Page 1 of 1

References

Creation of New Race-Ethnicity Codes and Socioeconomic Status (SES) Indicators for Medicare Beneficiaries

 

Arday, S.L., D.R. Arday, S. Monroe, and J. Zhang. HCFA's Racial and Ethnic Data: Current Accuracy and Recent Improvements. Health Care Financing Review. Volume 21, Number 4, 107-116, Summer 2000.

Bindman, A.B., Grumbach, K., Osmond, D. et al. Preventable Hospitalizations and Access to Care. JAMA, Vol. 274, No. 4, 305-311, July 26, 1995.

Bonito, A.J., Eicheldinger, C.R., Evensen, C., and Lenfestey, N. Health Disparities: Measuring Health Care Use and Access for Racial/Ethnic Populations. RTI Final Report for Project Number 07964.008 (in two parts plus appendices) to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for Contract Number 500-00-0024, Task No. 8. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 2005.

Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter. S., Chideya. S., Marchi. K.S., Metzler. M., Posner. S. Socioeconomic status in health research: one size does not fit all. JAMA. 2005 Dec 14;294(22):2879-88.

Eggers, P.W. and L. G. Greenberg. Racial Differences in Hospitalization Rates among Aged Medicare Beneficiaries, 1998. Health Care Financing Review. Volume 21, Number 4, 1-15, Summer 2000.

Falkenstein, M.R., and Word, D.L. The Asian and Pacific Islander Surname List: As Developed from Census 2000. Bureau of the Census, December 2002.

Kawachi I, Berkman L, eds. Neighborhoods and Health. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003.

Korn, E. L., and B. I. Graubard. 1999. Analysis of Health Surveys. New York: Wiley.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Painting a truer picture of US socioeconomic and racial/ethnic health inequalities: the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):312-23.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Choosing area based socioeconomic measures to monitor social inequalities in low birth weight and childhood lead poisoning: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US). J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003a Mar;57(3):186-99.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Geocoding and monitoring of US socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and cancer incidence: does the choice of area-based measure and geographic level matter?: the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Epidemiol. 2002a Sep 1;156(5):471-82. Review.

Krieger N, Waterman P, Chen JT, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Zip code caveat: bias due to spatiotemporal mismatches between zip codes and US census-defined geographic areas—the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health. 2002b Jul;92(7):1100-2.

Krieger N, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV. Monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and violence: geocoding and choice of area-based socioeconomic measures—the public health disparities geocoding project (US). Public Health Rep. 2003b May-Jun;118(3):240-60.

Krieger N, Waterman P, Lemieux K, Zierler S, Hogan JW. On the wrong side of the tracts? Evaluating the accuracy of geocoding in public health research. Am J Public Health. 2001 Jul;91(7):1114-6.

Landis, J.R., and Koch, G.G. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, pp. 159-174, 1977.

Lauderdale, D.S. and J. Goldberg. The Expanded Racial and Ethnic Codes in the Medicare Data Files: Their Completeness of Coverage and Accuracy. American Journal of Public Health, Volume 86, Number 5, 712-716, May 1996.

McCall, N., Harlow, J., and Dayhoff, D. Rates of Hospitalization for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions in the Medicare+Choice Population. Health Care Financing Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, 127-145, Spring 2001.

Scott, CG. Identifying the race or ethnicity of SSI recipients. Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62, No. 4, 9-20, 1999.

Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Krieger N. Racial disparities in context: a multilevel analysis of neighborhood variations in poverty and excess mortality among black populations in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):260-5. Erratum in: Am J Public Health. 2005 Mar;95(3):375.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. 2nd Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, November, 2000.

Waldo, DR. Accuracy and Bias of Race/Ethnicity Codes in the Medicare Enrollment Database. Health Care Financing Review, Winter 2004-2005/Volume 26, Number 2.

Word, D.L., and Perkins, R.C. Jr. Building a Spanish Surname List for the 1990's – A New Approach to an Old Problem. Bureau of the Census, Population Division Technical Working Paper No. 13, March 1996. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population/documentation/twpno13.pdf (Plugin Software Help).

Return to Contents

 

Notes

Disclaimer and Copyright Information

The statements contained in this report, submitted in July 2006, are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services or the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. RTI assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the information contained in this report.

This document is in the public domain and may be used and reprinted without permission, except for any copyrighted materials noted, for which further reproduction is prohibited without the specific permission of copyright holders.

Appendixes

The following appendixes can be obtained by contacting Dr. Ernest Moy, Medical Officer, Center for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. E-mail: ernest.moy@ahrq.hhs.gov.

  1. Additional Tabulations and Statistical Testing During the Validation of the Socioeconomic Status Index
  2. Cancer Screening Tables
  3. Diabetes Prevention Tables
  4. Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition Tables
  5. Common Hospital Diagnosis Tables
  6. Documentation of the Medicare Claims Data Presented in the Tables
  7. Codebook for the Analytic File
  8. Tables of Denominators for Weighted and Unweighted National and MSA Tabulations (Bound Separately)
  9. SUDAAN® Output for the Multivariate Analysis

Return to Contents

Page last reviewed January 2008
Internet Citation: References: Creation of New Race-Ethnicity Codes and Socioeconomic Status (SES) Indicators for Medicare Beneficiaries. January 2008. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/medicareindicators/medicareindicatorsref.html