Chapter 9. Access to Health Care (Text Descriptions)

National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011


Figure 9.1. People under age 65 with health insurance, by race and income, 1999-2009

Race19992000200120022003200420052006200720082009
White85.484.685.184.584.083.984.183.383.783.382.9
Black80.780.581.281.281.682.481.681.983.082.081.1
Asian83.282.482.782.681.883.582.985.084.686.183.8
NHOPI75.672.486.374.988.089.880.480.169.477.473.2
AI/AN61.861.666.960.965.065.467.862.061.271.667.5
>1 Race85.583.283.482.484.087.783.581.685.084.281.8

Income19992000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Poor66.265.866.969.768.969.069.469.871.671.069.6
Low Income69.769.070.971.370.271.071.470.470.069.470.2
Middle Income86.484.685.183.484.484.484.384.583.183.482.2
High Income94.594.193.993.494.494.193.793.594.493.894.2

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 1999-2009.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65.

Note: NHIS respondents are asked about health insurance coverage at the time of interview. Respondents are considered insured if they have private health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, State Children's Health Insurance Program, a State-sponsored health plan, other government-sponsored health plan, or a military health plan, or if their only coverage is through the Indian Health Service.

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Figure 9.2. People under age 65 who were uninsured all year, by ethnicity and income, 2002-2008

Ethnicity2002200320042005200620072008
Non-Hispanic White (percent uninsured all year)10.110.310.310.310.811.811.7
Hispanic (percent uninsured all year)28.228.028.928.528.629.528.9

Income2002200320042005200620072008
Poor (percent uninsured all year)24.023.925.024.323.725.227.0
Low Income (percent uninsured all year)24.924.823.824.324.526.425.0
Middle Income (percent uninsured all year)15.312.713.713.915.515.814.9
High Income (percent uninsured all year)5.26.36.06.25.76.67.0

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Figure 9.3. Predicted percentages of adults ages 18-64 who were uninsured all year, by race, age, gender, family income, and education, 2002-2008

White17.3%
Black15.6%
NHOPI7.9%
AI/AN20.8%
Ages 18-4418.4%
Ages 45-6414.6%
Male20.2%
Female14.1%
Poor32.0%
Low Income29.8%
Middle Income16.5%
High Income7.4%
<High School23.9%
High School Grad18.1%
Any College12.6%

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, pooled 2002-2008 Full Year files.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Predicted percentages are predicted marginals from a logistic regression model that includes the covariates race, age, gender, family income, education, health insurance, and residence location. Predicted percentages for Asians, multiple races, and metropolitan areas did not meet criteria for data reliability and are not reported.

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Figure 9.4. People under age 65 who were uninsured all year, Hispanic only, California, 2009

Race / Ethnicity / Income / English Proficiency / Place of Birth<65
Hispanic Total18.1
Non-Hispanic White7.5
Mexican18.1
Central American26.8
Poor23.2
Low Income22.1
Middle Income13.3
High Income9.8
English Only2.5
English Well/Very Well3.5
English Not Well/Not At All4.5
English Preferred17.0
Spanish Preferred36.3
Born in U.S.9.9
Not Born in U.S.30.4

Source: University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2009.

Denominator: Hispanic civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 0-64 in California.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Data for Puerto Ricans and South Americans did not meet criteria statistical reliability. The English proficiency of respondents is characterized by the following categories: English Only, English Well/Very Well, and English Not Well/Not at All. The preferred language of respondents is characterized as either English Preferred or Spanish Preferred for Hispanic respondents shown here.

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Figure 9.5. People under age 65 who were uninsured all year, Asian only, California, 2009

Race / Ethnicity / Income / English Proficiency / Place of Birth<65
White7.5
Asian Total8.7
Chinese7.6
Korean23.6
Vietnamese7.5
Poor21.7
Low Income22.1
Middle Income9.1
High Income2.8
English Only6.5
English Well/Very Well8.6
English Not Well/Not At All24.3
English Preferred7.4
Vietnamese Preferred17.5
Korean Preferred49.8
Born in U.S.4.2
Not Born in U.S.12.0

Source: University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2009.

Denominator: Asian civilian noninstitutionalized populations ages 0-64 in California.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Data for Filipinos, Japanese people, and South Asians did not meet criteria for statistical reliability. The English proficiency of respondents is characterized by the following categories: English Only, English Well/Very Well, and English Not Well/Not at All. The preferred language of respondents is characterized as English Preferred, Vietnamese Preferred , or Korean Preferred for Asian respondents shown here.

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Figure 9.6. People under age 65 whose family's health insurance premium and out-of-pocket medical expenses were more than 10% of total family income, by race, ethnicity, and family income, 2008

TotalWhiteBlackAI/ANAsian>1 RaceNon-Hispanic WhiteHispanicPoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
17.3%17.8%14.7%16.3%14.7%19.0%18.9%13.5%29.1%25.3%20.2%6.7%

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population under 65.

Note: Total financial burden includes premiums and out-of-pocket costs for health care services. Data do not meet the criteria for statistical reliability, data quality, or confidentiality for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders.

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Figure 9.7. People with a specific source of ongoing care, by ethnicity and income, 1999-2009

EthnicityNon-Hispanic WhiteHispanic
199988.477.3
200089.475.8
200190.476.7
200290.276.8
200390.378.0
200489.275.9
200589.476.9
200688.874.3
200788.577.4
200888.677.1
200987.976.9

IncomePoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
199977.780.387.591.0
200078.980.588.191.9
200178.382.088.993.3
200279.681.888.592.3
200381.182.188.192.9
200477.180.987.692.1
200578.181.487.292.3
200677.879.787.491.7
200779.579.886.392.3
200877.578.387.092.1
200977.580.485.691.7

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 1999-2009.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population of all ages.

Note: Measure is age adjusted. A hospital emergency room is not included as a specific source of primary care.

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Figure 9.8. People with a usual primary care provider, by race and family income, 2002-2008

YearTotalWhiteBlackAsianAI/AN>1 Race
200277.378.174.969.373.175.7
200377.678.573.471.379.078.6
200477.478.173.375.278.577.9
200576.677.571.970.279.377.0
200677.678.775.464.780.175.5
200776.377.273.369.472.077.1
200875.676.372.271.779.777.6

IncomePoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
200270.471.777.781.8
200369.372.778.082.3
200472.273.676.881.4
200570.473.075.781.1
200672.372.777.082.2
200770.571.575.181.5
200868.471.475.580.3

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population of all ages.

Note: A usual primary care provider is defined as the source of care that a person usually goes to for new health problems, preventive health care, and referrals to other health professionals.

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Figure 9.9. People who were unable to get or delayed in getting needed medical care, dental care, or prescription medicines in the last 12 months, by race and income, 2002-2008

YearWhiteBlackAsianAI/AN>1 Race
200211.19.86.213.617.6
200311.011.66.815.916.7
200411.011.45.014.318.0
200511.511.17.016.216.3
200611.712.26.416.617.2
200710.39.35.58.410.9
200810.69.26.110.212.7

YearPoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
200216.414.010.28.2
200316.414.710.97.5
200416.514.111.27.4
200516.514.711.77.8
200615.414.612.88.2
200714.713.29.77.2
200814.613.19.38.1

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2008.

Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population, all ages.

Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Current as of April 2012
Internet Citation: Chapter 9. Access to Health Care (Text Descriptions): National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011. April 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/chap9txt.html