Table 2. Individual and Team-level Training Strategies

Medical Teamwork and Patient Safety: The Evidence-based Relation

StrategyDefinitionLevelSources
Assertiveness trainingUses behavioral modeling techniques to demonstrate both assertive and nonassertive behaviors; provides trainees with practice and feedback opportunities.IndividualSmith-Jentsch, et al, 1996
Meta-cognitive trainingDevelops those skills that regulate cognitive thinking abilities, such as inductive and deductive reasoning.IndividualJentsch, 1997
Stress Exposure Training (SET)Provides coping strategies to help trainees better respond to various stressors.Individual and teamDriskell, Johnston, 1998
Simulator trainingReproduces in a classroom environment the same conditions, equipment, and performance demands that trainees will experience on the job.Individual and teamSalas, Dickinson, Converse, et al, 1992
Team trainingProvides interventions that (a) convey information; (b) demonstrate teamwork behaviors and skills; (c) encourage practice, and; (d) include feedback to help trainees achieve the necessary proficiencies, at the individual and team levels.Team(a) Salas, Cannon-Bowers, 2000; (b-d) Salas, et al, 1997
Cross-trainingTrading roles and tasks among team members, so that each may develop a better appreciation and facility for coworkers' responsibilities and overall team goals.TeamSalas, et al, 1997; Volpe, Cannon-Bowers, Salas, et al, 2001
Team coordination training/Crew Resource ManagementTraining to improve task management skills and communication (both explicit and implicit), to encourage backup behaviors, and to provide practice opportunities for members of a particular workplace community.TeamEntin, Serfaty, 1999; Bowers, Blickendersfer, Morgan, 1998
Team buildingFocuses on improved role clarification, goal-setting exercises, problem solving skills, and interpersonal relations.TeamSalas, Rozell, Mullen, et al, 1999
Self-correction trainingHelps individuals and teams monitor, evaluate, and revise deficient behaviors, through instructive feedback.Individual and teamSmith-Jentsch, et al, 1998; Blickensderfer, Cannon-Bowers, Salas, 1997

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Page last reviewed July 2005
Internet Citation: Table 2. Individual and Team-level Training Strategies: Medical Teamwork and Patient Safety: The Evidence-based Relation. July 2005. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/medteam/table2.html