1. Diercks DB, Roe MT, Chen AY, et al. Prolonged emergency department stays of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients are associated with worse adherence to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for management and increased adverse events. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 50(5):489-496.

2. Fee C, Weber EJ, Maak CA, Bacchetti P. Effect of emergency department crowding on time to antibiotics in patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 50(5):501-509.e1.

3. Schull MJ, Vermeulen M, Slaughter, G, et al. Emergency department crowding and thrombolysis delays in acute myocardial infarction. Ann Emerg Med 2004; 44(6):577-585.

4. Hwang U, Richardson L, Livote E, et al., Emergency department crowding and decreased quality of pain care. Acad Emerg Med 2008; 15(12):1248-1255.

5. Pines J, Hollander J. Emergency department crowding is associated with poor care for patients with severe pain. Ann Emerg Med 2008; 51(1):1-5.

6. Niska RW, Bhulya F, Xu J. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2007 Emergency Department Summary. National Health Statistics Reports, No. 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010.

7. McConnell KJ, Richards CF, Daya M, et al. Ambulance diversion and lost hospital revenues. Ann Emerg Med 2006; 48(6):702-710.

8. Pines JM, Batt RJ, Hilton JA, Terwiesch C. The financial consequences of lost demand and reducing boarding in hospital emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med; in press.

9. Medicare Program: Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System. Federal Register 2012 IPPS Final Rule 2011:51628.

10. Medicare Program: Outpatient Prospective Payment System. Federal Register 2011 OPPS Final Rule; 2010.

11. National Quality Forum endorses measures to address care coordination and efficiency in hospital emergency departments. Press release, October 29, 2008. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum; 2008.

12. Institute of Medicine. Hospital-based emergency care at the breaking point. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.

13. The 1995 Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission; 1995.

14. Cracking the Code to Hospital-wide Patient Flow. Denver, CO: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2011.

15. Wilson MJ, Nguyen K. Bursting at the Seams: Improving Patient Flow to Help America's Emergency Departments. Washington, DC: The George Washington University Medical Center; September 2004.

16. Improving Patient Flow & Reducing Emergency Department Crowding. Washington, DC: The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services; February 2010.

17. Silow-Carroll, Alteras, T., and Meyer, J.A. Hospital Quality Improvement: Strategies and Lessons from U.S. Hospitals. New York: Commonwealth Fund; April 2007. Available at
18. Timmel J, Kent PS, Holzmueller CG, et al. Impact of the Comprehensive Unit-Based Safety Program (CUSP) on safety culture in a surgical inpatient unit. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2010; 36(6):252-260.

19. Science of Improvement: Forming the Team. Washington, DC: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2011.

20. McCaig LF, Xu J, Niska RW. Estimates of Emergency Department Capacity: United States, 2007. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2009. Available at [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed October 17, 2011.

21. McClelland MS, Jones K, Siegel B, Pines J. A field test of time-based emergency department quality measures. Ann Emerg Med 2011; epub.

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Current as of October 2011
Internet Citation: References. October 2011. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.