Chapter 2. Effectiveness of Care (Text Descriptions)

National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011


Figure 2.1. Women ages 50-74 who reported they had a mammogram within the past 2 years, by race and ethnicity, 2000, 2003, 2005, and 2008

Race2000200320052008
White (percent)78.076.172.973.3
Black (percent)75.775.770.076.5
Asian (percent)66.063.655.076.2

Ethnicity2000200320052008
Total (percent)77.275.772.073.7
Non-Hispanic White (percent)78.576.673.773.9
Hispanic (percent)68.670.865.068.3

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2000, 2003, 2005, and 2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized women ages 50-74.

Note: Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 88%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.2. Age-adjusted rate of advanced stage breast cancer per 100,000 women age 40 and over, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2007

Race20002001200220032004200520062007
White (rate per 100,000 pop.)95.496.293.990.191.791.291.089.6
Black (rate per 100,000 pop.)99.498.2102.3102.6106.3103.7107.1108.4
AI/AN (rate per 100,000 pop.)53.552.857.950.252.453.552.655.4
API (rate per 100,000 pop.)61.558.761.860.063.861.960.462.9

Ethnicity20002001200220032004200520062007
Non-Hispanic White (rate per 100,000 pop.)96.797.895.391.793.292.392.791.2
Hispanic (rate per 100,000 pop.)79.677.877.773.474.978.975.075.0

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Program of Cancer Registries and National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, 2000-2007. Registries meeting United States Cancer Statistics publication criteria for every year, 2000-2007, are included and cover 89.3% of the total U.S. population.

Denominator: Women age 40 and over.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Advanced stage breast cancer is defined as local stage with tumor size greater than 2 cm diameter, regional stage or distant stage.
2007 Achievable Benchmark: 79.

Return to Document

Figure 2.3. Women with clinical Stage I-IIb breast cancer who received axillary node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy at the time of lumpectomy or mastectomy, by race and ethnicity, 2004-2008

Race20042005200620072008
White (percent)85.386.687.889.793.7
Black (percent)84.987.387.590.293.8
Asian (percent)87.788.889.793.494.7
NHOPI (percent)85.085.493.598.396.1
AI/AN (percent)86.984.280.786.893.7

Ethnicity20042005200620072008
Total (percent)85.386.787.889.993.7
Non-Hispanic White (percent)85.186.587.989.793.6
Hispanic (percent)86.588.989.991.494.3

Source: Commission on Cancer, American College of Surgeons and American Cancer Society, National Cancer Data Base, 2004-2008.

Denominator: Women with Stage I-IIb breast cancer undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 97%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.4. Women under age 70 treated for breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery who received radiation therapy within 1 year of diagnosis, by race and ethnicity, 2004-2008

Race20042005200620072008
White (percent)76.976.476.676.779.9
Black (percent)69.168.668.568.573.7
Asian (percent)73.272.872.771.475.1
NHOPI (percent)69.873.384.879.880.8
AI/AN (percent)71.269.878.873.270.8

Ethnicity20042005200620072008
Total (percent)75.875.375.575.478.8
Non-Hispanic White (percent)77.577.277.377.680.7
Hispanic (percent)62.761.660.862.163.0

Source: Commission on Cancer, American College of Surgeons and American Cancer Society, National Cancer Data Base, 2004-2008.

Denominator: Women under age 70 undergoing breast-conserving surgery.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 93%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.5. Age-adjusted breast cancer deaths per 100,000 women, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2007

Race20002001200220032004200520062007
White (rate per 100,000 pop.)26.325.525.024.723.923.422.922.3
Black (rate per 100,000 pop.)34.534.434.034.032.232.831.631.4
API (rate per 100,000 pop.)12.312.912.812.612.712.212.111.1
AI/AN (rate per 100,000 pop.)13.611.813.814.014.815.212.812.7

Ethnicity20002001200220032004200520062007
Total (rate per 100,000 pop.)26.826.025.625.324.424.123.522.9
Non-Hispanic White (rate per 100,000 pop.)26.826.025.624.525.624.023.523.0
Hispanic (rate per 100,000 pop.)16.916.315.515.615.515.015.014.5

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System-Mortality, 2000-2007.

Denominator: U.S. population, women.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Total rate is age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.
2006 Achievable Benchmark: 20.

Return to Document

Figure 2.6. Adults who reported they had a blood cholesterol measurement in the past 5 years, by race/ethnicity and income, 1998, 2003, and 2008

Race / Ethnicity199820032008
Total (percent)67.073.274.6
White (percent)68.073.474.1
Black (percent)67.075.376.9
Hispanic (percent)59.168.471.8

Income199820032008
Poor (percent)55.364.164.2
Low Income (percent)59.566.067.5
Middle Income (percent)66.472.273.9
High Income (percent)73.579.480.7

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 1998, 2003, and 2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized people age 18 and over.

Note: Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.7. Inpatient deaths per 1,000 adult hospital admissions with heart attack, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2008

Race / Ethnicity20012002200320042005200620072008
White (deaths per 1,000 adm.)100.297.288.283.378.372.466.359.9
Black (deaths per 1,000 adm.)95.288.284.075.267.660.857.648.4
Hispanic (deaths per 1,000 adm.)99.594.188.880.877.472.565.359.0
API (deaths per 1,000 adm.)91.396.785.685.677.083.572.861.1

Quartile (Q)20012002200320042005200620072008
Q1 (lowest income) (deaths per 1,000 adm.)105.997.690.987.478.874.368.761.6
Q2 (deaths per 1,000 adm.)100.894.590.282.979.273.767.160.1
Q3 (deaths per 1,000 adm.)98.590.383.578.074.269.966.056.1
Q4 (highest income) (deaths per 1,000 adm.)94.690.780.176.872.267.961.856.2

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, SID disparities analysis file, and AHRQ Quality Indicators modified version 4.1, 2001-2008.

Denominator: Adults age 18 and over admitted to a non-Federal community hospital in the United States with acute myocardial infarction as principal discharge diagnosis.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, and API groups are non-Hispanic. Rates are adjusted by age and all payer refined-diagnosis related group scoring of risk of mortality. White, Black, and API groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 47.

Return to Document

Figure 2.8. Hospital patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction prescribed ACE inhibitor or ARB at discharge, by race/ethnicity, 2005-2009

Race / Ethnicity20052006200720082009
Total (percent)82.685.289.792.193.8
White (percent)81.484.288.991.493.1
Black (percent)85.487.691.493.695.1
Hispanic (percent)82.985.289.492.594.4
AI/AN (percent)85.886.490.890.791.8
Asian (percent)81.584.989.992.695.4

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Medicare Quality Improvement Organization Program, 2005-2009.

Denominator: Patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of acute heart failure with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

Note: White, Black, AI/AN, and Asian groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2009 Achievable Benchmark: 96%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.9. Admissions for congestive heart failure per 100,000 population, age 18 and over, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2008

Race / Ethnicity20012002200320042005200620072008
White (admissions per 100,000 pop.)414.6414.0372.8372.7365.4347.0326.3315.6
Black (admissions per 100,000 pop.)1,083.71,041.3859.2938.1846.7862.4828.6766.3
Hispanic (admissions per 100,000 pop.)483.9608.3616.9592.5503.5436.5408.6339.4
API (admissions per 100,000 pop.)309.5307.9253.6289.7224.8213.5216.9214.7

Quartile (Q)20012002200320042005200620072008
Q1 (lowest income) (admissions per 100,000 pop.)610.9599.6598.9576.0557.2566.0511.4490.3
Q2 (admissions per 100,000 pop.)521.4518.3463.5450.3419.4413.0388.3373.7
Q3 (admissions per 100,000 pop.)427.5444.1397.5384.1377.8359.4335.9327.4
Q4 (highest income) (admissions per 100,000 pop.)413.3376.7334.9347.1349.1333.8296.0299.2

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, SID disparities analysis file, and AHRQ Quality Indicators modified version 4.1, 2001-2008.

Denominator: U.S. resident population age 18 and over.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are adjusted by age and gender. White, Black, and API groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 195.

Return to Document

Figure 2.10. Adults who reported receiving a cholesterol check in the last 5 years, 2005, 2007, and 2009

Race200520072009
White (percent)75.477.978.8
NHOPI (percent)65.271.369.8

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2005, 2007, and 2009.

Denominator: Adults age 18 and over.

Return to Document

Figure 2.11. Admissions for congestive heart failure per 100,000 population, age 18 and over, State of Hawaii, by race, 2005-2007

Race200520062007
White (admissions per 100,000 pop.)213.5214.2189.1
Native Hawaiian (admissions per 100,000 pop.)530.0419.1427.9
Other Pacific Islander (admissions per 100,000 pop.)2,041.92,054.8816.2
Chinese (admissions per 100,000 pop.)177.6257.7182.4
Filipino (admissions per 100,000 pop.)465.6436.2392.6
Japanese (admissions per 100,000 pop.)176.0158.0158.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Hawaii State Inpatient Databases, 2005-2007, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, version 3.1.

Denominator: Adults age 18 and over in Hawaii based on the Hawaii Health Survey.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are adjusted by age and gender using the total U.S. population for 2000 as the standard population.

Return to Document

Figure 2.12. Patients beginning nephrology care more than 12 months before start of dialysis, by race and ethnicity, 2006-2008

Race200620072008
White (percent)27.828.630.1
Black (percent)23.124.024.6
API (percent)24.025.626.4
AI/AN (percent)27.225.827.8

Ethnicity200620072008
Total (percent)26.327.128.4
Non-Hispanic White (percent)29.430.432.1
Hispanic (percent)20.620.521.4

Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2006-2008.

Denominator: New end stage renal disease patients.

Return to Document

Figure 2.13. Incident hemodialysis patients who used an arteriovenous fistula at first outpatient dialysis, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2010

Race200820092010
White (percent)14.114.615.4
Black (percent)12.213.013.7
API (percent)16.316.716.9
AI/AN (percent)16.115.917.8

Ethnicity200820092010
Total (percent)13.714.315.0
Non-Hispanic (percent)14.014.715.4
Hispanic (percent)11.311.612.9

Source: Medicare eligibility forms (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS] Form 2728) (2008-2010), Fistula First Incident AVF Dataset, CMS.

Denominator: New end stage renal disease hemodialysis patients, all ages.
2009 Achievable Benchmark: 27%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.14. Dialysis patients who were registered on a waiting list for transplantation, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2007

Race20002001200220032004200520062007
White (percent)16.516.116.316.616.817.718.618.5
Black (percent)10.810.310.710.611.712.113.113.5
AI/AN (percent)9.88.411.19.210.911.411.713.3
Asian (percent)27.527.826.927.429.726.530.432.2

Ethnicity20002001200220032004200520062007
Total (percent)14.614.314.514.615.415.917.117.2
Non-Hispanic White (percent)17.316.716.817.017.418.218.918.8
Hispanic (percent)13.113.714.314.714.515.917.917.8

Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2000-2007.

Denominator: End stage renal disease hemodialysis patients and peritoneal dialysis patients under age 70.
2006 Achievable Benchmark: 27%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.15. Adults age 40 and over with diagnosed diabetes who reported receiving four recommended services for diabetes in the calendar year (2+ hemoglobin A1c tests, foot exam, dilated eye exam, and flu shot), by race/ethnicity, 2008

Race / Ethnicity2+ HbA1cFoot ExamEye ExamFlu ShotAll 4
Total (percent)72.064.361.458.221.0
White (percent)75.866.864.859.822.7
Black (percent)69.064.857.652.016.6
Hispanic (percent)63.654.654.952.918.7

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population with diagnosed diabetes, age 40 and over.

Note: Data include people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.16. Composite measure: Adjusted percentages of adults ages 40-64 with diagnosed diabetes who received four recommended services for diabetes in the calendar year, by race/ethnicity, family income, education, insurance status, and sex, 2002-2008

Race / Ethnicity / Income Level / Education / Insurance / GenderPercent
Non-Hispanic White23.1
Non-Hispanic Black14.4
Hispanic17.3
Poor16.5
Low Income16.7
Middle Income17.7
High Income26.6
<High School18.3
High School Grad20.0
Any College22.9
Private Insurance21.3
Public Insurance Only22.9
Uninsured14.3
Male19.6
Female22.4

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, pooled 2002-2008.

Note: Adjusted percentages are predicted marginals from a statistical model that includes the covariates race/ethnicity, family income, education, health insurance, sex, and residence location. Chapter 1, Introduction and Methods, provides more information.

Return to Document

Figure 2.17. Hospital admissions for diabetes with short-term complications per 100,000 population, age 18 and over, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2008

Race / Ethnicity20012002200320042005200620072008
Total (rate per 100,000 pop.)55.357.055.957.457.757.860.163.1
White (rate per 100,000 pop.)43.044.244.646.047.146.848.652.6
Black (rate per 100,000 pop.)159.1163.5148.9154.3145.4151.2158.9156.8
API (rate per 100,000 pop.)19.317.617.919.316.415.517.216.1
Hispanic (rate per 100,000 pop.)51.356.758.155.756.853.652.552.6

Quartile20012002200320042005200620072008
First Quartile (rate per 100,000 pop.)74.175.085.083.984.791.691.292.2
Second Quartile (rate per 100,000 pop.)59.663.460.759.361.865.665.167.0
Third Quartile (rate per 100,000 pop.)44.149.147.246.547.249.449.351.0
Fourth Quartile (rate per 100,000 pop.)33.031.534.032.133.934.533.235.8

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), State Inpatient Databases (SID) disparities analysis file and Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2001-2008, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, version 4.1.

Denominator: U.S. resident population age 18 and over.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Short-term complications include ketoacidosis, hyperosmolarity, or coma and exclude obstetric admissions and transfers from other institutions. White, Black, and API groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races. Data are adjusted for age and gender.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 38.

Return to Document

Figure 2.18. Hospital admissions for diabetes with short-term complications per 100,000 population in IHS, Tribal, and contract hospitals, age 6 and over, by age group, 2001-2009

Age Group200120022003200420052006200720082009
6-12 (rate per 100,000 pop.)----8.25.3-5.45.8
13-17 (rate per 100,000 pop.)----13.419.0-10.67.6
18-44 (rate per 100,000 pop.)51.663.364.355.859.356.358.768.466.8
45-64 (rate per 100,000 pop.)68.179.658.867.147.148.543.043.942.2
65+ (rate per 100,000 pop.)35.341.436.727.128.131.719.131.825.0

Source: Indian Health Service, Office of Information Technology/National Patient Information Reporting System, National Data Warehouse, Workload and Population Data Mart, 2001-2009.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 38

Footnote: - = no data value available.

Return to Document

Figure 2.19. End stage renal disease due to diabetes per million population, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2008

Race200020012002200320042005200620072008
White (rate per million population)117119117118120120123120118
Black (rate per million population)439458457454441444449431425
API (rate per million population)184186177174177177196188186
AI/AN (rate per million population)485439419404405361332338333

Ethnicity200020012002200320042005200620072008
Total (rate per million population)154157155155156156160155153
Non-Hispanic (rate per million population)138144142142143144147142140
Hispanic (rate per million population)364324326327322313322312310

Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2000-2008.

Denominator: U.S. resident population.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are age adjusted. Hispanic and non-Hispanic include all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.20. Population ages 15-44 years who ever had an HIV test outside of blood donation, by race/ethnicity and education 2006-2010

Race / Ethnicity / EducationPercent
Total50.4
White47.9
Black68.1
Hispanic48.5
<High School60.0
High School Grad59.9
Any College55.9

Source: Special tabulations based on National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics.

Return to Document

Figure 2.21. Percentage of women ages 15-44 years with a completed pregnancy who ever had an HIV test as part of prenatal care, by race/ethnicity and education, 2006-2010

Race / Ethnicity / EducationPercent
Total67.2
White64.1
Black75.9
Hispanic74.1
<High School74.5
High School Grad70.7
Any College62.6

Source: Special tabulations based on National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. PLEASE DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE WITHOUT PERMISSION. The data are not yet released for public use.

Return to Document

Figure 2.22. Adult patients with HIV who received care, by race/ethnicity and gender, 2008

Race / Ethnicity2 or More Outpatient Visits2 or More CD4 TestsHAARTPCPMAC
Total (percent)89.482.888.994.790.3
White (percent)89.583.889.494.789.1
Black (percent)88.180.488.195.191.2
Hispanic (percent)92.987.990.794.488.8

Gender2 or More Outpatient Visits2 or More CD4 TestsHAARTPCPMAC
Male (percent)89.682.789.694.990.9
Female (percent)89.083.187.394.188.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HIV Research Network, 2008.

Note: For HAART measure, adult HIV patients had to be enrolled in an HIV network clinic and receive at least one CD4 test and have at least one outpatient visit in addition to having at least one CD4 test result of 350 or less.

Return to Document

Figure 2.23. HIV infection deaths per 100,000 population, by ethnicity/gender and ethnicity/age, 2007

GenderNon Hispanic WhiteNon Hispanic BlackHispanic
Male (rate per 100,000 population)2.525.26.3
Female (rate per 100,000 population)0.511.81.8

AgeNon-Hispanic WhiteNon-Hispanic BlackHispanic
Age 18-44 (rate per 100,000 population)1.718.43.6
Age 45-64 (rate per 100,000 population)3.139.49.5
Age 65 and over (rate per 100,000 population)0.69.13.5

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System-Mortality, 2007.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population.

Return to Document

Figure 2.24. Obstetric trauma with 3rd or 4th degree laceration per 1,000 vaginal deliveries without instrument assistance, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2008

YearTotalWhiteBlackAPIHispanic
2001 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)35.639.220.353.230.3
2002 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)33.136.918.252.827.3
2003 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)31.635.116.250.925.7
2004 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)29.833.215.646.223.5
2005 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)28.231.014.648.523.3
2006 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)25.728.413.345.320.8
2007 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)24.426.813.541.819.3
2008 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)23.525.913.340.718.4

YearQ1 (Lowest)Q2Q3Q4 (Highest)
2001 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)27.433.536.442.5
2002 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)26.631.635.640.6
2003 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)25.329.633.040.9
2004 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)22.828.332.236.2
2005 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)22.327.530.035.2
2006 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)19.923.627.632.5
2007 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)19.122.125.129.7
2008 (rate per 1,000 deliveries)19.822.824.528.4

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, SID disparities analytic file, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, version 4.1.

Denominator: All patients hospitalized for vaginal delivery without indication of instrument assistance.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are adjusted by age. White, Black, and API groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 17.

Return to Document

Figure 2.25. Children ages 19-35 months who received the 4:3:1:3:3:1:4 vaccine series, by race/ethnicity, 2007-2009

Race / Ethnicity200720082009
Total (percent)66.568.463.6
Non-Hispanic White (percent)67.068.264.1
Non-Hispanic Black (percent)62.065.958.2
Non-Hispanic Asian (percent)68.673.555.0
Non-Hispanic >1 Race (percent)66.275.757.2
Hispanic (percent)67.068.567.1

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, National Immunization Survey, 2007-2009.

Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 19-35 months.

Note: White, Black, Asian, and more than one race are non-Hispanic groups; Hispanic includes all races.
2009 Achievable Benchmark: 72%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.26. Rate of emergency department visits for asthma per 10,000 population, people ages 2-19 years, by race/ethnicity, 2005-2007 combined

AgeTotalWhiteBlackHispanic
2-19 years (rate per 10,000 pop.)81.354.8199.293.5
2-9 years (rate per 10,000 pop.)109.571.9272.2125.0
10-19 years (rate per 10,000 pop.)59.842.6146.164.9

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey-Emergency Department, 2005-2007.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.27. Children ages 2-17 with a dental visit in the calendar year, by race/ethnicity and income, 2002-2008

YearTotalWhiteBlackHispanic
2002 (percent)49.157.637.033.8
2003 (percent)50.959.636.836.7
2004 (percent)51.659.038.938.3
2005 (percent)50.758.540.138.4
2006 (percent)52.259.742.238.6
2007 (percent)52.258.641.642.1
2008 (percent)49.354.140.342.8

YearPoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
2002 (percent)33.035.950.567.2
2003 (percent)34.538.052.768.7
2004 (percent)36.339.052.669.6
2005 (percent)36.439.551.667.2
2006 (percent)37.141.653.068.4
2007 (percent)39.239.653.966.8
2008 (percent)36.940.150.663.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 2-17.

Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.28. Adolescents ages 13-17 with untreated dental caries, by race/ethnicity and income level, 2005-2008 combined

Race / Ethnicity / Income LevelPercent
Total11.4
White7.2
Black18.7
Mexican American19.1
Poor18.2
Low Income11.8
Middle Income10.2
High Income7.6

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008.

Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 13-17.

Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic.

Return to Document

Figure 2.29. Adolescents ages 10-17 years with a well-visit in the last 12 months, by race/ethnicity and income relative to poverty threshold, 2009

Race / Ethnicity / IncomePercentage of adolescents with a well visit in the last 12 months
Total70.6
White69.8
Black80.8
Hispanic65.7
<100%68.8
100-199%63.0
200-399 %70.2
400-599%77.2
600% or greater79.9

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.

Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 10-17.

Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.30. Adolescents ages 13-17 years who ever received at least 1 dose of the meningococcal vaccine, by race/ethnicity and income, 2009

Race / Ethnicity / Income LevelPercentage of adolescents 13-17 who ever had at least 1 dose of meningococcal vaccine
Total53.6
White53.1
Black53.0
AI/AN46.9
Asian58.8
Hispanic55.9
At or Above Poverty Level53.8
Below Poverty Level52.5

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCHS-NCIRD), National Immunization Survey (NIS), 2009.

Note: White, Black, AI/AN, and Asian groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2009 Achievable Benchmark: 74%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.31. Adults with a major depressive episode in the last 12 months who received treatment for depression in the last 12 months, by race/ethnicity and education, 2008-2009

Race / Ethnicity20082009
Total68.3%64.4%
White71.8%68.7%
Black56.1%53.2%
Hispanic57.4%49.3%

Education20082009
<High School64.9%58.1%
High School Grad66.2%61.5%
Any College70.4%67.8%

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2009.

Denominator: U.S. population age 18 and over who had a major depressive episode in the last 12 months.

Note: Major depressive episode is defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of the symptoms of depression described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Treatment for depression is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication in the past year for depression. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.32. Suicide deaths per 100,000 population, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2007

Race20002001200220032004200520062007
Total (deaths per 100,000 pop.)10.410.710.910.810.910.910.911.3
White (deaths per 100,000 pop.)11.311.712.011.812.012.012.112.5
Black (deaths per 100,000 pop.)5.55.55.35.25.35.25.15.0
API (deaths per 100,000 pop.)5.55.45.45.65.85.25.66.1
AI/AN (deaths per 100,000 pop.)9.810.510.210.012.211.711.611.5

Ethnicity20002001200220032004200520062007
Non-Hispanic White (deaths per 100,000 pop.)12.012.512.912.712.912.913.213.5
Hispanic (deaths per 100,000 pop.)5.95.75.75.65.95.65.36.0

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System-Mortality, 2000-2007.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population.

Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population.

Return to Document

Figure 2.33. People age 12 and over who needed treatment for illicit drug use or an alcohol problem and who received such treatment at a specialty facility in the last 12 months, by race and ethnicity, 2002-2009

Race20022003200420052006200720082009
Total (percent)10.38.59.910.010.810.49.910.7
White (percent)9.77.98.99.010.29.39.510.2
Black (percent)14.913.016.718.215.618.113.014.6
AI/AN (percent)14.715.3-8.49.5-10.410.2

Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Non-Hispanic (percent)10.78.89.99.710.111.010.711.3
Hispanic (percent)7.46.49.711.714.36.05.47.4

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2009.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 12 and over who needed treatment for illicit drug use or an alcohol problem in the last 12 months.

Note: Treatment refers to treatment at a specialty facility, such as a drug and alcohol inpatient and/or outpatient rehabilitation facility, inpatient hospital setting, or a mental health center. Data are not statistically reliable for AI/AN in all years. Hispanics and non-Hispanics include all races.

Footnote: - = no data value available.

Return to Document

Figure 2.34. People age 12 and over treated for substance abuse who completed treatment course, by race/ethnicity and education, 2005-2008

Race / Ethnicity2005200620072008
Total (percent)45.047.545.146.6
White (percent)46.749.246.648.3
Black (percent)40.443.641.042.5
Hispanic (percent)46.046.745.846.5

Education2005200620072008
<High School (percent)41.043.140.642.0
High School Grad (percent)46.348.746.147.7
Any College (percent)50.052.750.752.3

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set, Discharge Data Set, 2005-2007.

Denominator: Discharges age 12 and over from publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities.

Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.35. Female Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and over who reported ever being screened for osteoporosis with a bone mass or bone density measurement, by race/ethnicity and income, 2000-2008

Race / Ethnicity2000200320062008
Total (percent)33.954.064.171.1
White (percent)37.258.767.875.0
Black (percent)15.625.738.446.7
Hispanic (percent)20.642.755.362.9

Income Level2000200320062008
Poor (percent)18.834.746.452.6
Low Income (percent)28.648.656.864.0
Middle Income (percent)43.563.372.376.8
High Income (percent)53.273.580.486.7

Source: Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, 2000-2008.

Denominator: Female Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and over living in the community.

Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.36. Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they had effective, evidence-based arthritis education as an integral part of the management of their condition, by race/ethnicity and health insurance, 2006 and 2009

Race / Ethnicity20062009
Total (percent)10.611.2
White (percent)10.111.1
Black (percent)8.813.2
Hispanic (percent)16.39.8

Insurance20062009
Private Insurance (percent)10.511.1
Public Insurance (percent)13.312.8
No Insurance (percent)10.19.8

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2006 and 2009.

Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.

Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.37. Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they received health care provider counseling about physical activity or exercise, by race/ethnicity and health insurance, 2006 and 2009

Race / Ethnicity20062009
Total (percent)52.257.2
White (percent)51.156
Black (percent)59.660.5
Hispanic (percent)62.464.7

Insurance20062009
Private Insurance (percent)52.658.3
Public Insurance (percent)58.558.2
No Insurance (percent)45.352.3

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2006 and 2009.

Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.

Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.38. Overweight adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they received health care provider counseling about weight reduction, by race/ethnicity and health insurance, 2006 and 2009

Race / Ethnicity20062009
Total (percent)41.242.1
White (percent)39.039.5
Black (percent)51.047.3
Hispanic (percent)47.152.8

Insurance20062009
Private Insurance (percent)40.842.7
Public Insurance (percent)48.947.1
No Insurance (percent)36.738.5

Source: National Health Interview Survey, 2006 and 2009.

Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.

Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.39. Adults age 65 and over who reported ever receiving pneumococcal vaccination, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2009

Race19992000200120022003200420052006200720082009
White (percent)51.955.856.758.857.959.258.459.960.062.663.3
Black (percent)32.930.933.737.437.239.240.436.844.444.844.2
Asian (percent)41.542.228.232.535.434.737.037.834.546.446.0

Ethnicity19992000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Non-Hispanic White (percent)53.256.957.960.459.660.960.561.962.164.665.0
Hispanic (percent)28.630.533.027.631.534.129.033.232.437.040.5

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2000-2009.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 65 and over.

Note: Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Benchmark is derived from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); see Introduction and Methods for details.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 67%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.40. Hospital patients with pneumonia who received recommended hospital care, by race/ethnicity, 2007-2009

Race / Ethnicity200720082009
Total (percent)87.089.892.9
White (percent)87.890.793.3
Black (percent)84.587.691.0
Hispanic (percent)82.185.291.6
AI/AN (percent)83.284.887.9
Asian (percent)83.287.691.9

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Medicare Quality Improvement Organization Program, 2007-2009.

Denominator: Patients hospitalized with a principal discharge diagnosis of pneumonia or a principal discharge diagnosis of either septicemia or respiratory failure and secondary diagnosis of pneumonia.

Note: White, Black, AI/AN, and Asian groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 94%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.41. Patients with tuberculosis who completed a curative course of treatment within 1 year of initiation of treatment, by race/ethnicity and place of birth, 2000-2007

YearWhiteBlackAPIHispanic
2000 (percent)81.280.778.679.9
2001 (percent)82.281.280.478.5
2002 (percent)83.180.881.379.5
2003 (percent)82.881.881.880.1
2004 (percent)83.982.983.380.0
2005 (percent)83.783.681.582.5
2006 (percent)85.283.384.581.8
2007 (percent)85.086.783.482.6

YearTotalForeign Born
2000 (percent)80.279.1
2001 (percent)80.580.5
2002 (percent)80.980.9
2003 (percent)81.581.4
2004 (percent)82.381.7
2005 (percent)82.881.9
2006 (percent)83.583.4
2007 (percent)84.483.4

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Tuberculosis Surveillance System, 2000-2007.

Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population treated for tuberculosis.

Note: White, Black, and API are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.
2006 Achievable Benchmark: 92%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.42. People with current asthma who report taking preventive asthma medicine daily or almost daily, by race/ethnicity and education, 2003-2008

Race / Ethnicity200320042005200620072008
White (percent)29.730.934.533.929.828.0
Black (percent)29.830.628.425.626.320.2
Hispanic (percent)29.527.321.623.025.024.5

Education200320042005200620072008
<High School24.324.826.428.726.725.6
High School Grad27.728.932.331.930.627.2
Any College34.129.633.530.726.526.7

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2003-2008.

Denominator: Noninstitutionalized population with asthma.

Note: Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. People with current asthma reported that they still had asthma or had an asthma attack in the last 12 months. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.43. People with current asthma who report taking prescription medication to control asthma, by Asian and Hispanic subgroups and English proficiency, California, 2009

California TotalAsian TotalVietnameseSouth AsianWell/Very WellNot Well/Not at All
42.1%36.3%32.8%36.1%22.4%64.4%

California TotalHispanic TotalMexicanCentral AmericanEnglish at HomeWell/Very WellNot Well/Not at All
42.1%43.4%45.6%26.4%33.6%51.0%46.2%

Source: UCLA, Center for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2009.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population in California.

Return to Document

Figure 2.44. Adult current smokers with a checkup in the last 12 months who received advice from a doctor to quit smoking, by race/ethnicity and income, 2002-2008

Race / Ethnicity2002200320042005200620072008
Total (percent)63.165.363.163.462.765.164.5
White (percent)64.866.464.264.663.065.066.1
Black (percent)62.362.261.561.064.867.358.7
Hispanic (percent)52.057.255.758.554.256.155.6

Income Level2002200320042005200620072008
Poor (percent)57.666.862.464.961.168.466.2
Low Income (percent)62.462.764.561.464.757.760.5
Middle Income (percent)63.364.160.064.063.267.165.3
High Income (percent)66.366.765.763.360.866.764.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized adult current smokers who had a checkup in the last 12 months.

Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population using three age groups: 18-44, 45-65, and 65 and over. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.45. Adults with obesity who ever received advice from a health provider to exercise more, by race/ethnicity and education, 2002-2008

Race / Ethnicity2002200320042005200620072008
Total (percent)55.657.057.256.757.157.957.4
White (percent)57.559.060.159.758.858.757.8
Black (percent)55.856.655.156.356.860.854.7
Hispanic (percent)45.949.747.446.550.852.857.2

Education2002200320042005200620072008
<High School (percent)49.351.250.648.749.748.854.3
High School Grad (percent)53.655.456.255.055.556.155.2
Any College (percent)60.961.962.362.462.163.260.2

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 18 and over.

Note: Obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.46. Adults with obesity who did not spend half an hour or more in moderate or vigorous physical activity at least three times a week, by race/ethnicity and activity limitation, 2002-2008

Race / Ethnicity2002200320042005200620072008
Total (percent)54.354.353.052.052.353.353.1
White (percent)52.753.253.051.751.752.451.6
Black (percent)58.356.251.750.651.750.753.0
Hispanic (percent)59.754.354.754.655.157.958.4

Activity Limitation2002200320042005200620072008
Total (percent)54.354.353.052.052.353.353.1
Basic (percent)64.868.669.564.567.965.963.7
Complex (percent)72.070.971.173.170.972.769.6
Neither (percent)50.450.449.648.248.349.649.5

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 18 and over.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher. Basic indicates people with basic activity limitations; Complex indicates people with complex activity limitations; Neither indicates people with neither basic or complex activity limitations. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.47. Children ages 2-17 for whom a health provider gave advice within the past 2 years about the amount and kind of exercise, sports, or physically active hobbies they should have, by race/ethnicity and income, 2002-2008

Race / Ethnicity2002200320042005200620072008
Total (percent)30.029.331.031.934.636.233.5
White (percent)30.529.530.132.133.236.832.2
Black (percent)30.527.731.531.536.934.734.7
Hispanic (percent)30.432.534.234.337.836.036.3

Income Level2002200320042005200620072008
Poor (percent)27.529.829.329.133.735.632.0
Low Income (percent)26.724.528.932.433.633.231.4
Middle Income (percent)28.227.229.230.431.033.431.9
High Income (percent)36.435.035.635.239.941.638.6

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 2-17.

Note: Adjusted percentages are predicted marginals from a statistical model that includes the covariates race/ethnicity, age, gender, family income, health insurance, and residence location.

Return to Document

Figure 2.48. Children ages 2-17 for whom a health provider ever gave advice within the past 2 years about the amount and kind of exercise, sports, or physically active hobbies they should have

Race / Ethnicity / Age / Gender / Income Level / Insurance / LocationPercent
Non-Hispanic White31.7%
Non-Hispanic Black32.6%
Non-Hispanic Other28.2%
Hispanic35.6%
Under 628.8%
Age 6-1733.5%
Male32.2%
Female32.6%
Poor30.8%
Low Income30.1%
Middle Income30.5%
High Income37.2%
Any Private Insurance32.8%
Public Insurance33.4%
Uninsured23.9%
Metropolitan33.8%
Non-Metropolitan24.6%

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 2-17.
Note: Adjusted percentages are predicted marginals from a statistical model that includes the covariates race/ethnicity, age, gender, family income, health insurance, and residence location.

Return to Document

Figure 2.49. Adults with obesity who ever received advice from a health provider about eating fewer high-fat or high-cholesterol foods, by race/ethnicity and income, 2002-2008

Race / Ethnicity2002200320042005200620072008
Total (percent)47.748.347.448.148.550.049.2
White (percent)49.349.749.950.950.150.248.7
Black (percent)46.747.444.747.145.851.348.0
Hispanic (percent)38.644.341.040.945.748.153.0

Income Level2002200320042005200620072008
Poor (percent)43.146.640.446.245.046.848.4
Low Income (percent)43.643.343.541.345.344.846.1
Middle Income (percent)47.946.848.448.646.748.449.1
High Income (percent)52.153.851.352.753.655.752.1

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 18 and over.

Note: Obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher.

Return to Document

Figure 2.50. Children ages 2-17 for whom a health provider ever gave advice about healthy eating, by race and household income, 2002-2008

Race2002200320042005200620072008
Total (percent)46.947.548.750.151.452.849.6
White (percent)46.848.048.750.350.953.049.0
Black (percent)49.147.249.851.954.052.753.0
Asian (percent)43.638.551.148.248.049.948.7
>1 Race (percent)49.049.546.539.755.352.752.4

Income Level2002200320042005200620072008
Poor (percent)42.447.148.047.451.753.752.2
Low Income (percent)44.142.244.946.747.147.545.4
Middle Income (percent)44.345.545.949.150.749.346.1
High Income (percent)55.154.155.555.555.059.656.0

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 2-17.

Return to Document

Figure 2.51. Adult home health care patients whose ability to walk or move around improved, by race and ethnicity, 2002-2009

Race20022003200420052006200720082009
White (percent)33.835.037.238.941.443.645.347.6
Black (percent)32.733.635.736.838.740.241.843.7
Asian (percent)38.039.440.942.744.747.049.049.0
NHOPI (percent)39.240.341.342.544.947.548.350.6
AI/AN (percent)35.436.337.038.541.142.143.544.0
>1 Race (percent)33.836.039.340.342.943.342.245.5

Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Non-Hispanic White (percent)33.835.037.238.941.443.645.347.6
Hispanic (percent)37.137.839.139.441.142.042.743.7

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), 2002-2009.

Denominator: Adult nonmaternity patients completing an episode of skilled home health care and not already performing at the highest level at the start of the episode, according to the OASIS question on ambulation.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 54%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.52. Long-stay nursing home residents whose need for help with daily activities increased, by race/ethnicity, 2000-2009

Race / Ethnicity2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
White (percent)16.316.516.516.516.516.416.816.216.416.0
Black (percent)13.813.914.114.114.614.615.314.915.214.8
API (percent)13.913.812.713.112.713.113.313.013.015.0
AI/AN (percent)14.713.614.214.714.114.414.114.314.912.1
Hispanic (percent)13.914.314.214.314.213.814.614.115.015.1

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Minimum Data Set, 2000-2009. Data are from the third quarter of each calendar year.

Denominator: All long-stay residents in Medicare or Medicaid certified nursing home facilities.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, API, and AI/AN are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 13%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.53. Mean locomotion score gain among patients in an inpatient rehabilitation facility for stroke by race/ethnicity, 2002-2007

Race / Ethnicity200220032004200520062007
Total (points)2.12.12.12.12.12.2
White (points)2.12.12.12.22.22.2
Black (points)2.02.02.12.12.12.1
Asian (points)2.02.12.02.02.02.1
Hispanic (points)1.91.92.01.91.91.9

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Patient Assessment Instrument, 2002-2007.

Denominator: Medicare patients in an inpatient rehabilitation facility for stroke for initial rehabilitation and discharged home.

Note: White, Black, and Asian are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.54. Mean communication score gain among patients in an inpatient rehabilitation facility for stroke by side of body affected and race/ethnicity, 2002-2007

Left Body Stroke
Race / Ethnicity200220032004200520062007
Total (points)0.60.70.70.70.80.8
White (points)0.60.70.70.70.80.8
Black (points)0.60.60.70.70.80.8
Asian (points)0.70.80.80.80.70.9
Hispanic (points)0.70.70.70.80.80.8


Right Body Stroke
Race / Ethnicity200220032004200520062007
Total (points)0.80.80.80.80.90.9
White (points)0.80.80.80.90.90.9
Black (points)0.70.70.70.80.80.9
Asian (points)0.80.80.90.80.90.8
Hispanic (points)0.70.70.80.90.80.8

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Patient Assessment Instrument, 2002-2007.

Denominator: Medicare patients in an inpatient rehabilitation facility for stroke for initial rehabilitation and discharged home.

Note: White, Black, and Asian are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

Return to Document

Figure 2.55. Adult home health care patients who had less shortness of breath between the start and end of a home health care episode, by race and ethnicity, 2002-2009

Race20022003200420052006200720082009
White (percent)53.455.257.759.361.361.961.160.9
Black (percent)53.355.457.758.959.660.159.659.3
Asian (percent)52.758.059.659.261.962.763.061.8
NHOPI (percent)54.956.959.261.662.165.062.963.4
AI/AN (percent)51.452.454.455.657.558.557.557.6
>1 Race (percent)51.654.658.959.560.659.060.558.4

Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Non-Hispanic White (percent)53.455.257.759.361.361.961.160.9
Hispanic (percent)51.352.955.055.456.555.554.352.6

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Outcome and Assessment Information Set, 2002-2009.

Denominator: Adult nonmaternity patients completing an episode of skilled home health care.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 68%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.56. Short-stay and high-risk long-stay nursing home residents with pressure sores, by race/ethnicity, 2000-2009

Short Stay
Race / Ethnicity2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
White (percent)21.821.42121.120.620.219.619.018.417.3
Black (percent)28.227.326.525.825.024.523.822.722.020.8
API (percent)23.022.322.521.722.722.222.320.820.919.4
AI/AN (percent)24.820.822.622.522.421.421.021.019.718.4
Hispanic (percent)27.226.425.425.024.723.824.123.322.121.0


Long Stay
Race / Ethnicity2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
White (percent)13.313.213.113.312.912.511.911.311.010.3
Black (percent)17.617.717.517.316.816.716.315.515.114.2
API (percent)12.512.212.112.111.211.411.311.111.110.4
AI/AN (percent)16.915.415.516.715.513.414.413.114.813.1
Hispanic (percent)15.215.415.114.814.614.213.513.412.912.3

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Minimum Data Set, 2000-2009. Data for long-stay residents are from the third quarter of each calendar year. Data for short-stay residents are full calendar-year estimates.

Denominator: Short-stay and high-risk long-stay nursing home residents in Medicare or Medicaid certified nursing and long-term care facilities.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, API, and AI/AN are non-Hispanic groups; Hispanic includes all races.
Figure 2.56a (short stay), 2008 Achievable Benchmark: 12%; Figure 2.56b (long stay),
2009 Achievable Benchmark: 7%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.57. Hospice patients age 18 and over who did NOT receive the right amount of help for feelings of anxiety or sadness, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2010

Ethnicity200820092010
White (percent)8.98.58.7
Black (percent)14.014.914.2
API (percent)19.020.520.6
AI/AN (percent)15.011.513.6

Ethnicity200820092010
Non-Hispanic White (percent)8.88.48.7
Hispanic (percent)14.714.413.2

Source: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, Family Evaluation of Hospice Care, 2008-2010.

Denominator: Adult hospice patients.
2009 Achievable Benchmark: 6%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.58. Hospice patients age 18 and over whose family caregivers wanted more information about what to expect while the patient was dying, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2010

Race200820092010
White (percent)14.714.414.3
Black (percent)15.716.115.7
API (percent)21.223.522.6
AI/AN (percent)17.817.316.1

Ethnicity200820092010
Non-Hispanic White (percent)14.514.314.2
Hispanic (percent)19.018.517.6

Source: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, Family Evaluation of Hospice Care, 2008-2010.

Denominator: Adult hospice patients.
2009 Achievable Benchmark: 12%.

Return to Document

Figure 2.59. Hospice patients age 18 and over who did NOT receive care consistent with their stated end-of-life wishes, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2010

Race200820092010
White (percent)5.35.05.2
Black (percent)12.410.910.1
API (percent)12.917.09.4
AI/AN (percent)9.810.114.4

Ethnicity200820092010
Non-Hispanic White (percent)5.24.95.2
Hispanic (percent)11.010.211.0

Source: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, Family Evaluation of Hospice Care, 2008-2010.

Denominator: Adult hospice patients.
2009 Achievable Benchmark: 4%.

Return to Document

Page last reviewed April 2012
Internet Citation: Chapter 2. Effectiveness of Care (Text Descriptions): National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011. April 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/chap2txt.html