Chapter 8. Health System Infrastructure (Text Descriptions)

National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011


Figure 8.1. Electronic medical record use in hospitals, by hospital control and hospital type, 2009

Hospital ControlElectronic Clinical DocumentationDecision SupportCPOEResults Viewing
Government, Non-Federal (percent)10.111.411.123.2
Nongovernment Not For Profit (percent)11.417.818.342.9
For Profit (percent)6.811.87.621.8
Government, Federal (percent)77.669.587.381.3

Hospital TypeElectronic Clinical DocumentationDecision SupportCPOEResults Viewing
General Medical and Surgical (percent)11.927.217.839.3
Psychiatric (percent)12.110.819.26.5
Rehabilitation (percent)8.77.414.214.4
Children's General (percent)28.224.353.641.4
Acute Long-Term Care (percent)6.35.010.816.8

Source: American Hospital Association, 2009 Information Technology Supplement.

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Figure 8.2. Electronic medical record use in home health and hospice agencies, by geographic location and ownership, 2009

Geographic LocationOverallPatient DemographicsClinical NotesClinical Decision SupportCPOE
Northeast (percent)52.499.463.849.3-
Midwest (percent)60.599.396.560.350.5
South (percent)35.498.480.459.141.7
West (percent)34.599.082.1--

OwnershipOverallPatient DemographicsClinical NotesClinical DecisionCPOE
For Profit (percent)27.998.469.539.7-
Private Not For Profit (percent)71.499.195.271.645.8
Government (percent)65.3100.080.3--

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2007 National Home Health and Hospice Care Survey.

Note: Government agencies include city, county, state, Department of Veterans Affairs and other federal agencies. Data were statistically unreliable for clinical decision support systems that were located in the West and agencies that were government owned as well as for CPOE used iby agencies that are for-profit, government owed, agencies located in the Northeast and the West

Footnote: - = no data value available

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Figure 8.3. U.S. occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology professionals, by race/ethnicity, 2005-2009

Occupational therapists
Race / Ethnicity20052006200720082009
White (rate per 100,000 pop.)34.734.135.238.333.7
Black (rate per 100,000 pop.)10.911.36.79.213.6
Asian (rate per 100,000 pop.)34.236.541.736.343.4
AI/AN (rate per 100,000 pop.)6.93.804.611.9
Other (rate per 100,000 pop.)4.18.46.52.66.5
Multiple Races (rate per 100,000 pop.)9.18.517.610.88.4
Non-Hispanic White (rate per 100,000 pop.)37.737.038.642.137.8
Hispanic (rate per 100,000 pop.)7.08.77.39.25.9


Physical therapists
Race / Ethnicity20052006200720082009
White (rate per 100,000 pop.)72.673.771.273.072.4
Black (rate per 100,000 pop.)24.219.023.724.920.8
Asian (rate per 100,000 pop.)150.0126.7121.8149.4146.5
AI/AN (rate per 100,000 pop.)19.239.426.613.614.5
NHOPI (rate per 100,000 pop.)19.920.914.271.539.3
Other (rate per 100,000 pop.)19.614.620.914.315.8
Multiple Races (rate per 100,000 pop.)30.937.920.920.722.7
Non-Hispanic White (rate per 100,000 pop.)79.779.178.081.080.3
Hispanic (rate per 100,000 pop.)15.322.117.016.918.7


Speech-language pathologists
Race / Ethnicity20052006200720082009
White (rate per 100,000 pop.)48.650.751.953.053.6
Black (rate per 100,000 pop.)11.514.014.718.211.5
Asian (rate per 100,000 pop.)19.817.220.416.215.7
AI/AN (rate per 100,000 pop.)8.61.013.911.711.6
Other (rate per 100,000 pop.)9.79.86.47.05.6
Multiple Races (rate per 100,000 pop.)10.212.412.68.024.3
Non-Hispanic Whites (rate per 100,000 pop.)53.255.055.758.759.3
Hispanic (rate per 100,000 pop.)10.112.013.811.813.4

Source: U.S. Census, American Community Survey.

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Figure 8.4. Race, Ethnicity and Income of Patients Receiving Care in a FQHC, U.S., 2010

Race / Ethnicity / IncomePercent
White64.1
Black25.8
Asian3.3
Native Hawaiian0.3
Pacific Islander1.0
AI/AN1.4
More than one race4.2
Hispanic34.4
Language Other Than English24.3
Income At or Below Federal Poverty Level71.8
Income 101-150% of Federal Poverty Level14.4
Income 151-200% of Federal Poverty Level6.5
Income Over 200% of Federal Poverty Level7.2

Source: Health Resources Services Administration, Bureau of Professional Service, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Uniform Data System, 2011. Notes: Data were obtained from 1,124 Section 330g grantee recipients. Patients with hypertension include those aged 18-85. Hypertension is determined to be controlled if the patient's last blood pressure reading was less than 140/90. Patients with diabetes include those aged 18-75. Diabetes is determined to be controlled if the patient's most recent HbA1c was 7% or less.

Note: Racial groups shown are non-Hispanic.

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Figure 8.5. FQHC patients with hypertension or diabetes whose symptoms are controlled, by race, 2010

RaceHypertension Under ControlDiabetes Under Control
White (percent)65.741.2
Black (percent)56.838.0
Asian (percent)62.244.6
Native Hawaiian (percent)49.825.0
Pacific Islander (percent)50.321.3
AI/AN (percent)51.231.4
More than one race (percent)59.832.0

Source: Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Uniform Data System, 2011.

Note: Racial groups shown are non-Hispanic. Data were obtained from 1,124 Section 330g grantee recipients. Patients with hypertension include those ages 18-85. Hypertension is determined to be controlled if the patient's last blood pressure reading was less than 140/90 mm Hg. Patients with diabetes include those ages 18-75. Diabetes is determined to be controlled if the patient's most recent hemoglobin A1c level was 7% or less.

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Current as of April 2012
Internet Citation: Chapter 8. Health System Infrastructure (Text Descriptions): National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011. April 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/chap8txt.html