An application of the theories of planned behavior and the five-factor model of personality. 60:808-808. 

Baier, C. A., Grodzin, C. J., Port, J. D., Leksas, L., & Tancredi, D. J. (1992). Coronary risk factor behavior change in hospital personnel following a screening program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 8(2):115-122. 

Barfield, B. R. (1993). Evaluation of the effects of health risk appraisals and health promotion teaching on lifestyle behaviors. 53:6216-6216. 

Becker, M. H., & Janz, N. K. (1987). Behavioral science perspectives on health hazard/health risk appraisal. Health Services Research 22(4):537-551. 

Behmer, C. L., Hoffman, M. A., & Freeman, V. S. (1993). A multifocal comparison of health status and physical readiness test results of Navy personnel. Military Medicine 158(4):248-252. 

Bertera, R. L. (1993). Behavioral risk factors and illness day changes with workplace health promotion: Two year results. American Journal of Health Promotion 7(5):365-373. 

Bialecki-Haase, D. A., & Scheiber, S. (1995). The game of life. 41:609-609. 

Braunstein, A., Li, Y., Hirschland, D., McDonald, T., & Edington, D. W. (2001). Internal associations among health-risk factors and risk prevalence. American Journal of Health Behavior 25(4):407-417. 

Breslow, L., Beck, J. C., Morgenstern, H., Fielding, J. E., Moore, A. A., Carmel, M., & Higa, J. (1997). Development of a health risk appraisal for the elderly (HRA-E). American Journal of Health Promotion 11(5):337-343. 

Burton, W., N., Chen, C.-Y., Conti, D. J., Schultz, A. B., & Edington, D. W. (2006). The association between health risk change and presenteeism change. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48(3):252-263. 

Burton, W., N., Chen, C.-Y., Conti, D. J., Schultz, A. B., Pransky, G., & Edington, D. W. (2005). The association of health risks with on-the-job productivity. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 47(8):769-777. 

Burton, W., N., Chen, C.-Y., Schnultz, A. B., & Edington, D. W. (1999). The cost of body mass index levels in an employed population. Statistical Bulletin 80(3):8-14. 

Burton, W., N., Chin-Yu, C., Conti, D. J., Schultz, A. B., & Edington, D. W. Measuring the relationship between employees' health risk factors and corporate pharmaceutical expenditures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 45(8):1-1. 

Burton, W., N., Hoy, D. A., & Stephens, M. (1991). A computer-assisted health care cost management system. Journal of Occupational Medicine 33(3):268-271. 

Bushnell, J., McLeod, D., Dowell, A., Salmond, C., Ramage, S., Collings, S., Ellis, P., Kljakovic, M., & McBain, L. (2006). The treatment of common mental health problems in general practice. Journal of Family Practice 23(1):53-59. 

Carmaciu, C., Iliffe, S., Kharicha, K., Harari, D., Swift, C., Gillmann, G., & Stuck, A. (2007). Health risk appraisals in older people 3: Prevalence, impact, and context of pain and their implications for GPs. The British Journal of General Practice 57(541):630-635. 

Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2007, December 18). Medicare makes awards for senior risk reduction demonstration as part of focus on prevention, press release, Baltimore MD: CMS Office of Public Affairs, http://www.cms.hhs.gov/apps/media/press/release.asp?Counter=2747&intNumPerPage=10&checkDate=&checkKey=&srchType=1&nu, accessed 2/15/09. 

Chikamoto, Y. (1996). An investigation of the relationships between objective and subjective risk estimation pertaining to susceptibility to health problems. 57:120-120. 

Christopher, S., Christopher, J. C., & Dunnagan, T. (2000). Culture's impact on health risk appraisal psychological well-being questions. American Journal of Health Behavior 24(5):338-348. 

Clough-Gorr, K. M., Erpen, T., Gilmann, G., von Renteln-Kruse, W., Iliffe, S., Beck, J. C., & Stuck, A. (2008). Preclinical disability as a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling older adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 63(3):314-320. 

Connell, C. M., Sharpe, P. A., & Gallant, M. P. (1995). Effect of health risk appraisal on health outcomes in a university worksite health promotion trial. Health Education Research 10(2):199-209. 

Cottrell, R. R. (1982). An analysis of the motivational impact of a health risk appraisal and a college health education course utilizing a lifestyle theme on selected health behaviors. 43:677-678. 

Dally, D. L., Dahar, W., Scott, A., Roblin, D., & Khoury, A. T. (2002). The impact of a health education program targeting patients with high visit rates in a managed care organization. American Journal of Health Promotion 17(2):101-111. 

DeFriese, G. H. (1987). Assessing the use of health risk appraisals. Business & Health 4(6):38-42. 

Dickey, L. L., Gemson, D. H., & Carney, P. (1999). Office system interventions supporting primary care-based health behavior change counseling. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 17(4):299-308. 

Dunton, S., Perkins, D. D., & Zopf, K. J. (1990). The impact of worksite-based health risk appraisal programs on observed safety belt use. Health Education Research 5(2):207-216. 

Edington, D. W., Yen, L., & Witting, P. (1997). The financial impact of changes on personal health practices. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 39(11):1037-1046. 

Edington, M., Karjalainen, T., Hirschland, D., & Edington, D. W. (2002). The UAW-GM health promotion program. Successful outcomes. AAOHN Journal 50(1):26-31. 

Edwards, A., Hood, K., Matthews, E., Russell, D., Russell, I., Barker, J., Bloor, M., Burnard, P., Covey J., Pill, R., Wilkinson, C., & Stott, N. (2000).  The effectiveness of one-to-one risk-communication interventions in health care: a systematic review. Medical Decision Making 20(3):290-297. 

Effects of a low-intensity worksite-based nutrition intervention. (1999). Journal of Occupational Medicine 49(8):549-549. 

Efficacy of a self-directed behavioral health change program: Weight, body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood pressure, health risk, and psychosocial mediating variables. (1991). Journal of Behavioral Medicine 14(3):303-323. 

Elder, J. P., Williams, S. J., Drew, J. A., Wright, B. L., & Boulan, T. E. (1995). Longitudinal effects of preventive services on health behaviors among an elderly cohort. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 11(6):354-359. 

Food preference questionnaire as a screening tool for assessing dietary risk of cardiovascular disease within health risk appraisals. (2007). Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(2):237-245. 

Foran, M., & Campanelli, L. C. (1995). Health promotion communications system: A model for the dispersed population. AAOHN Journal 43(11):564-569. 

Foxman, B., & Edington, D. W. (1987). The accuracy of health risk appraisal in predicting mortality. Journal of Public Health 77(8):971-974. 

Geiger, W. J., Neuberger, M. J., & Bell, G. C. (1993). Implementing the US preventive services guidelines in a family practice residency. Family Medicine 25(7):447-451. 

Glasgow, R. E., & Terborg, J. R. (1988). Occupational health promotion programs to reduce cardiovascular risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56(3):365-373. 

Goetzel, R. Z., Anderson, D. R., Whitmer, R., Ozminkowski, R. J., Dunn, R. L., & Wasserman, J. (1998). The relationship between modifiable health risks and health care expenditures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 40(10):843-854. 

Goetzel, R. Z., & Ozminkowski, R. J. (2008). The health and cost benefits of worksite health promotion programs. Journal of Public Health 29:303-323. 

Goetzel, R. Z., Ozminkowski, R. J., Bruno, J., Rutter, K., Issac, F., & Wang, S. (2002). The long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health & wellness program on  employee health risks. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 44(5):417-424. 

Gottlieb, N. H., Weinstein, R. P., Baun, W. B., & Bernacki, E. J. (1992). A profile of health risks among blue-collar workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine 34(1):61-68. 

Hagihara, A., Kusaka, Y., Morimoto, K., Tamura, T., & Matsuura, Y. (1992). Health risk appraisal (HRA) and its educational effect on bank employees. Industrial Health 30(1):61-64. 

Han, P. K., Hagel, J., Welty, T. K., Ross, R., Leonardson, G., & Keckler, A. (1994). Cultural factors associated with health-risk behavior among the Cheyenne River Sioux. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research 5(3):15-29. 

Harari, D., Iliffe, S., Kharicha, K., Egger, M., Gillmann, G., von Renteln-Kruse, W., Beck, J. C., Swift, C., & Stuck, A. (2008). Promotion of health in older people: A randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal in British general practice. Age and Ageing 37(5):565-571. 

Health risk appraisal and lifestyle education to improve weight loss outcomes. (2008). Journal of the American Dietetic Association 108(9):A37-A37. 

Heaney, C., & Goetzel, R. Z. (1997). A review of health related outcomes of multi-component worksite health promotion programs. American Journal of Health Promotion 11(4):290-308. 

Herman, C. W., Musich, S., Lu, C., Sill, S., Young, J. M., & Edington, D. W. (2006). Effectiveness of an incentive-based online physical activity intervention on employee health status. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48(9):889-895. 

Holt, M. C., McCauley, M., & Paul, D. (1995). Health impacts of AT&T's total life concept (TLC) program after five years. American Journal of Health Promotion 9(6):421-425. 

Hornsby, P. P., Reeve, R. H., Gwaltney Jr, J. M., Parsons, B. D., & Morse, R. M. (1997). The University of Virginia health promotion and disease prevention program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 13(1):36-44. 

Hurst, D. F., Boswell, D. L., Boogaard, S. E., & Watson, M. W. (1997). The relationship of self-esteem to the health-related behaviors of the patients of a primary care clinic. Family Medicine 6(1):67-70. 

Hyner, G. C., Dewey, J., & Melby, C. L. (1986). Relationship between employees' health risk appraisal scores and their serum lipoproteins: Results from a worksite health promotion program. Health Education Research 17(3):32-33. 

Iliffe, S., Kharicha, K., Harari, D., Swift, C., & Stuck, A. (2005). Health risk appraisal for older people in general practice using an expert system: A pilot study. Health & Social Care in the Community 13(1):21-29. 

Ives, D. G., Lave, J. R., Traven, N. D., & Kuller, L. H. (1994). Impact of Medicare reimbursement on influenza vaccination rates in the elderly. Preventive Medicine 23(2):134-141. 

Jonas, W. B. (1997). Physicians health promotion training activities in primary care: A survey of the military residencies. Journal of Family Practice 10(2):104-110. 

Kaman, R. L., Licciardone, J. C., & Hoffman, M. A. (1991). Comparison of health risk prevalence reported on a health risk appraisal and predicted through demographic analysis. American Journal of Health Promotion 5(5):378-383. 

Kashima, S. R. (2003). A petroleum company's experience in implementing a comprehensive medical fitness for duty program for professional truck drivers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 45(2):185-196. 

Kawakami, N., Takatsuka, N., Inaba, S., & Shimizu, H. (1999). Development of a screening questionnaire for tobacco/nicotine dependence according to ICD-10, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV. Addictive Behaviors 24(2):155-166. 

Kellerman, S. T., Felts, W. M., & Chenier, T. C. (1992). The impact on factory workers of health risk appraisal and counseling in health promotion. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 8(1):37-42. 

Kenkel, P. J. (1992). Financial incentives in wellness plans aimed at reducing insurance costs by helping workers shed unhealthy habits. Modern Healthcare 22(3):38-38. 

Kessler, R. C., Barber, C., Beck, A. L., Berglund, P., Cleary, P., McKenas, D. K., Pronk, N. P., Simon, G. E., Stang, P., Usun, T., & Wang, P. S. (2003). The world health organization health and work performance questionnaire (HPQ). 45(2):156-174. 

Kharicha, K., Iliffe, S., Harari, D., Swift, C., Gillmann, G., & Stuck, A. (2007). Health risk appraisal in older people 1: Are older people living alone an "at-risk" group? British Journal of General Practice 57(537):271-276. 

Khunti, K., Stone, M. A., Bankart, J., Sinfield, P., Pancholi, A., Walker, S., Talbot, D., Farooqi, A., & Davies, M. J. (2008). Primary prevention of type-2 diabetes and heart disease: Action research in secondary schools serving an ethnically diverse UK population. Journal of Public Health 30(1):30-37. 

King, D. K., Estabrooks, P. A., Strycker, L. A., Toobert, D. J., Bull, S. S., & Glasgow, R. E. (2006). Outcomes of a multifaceted physical activity regimen as part of a diabetes self-management intervention. Behavioral Medicine 31(2):128-137. 

Knishkowy, B., Amitai, Y., Hardoff, D., Levy, Y., & Kiro, A. (2007). Assessment of health issues and concerns of Israeli seventh graders during school physician examinations: A pilot study. The Journal of School Health 77(2):87-91. 

Koh, D.-H., Kim, H.-R., Han, S.-S., & Jee, S.-H. (2006). The relationship between socioeconomic position and the predicted risk of ischemic heart disease with using health risk appraisal. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 39(4):359-364. 

Kreuter, M. W. (1994). Individually-tailored behavior change feedback and health risk appraisal. 54:4102-4102. 

Kreuter, M. W., & Strecher, V. J. (1995). Changing inaccurate perceptions of health risk: Results from a randomized trial. Health Psychology 14(1):56-63. 

Lapham, S. C., Gregory, C., & McMillan, G. (2003). Impact of an alcohol misuse intervention for health care workers: Frequency of binge drinking and desire to reduce alcohol use. Alcohol and Alcoholism 38(2):176-182. 

Leigh, J. P., Richardson, N., Beck, R., Kerr, C., Harrington, H., Parcell, C. L., & Fries, F. (1992). Randomized controlled study of a retiree health promotion program. The Bank of America study. Archives of Internal Medicine 152(6):1201-1206. 

Lewis, R. J., Huebner, W. W., & Yarborough III, S. J. (1996). Characteristics of participants and nonparticipants in worksite health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion 11(2):99-106. 

Long, D. A., & Perry, T. L. (2007). An application of survival analysis to population health management program evaluation. American Journal of Health Promotion 21(6):529-533. 

Lynch, W. D., & Edington, D. W. (1996). Predicting the demand for health care. Healthcare Forum Journal 39(1):20-20. 

Lynne, D. (2004). Diabetes disease management in managed care organizations. Disease Management 7(1):47-60. 

Mackey, T., & Adams, J. (1994). The use of health risk appraisal in a nursing center: Costs and benefits. NLN Publications(41-2629):253-265. 

Major study ties modifiable risk factors to health costs. (1999). Healthcare Demand & Disease Managment 5(2):22-25. 

McCoy, M. R., Couch, D., Duncan, N. D., & Lynch, G. S. (2005). Evaluating an internet weight loss program for diabetes prevention. Health Promotion International 20(3):221-228. 

Miller, R. E., Golaszewski, T. J., Pfeiffer, G., & Edington, D. W. (1990). Significance of the lifestyle system to employee health and assistance. Health Values 14(4):41-49. 

Mills, P. R., Kessler, R. C., Cooper, J., & Sullivan, S. (2007). Impact of a health promotion program on employee health risks and work productivity. American Journal of Health Promotion 22(1):45-53. 

Moore, A. A., Morgenstern, H., Harawa, N. T., Fielding, J. E., Higa, J., & Beck, J. C. (2001). Are older hazardous and harmful drinkers less likely to participate in health-related behaviors and practices as compared with nonhazardous drinkers? Journal of the American Geriatric Society 49(4):421-430. 

Musich, S., Adams, L., DeWolf, G., & Edington, D. W. (2001). A case study of 10-year health risk appraisal participation patterns in a comprehensive health promotion program. American Journal of Health Promotion 15(4):237-240. 

Musich, S., Faruzzi, S. D., Lu, C., McDonald, T., Hirschland, D., & Edington, D. W. (2003). Patterns of medical charges after quitting smoking among those with and without arthritis, allergies, or back pain. American Journal of Health Promotion 18(2):133-142. 

Musich, S., Hook, D., Baaner, S., & Edington, D. W. (2006). The association of two productivity measures with health risks and medical conditions in an Australian employee population. American Journal of Health Promotion 20(5):353-363. 

Musich, S., Hook, D., Baaner, S., Spooner, M., & Edington, D. W. (2006). The association of corporate work environment factors, health risks, and medical conditions with presenteeism among Australian employees. American Journal of Health Promotion 21(2):127-136. 

Musich, S., Ignaczak, A., McDonald, T., Hirschland, D., & Edington, D. W. (2001). Self-reported utilization of preventive health services by retired employees age 65 and older. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 49(12):1665-1672. 

Musich, S., Lu, C., McDonald, T., Campagne, L. J., & Edington, D. W. (2004). Association of additional health risks on medical charges and prevalence of diabetes within body mass index categories. American Journal of Health Promotion 18(3):264-268. 

Musich, S., Napier, D., & Edington, D. W. (2001). The association of health risks with workers' compensation costs. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 43(6):534-541. 

Nakagawa, M., Nakamura, M., Masui, S., Kinoshita, T., Yokomizo, M., & Oshima, A. (1999). Development of a smoking cessation program during health checkups. Preliminary study to evaluate the usefulness of this program. Japanese Journal of Public Health 46(9):820-827. 

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Naydeck, B., Pearson, J., Ozminkowski, R. J., Day, B., & Goetzel, R. Z. (2008). The impact of the Highmark employee wellness programs on 4-year healthcare costs. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50(2):146-156. 

Neutens, J. J., & Pursley, R. J. (1985). A comparison of two HRAs for use in the university classroom. The Journal of School Health 55(10):413-417. 

Nice, D. S., & Woodruff, S. I. (1990). Self-selection in responding to a health risk appraisal: Are we preaching to the choir? American Journal of Health Promotion 4(5):367-372. 

Oginsky, L. M. (1995). A descriptive study of Michigan auto workers'. 56:834-834. 

Ozminkowski, R. J., Dunn, R. L., Goetzel, R. Z., Cantor, R. I., Murnane, J., & Harrison, M. (1999). A return on investment evaluation of the Citibank, N.A., health management program. American Journal of Health Promotion 14(1):31-43. 

Ozminkowski, R. J., Goetzel, R. Z., Smith, M. W., Cantor, R. I., Shaughnessy, A., & Harrison, M. (2000). The impact of the Citibank, NA, health management program on changes in employee health risks over time. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 42(5):502-511. 

Ozminkowski, R. J., Ling, D., Goetzel, R. Z., Bruno, J., Rutter, K., Issac, F., & Wang, S. (2002). Long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health & wellness program on health care utilization and expenditures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 44(1):21-29. 

Pai, C.-W., & Edington, D. W. (2008). Association between behavioral intervention and actual change for physical activity, smoking, and body weight among an employed population. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50(9):1077-1083. 

Pearson, T., Pronk, N. P., Tan, A., & Halstenson, C. (2003). Identifying individuals at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Journal of Managed Care 9(1):57-66. 

Peters, K. K. (1997). Worksite health promotion with campus maintenance workers. 58:2733-2733. 

Peters, K. K., & Carlson, J. G. (1999). Worksite stress management with high-risk maintenance workers: A controlled study. International Journal of Stress Management 6(1):21-44. 

Pfeiffer, G., & Edington, D. W. (1986). Health risk and occupational category. Employee Assistance Quarterly 1(3):25-34. 

Pilon, B. A., & Renfroe, D. (1990). Evaluation of an employee health risk appraisal program. AAOHN Journal 38(5):230-235. 

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Plumb, M. A. (1983). A comparison of four health risk appraisal instruments: contents and results of administration to the selected adult client population. 44:1403-1403. 

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Current as of August 2010
Internet Citation: Appendix: Literature Cited and Reviewed: Environmental Scan - Health Risk Appraisals in Primary Care. August 2010. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/environmental-scan/environmental-scappendix.html