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Table 4. AADE Recommended Measures and Measurement Methods

Patient Self-Management Support Programs: An Evaluation

Diabetes self-care behaviorMeasuresMethods of measurement
Monitoring blood glucose
  • Frequency of missed tests.
  • Frequency and schedule of tests (times/day, days/week).
  • Planned, unplanned testing.
  • Review of pharmacy refill record.
  • Review of log book.
  • Meter memory review or printout.
  • Self-report.
  • Demonstration of technique.
Solving problems
  • Blood glucose testing.
  • Adjusting food, medication, activity.
  • Contact with health care provider for resolving problems.
  • Checking meter and strips for function.
  • Number of blood glucose tests per month requiring assistance.
  • Number of times that ketones are tested (when appropriate).
  • Missed days from work or school.
  • Patient self-report.
  • Review of log book (unreliable).
  • Meter memory review or printout.
  • Review of medical chart.
  • Frequency of medication adjustment.
Taking medication
  • Adherence to medication regimen.
  • Dose accuracy.
  • Pill count.
  • Review of pharmacy refill record.
  • Demonstration.
  • Self-report.
  • Blood glucose, medication records.
  • Observation, role playing.
Living with diabetes
  • Depression score.
  • Stress.
  • Quality of life.
  • Functional measurement.
  • Treatment self-efficacy.
  • Patient empowerment.
  • Self-report.
Validated instruments (e.g., SF-12, SF-36, Zung/Beck Depression Scale)
Reducing risks of diabetes complications
  • Smoking status.
  • Frequency of foot self-exam.
  • Aspirin therapy.
  • Eye exam.
  • MD visit.
  • Diabetes educator visit.
  • Registered Dietician visit.
  • Lipids checked.
  • Blood pressure checked.
  • Flu vaccine, pneumonia vaccine.
  • Urine check for protein.
  • Prepregnancy counseling.
  • Patient self-report.
  • Chart or exam code audit.
  • Demonstration of self-care activities.
Being active
  • Type of physical activity.
  • How often.
  • How long.
  • How intense.
  • Patient self-report.
  • Observation.
  • Pedometer.
Eating
  • Type of food choices.
  • Amount of food eaten.
  • Timing of meals.
  • Alcohol intake.
  • Effect of food on glucose.
  • Problem solving and special situations.
  • Patient self-report.
  • Observation.
  • Food and blood glucose records.
  • 24-hour recall, food frequency questionnaires.

Source: Mulcahy, et al, 2003.56 (Derived from Table 4: AADE Diabetes education core outcomes measures for diabetes self-care behaviors, pages 776-9.)

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Page last reviewed November 2007
Internet Citation: Table 4. AADE Recommended Measures and Measurement Methods: Patient Self-Management Support Programs: An Evaluation. November 2007. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/ptmgmt/ptmgmttab4.html