2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report

2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report

Chapter 2, Text Descriptions for Figures (continued)

Figure 2.15. New adult end stage renal disease patients beginning nephrology care more than 12 months before start of dialysis, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2009

Race 2008 2009
Asian 26.3 27.7
Black 24.5 24.8
White 30.0 29.8

 

Ethnicity 2008 2009
Total 28.3 28.3
Hispanic 21.3 21.6
Non-Hispanic White 32.0 31.8

Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2008-2009.
Denominator: New end stage renal disease patients age 18 and over.

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Figure 2.16. Incident hemodialysis patients who used an arteriovenous fistula at first outpatient dialysis, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2011

Race 2008 2009 2010 2011
White 14.1 14.6 15.4 16.2
Black 12.2 13.0 13.7 14.5
API 16.3 16.7 16.9 18.26
AI/AN 16.1 15.9 17.8 15.5

 

Ethnicity 2008 2009 2010 2011
Total 13.7 14.3 15.0 15.8
Non-Hispanic White 14 14.7 15.4 16.3
Hispanic 11.3 11.6 12.9 13.1

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Medicare eligibility forms (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS] Form 2728) (2008-2011), Fistula First Incident AVF Dataset, CMS.
Denominator: New end stage renal disease hemodialysis patients, all ages.

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Figure 2.17. Dialysis patients who were registered on a waiting list for transplantation, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2008

Race 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
White 16.5 16.1 16.3 16.6 16.8 17.6 18.5 18.2 18.1
Black 10.9 10.3 10.7 10.6 11.7 12.1 13.1 13.4 13.4
API 27.5 27.8 26.8 27.6 29.7 26.4 30.1 32.2 32.2
AI/AN 9.9 8.4 11.1 9.2 11.0 11.4 11.5 13.1 13.9

 

Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Total 14.7 14.3 14.5 14.7 15.4 15.9 17.0 17.0 17.0
Hispanic 13.1 13.7 14.2 14.6 14.5 15.9 17.8 17.6 17.6
Non-Hispanic White 14.9 14.4 14.6 14.7 15.5 15.9 16.8 16.9 16.9

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2000-2008.
Denominator: End stage renal disease hemodialysis patients and peritoneal dialysis patients under age 70.

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Figure 2.18. Adults age 40 and over with diagnosed diabetes who reported receiving four recommended services for diabetes in the calendar year (2+ HbA1c tests, foot exam, dilated eye exam, and flu shot), by race/ethnicity and income, 2008-2009

Race/Ethnicity 2008 2009
Total 21.0 23.2
White 22.7 26.9
Black 16.6 18.3
Hispanic 18.7 13.3

 

Income 2008 2009
Poor 16.2 15.4
Low Income 17.9 17.8
Middle Income 17.0 20.1
High Income 27.8 32.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population with diagnosed diabetes, age 40 and over.
Note: Data include people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.19. Composite measure: Adjusted percentages of adults ages 40-64 with diagnosed diabetes who received four recommended services for diabetes in the calendar year, by gender, race/ethnicity, family income, education, insurance status, and residence location, 2008/2009

Gender / Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / Insurance / Location 2008-2009
Male 18.8
Female 22.1
Non-Hispanic White 22.3
Non-Hispanic Black 16.4
Hispanic 16.9
Poor 14.5
Low Income 16.4
Middle Income 16.1
High Income 27.3
<High School 19.2
High School Grad 16.1
Any College 23.7
Private Insurance 21.4
Public Insurance Only 22.7
Uninsured 9.9
Metropolitan 20.5
Nonmetropolitan 19.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, pooled 2008/2009.
Note: Adjusted percentages are predicted marginals from a statistical model that includes the covariates race/ethnicity, family income, education, health insurance, gender, and residence location. Chapter 1, Introduction and Methods, provides more information.

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Figure 2.20. Adults age 40 and over with diagnosed diabetes with hemoglobin A1c and blood pressure under control, by race/ethnicity, 1988-1994, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010

Race 1988-1994 1999-2002 2003-2006 2007-2010
Total 41.2 45.5 54.6 52.1
Mexican 34.5 34.3 37.6 40.5
Black 39.9 35.2 43.0 51.8
White 41.6 51.8 60.5 52.2

 

Ethnicity 1988-1994 1999-2002 2003-2006 2007-2010
Total 54.5 53.4 58.5 64.9
Mexican 48.5 48.9 66.8 64.2
Black 39.4 38.7 57.9 56.7
White 57.5 61.9 58.9 67.9

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population with diagnosed diabetes, age 40 and over.
Note: Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using two age groups: 40-59 and 60 and over. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Mexican American includes all races.

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Figure 2.21. Hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes per 100,000 population, age 18 and over, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2009

Race/Ethnicity 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total 26.2 25.2 22.0 22.1 21.0 20.3 20.9 20.6 20.9
White 16.9 15.2 13.5 12.9 13.1 12.2 12.7 13.6 13.5
Black 84.7 85.2 67.5 70.7 63.2 65.7 65.0 61.4 62.4
API 13.6 10.0 9.4 10.8 8.0 7.2 10.0 9.1 7.8
Hispanic 43.5 50.1 48.2 51.0 40.7 37.8 37.3 30.7 34.0

 

Area Income 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Q1 (Lowest) 47.9 41.4 43.8 41.3 38.4 41.4 37.8 40.7 40.8
Q2 28.7 29.1 26.8 22.6 20.1 22.3 22.5 22.7 22.5
Q3 18.4 19.0 16.4 14.7 14.5 14.5 15.0 15.6 15.6
Q4 (Highest) 13.2 11.7 10.3 9.7 10.8 9.9 9.4 11.0 10.4

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander. Q1 represents the lowest income quartile and Q4 represents the highest income quartile based on the median income of a patient's ZIP Code of residence.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases disparities analysis file and Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2001-2009, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, version 4.1.
Denominator: U.S. resident population age 18 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, and API groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races. Data are adjusted for age and gender.

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Figure 2.22. Hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes per 100,000 population in IHS, Tribal, and contract hospitals, age 18 and over, by age group, 2003-2010

Age Group 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total 37.8 31.4 29.3 26.3 23.8 17.3 23.9 22.4
18-44 20.5 15.3 14.4 14.5 14.9 10.3 15.1 14.3
45-64 51.7 47.7 37.8 36.5 32.6 23.8 27.4 28.8
65+ 62.5 50.1 56.2 40.9 32.2 24.5 41.1 31.7

Source: Indian Health Service, Office of Information Technology/National Patient Information Reporting System, National Data Warehouse, Workload and Population Data Mart, 2003-2010.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Total estimates are age adjusted using the total U.S. population for 2000 as the U.S. standard population. Service population does not include the Portland and California regions.

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Figure 2.23. End stage renal disease due to diabetes per million population, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2009

Race 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
White 116.6 118.6 116.7 117.5 119.7 119.7 123.4 119.9 118.0 119.6
Black 438.3 457.4 456.1 452.6 439.5 442.8 447.5 429.2 425.6 419.6
API 184.4 187.1 178.4 176.2 179.2 179.9 198.5 191.5 190.7 193.5
AI/AN 484.3 438.3 419.9 404.8 405.7 361.0 332.3 341.2 343.2 357.6

 

Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total 154.0 157.3 155.0 155.3 156.0 156.1 160.3 155.2 153.4 154.1
Hispanic 364.0 324.5 326.7 328.4 323.4 315.4 325.2 315.7 315.3 306.4
Non-Hispanic White 138.0 144.2 141.7 141.7 142.8 143.5 146.9 142.1 140.0 141.5

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2000-2009.
Denominator: U.S. resident population.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are age adjusted. Hispanic and non-Hispanic include all races.

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Figure 2.24. New AIDS cases per 100,000 population age 13 and over, by race/ethnicity, 2000-2009

Race/Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total 16.8 16.2 16.2 16.3 15.6 14.8 14.5 14.4 13.8 13.5
Non-Hispanic White 7.0 6.6 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.7 5.5
Non-Hispanic Black 73.0 70.5 70.0 70.2 66.1 61.5 59.1 59.2 56.9 55.2
Hispanic 26.4 25.1 23.9 24.4 22.2 21.4 20.9 20.4 19.3 18.8

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance System, 2000-2009.
Denominator: U.S. population age 13 and over.

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Figure 2.25. Adults with HIV who received recommended care, by race/ethnicity and gender, 2009

Race/Ethnicity 2 or More Outpatient Visits 2 or More CD4 Tests HAART PCP MAC
Total 88.9 82.8 93.0 93.3 88.3
White 86.2 84.6 94.3 92.3 84.6
Black 88.5 79.9 92.0 95.0 89.3
Hispanic 92.8 88.5 93.7 90.3 87.2

 

Gender 2 or More Outpatient Visits 2 or More CD4 Tests HAART PCP MAC
Male 88.9 82.7 93.5 93.2 88.0
Female 88.9 83.2 91.6 93.3 86.7

Key: HAART = highly active antiretroviral therapy; PCP = Pneumocystis pneumonia; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HIV Research Network, 2009.
Note: For HAART measure, adult HIV patients had to be enrolled in an HIV Network clinic, receive at least one CD4 test, and have at least one outpatient visit in addition to having at least one CD4 test result of 350 or less.

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Figure 2.26. HIV infection deaths per 100,000 population, by race/ethnicity and gender, 2000-2009

Race/Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.3 3.0
White 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.2
Black 23.6 23.2 23.0 21.7 20.9 19.8 19.1 17.8 15.7 14.4
Hispanic 6.7 6.2 5.8 5.9 5.3 4.7 4.5 4.1 3.6 3.3

 

Gender 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Male 7.9 7.5 7.4 7.1 6.6 6.2 5.9 5.4 4.8 4.4
Female 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.7

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System—Mortality, 2007.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

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Figure 2.27. Absolute differences between percentages of White and Black infants born in 2009 whose mothers had obtained early and adequate prenatal care, by State quartiles

Quartile States
First quartile, smallest difference California, Wyoming, New Mexico, Texas, Kentucky, South Carolina, Delaware
2nd quartile Washington, Oregon, Colorado, Nebraska, Florida, New York
3rd quartile North Dakota, Kansas, Michigan, Ohio, Vermont, New Hampshire
4th quartile, largest difference Idaho, Montana, Utah, South Dakota, Iowa, Indiana, Tennessee
Missing Alaska, Hawaii, Nevada, Arizona, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, District of Columbia, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, massachusetts, Maine

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, 2009.

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Figure 2.28. Children ages 19-35 months who received the 4:3:1:3:3:1:4 vaccine series, by race/ethnicity, 2009-2010

Race/Ethnicity 2009 2010
Total 63.6 70.2
White 65.3 70.9
Black 58.5 66.7
Asian 62.3 68.4
Hispanic 67.1 72
>1 Race 56.9 71.1

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, National Immunization Survey, 2009-2010.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 19-35 months.
Note: White, Black, Asian, and more than one race are non-Hispanic groups; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.29. Children ages 3-6 who ever had their vision checked by a health provider, by race/ethnicity and income, United States, 2002-2009

Year Total White Black Hispanic
2002 59.8 60.4 65.2 53.9
2003 60.7 61.6 62.0 57.9
2004 57.6 56.7 61.6 56.6
2005 60.2 61.0 64.1 58.6
2006 62.8 64.6 65.2 57.5
2007 66.0 69.4 73.0 56.0
2008 63.9 63.8 68.4 63.2
2009 64.2 64.9 66.7 59.9

 

Year Poor Low Income Middle Income High Income
2002 54.9 57.5 59.3 66.6
2003 58.2 57.5 60.2 65.8
2004 56.4 58.0 51.4 66.0
2005 59.1 59.8 58.4 63.3
2006 56.9 59.7 62.3 69.9
2007 64.5 60.3 66.6 70.6
2008 63.6 61.4 64.0 66.5
2009 60.2 62.3 62.7 72.1

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 3-6.
Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.30. Children ages 0-17 years with a well visit in the last 12 months, by race/ethnicity and income, 2009-2010

Race/Ethnicity 2009 2010
Total 77.9 79.9
White 77.6 80.4
Black 83.6 83.5
Hispanic 74.9 76.3

 

Income 2009 2010
High Income 84.5 85.9
Middle Income 77.1 79.4
Low Income 73.5 75.4
Poor 75.8 77.9

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009-2010.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 0-17.
Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.31. Adolescents ages 13-15 who ever received at least 1 dose of the meningococcal vaccine, by race/ethnicity and income, 2008-2010

Race/Ethnicity 2008 2009 2010
Total 43.9 54.8 64.8
White 40.7 53.4 63.0
Black 46.7 53.4 65.5
Hispanic 50.6 58.5 68.2

 

Income 2008 2009 2010
High Income 51.3 61.8 71.2
Middle Income 41.3 50.9 63.1
Low Income 35.6 51.7 60.1
Poor 44.7 52.6 62.6

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, National Immunization Survey, 2008-2010.
Note: White, Black, and Asian groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.32. Adults (top) and adolescents (bottom) with a major depressive episode in the past year who received treatment for depression in the past year, by age and race/ethnicity, 2008-2010

Race/Ethnicity 2008 2009 2010
Total 68.3 64.4 68.2
White 71.8 68.7 71.8
Black 56.1 53.2 54.5
Hispanic 57.4 49.3 64.2

 

Race/Ethnicity 2008 2009 2010
Total 37.7 34.7 37.8
White 43.1 37.6 41.1
Black 32.6 25.4 23.0
Hispanic 30.3 33.1 38.4

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2010.
Denominator: Adults age 18 and over (left) and adolescents ages 12-17 (right) with a major depressive episode in the last 12 months.
Note: Major depressive episode is defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of the symptoms of depression described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Treatment for depression is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication in the past year for depression. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.33. Suicide deaths per 100,000 population, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2009

Race 2008 2009
Total 14 14.2
White 15.6 15.9
Black 6.4 6.2
API 7 7.6
AI/AN 14.2 14.5

 

Ethnicity 2008 2009
Non-Hispanic White 17.1 17.3
Hispanic 6.8 7.2

Key: API = Asian and Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System—Mortality, 2000-2009.
Denominator: U.S. population age 12 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

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Figure 2.34. People age 12 and over who needed treatment for illicit drug use or an alcohol problem and who received such treatment at a specialty facility in the last 12 months, by race/ethnicity and gender, 2002-2010

Race/Ethnicity 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
White 10.1 8.2 8.6 8.5 9.6 9.9 10.3 10.8 11.7
Black 15.3 13.1 17.3 18.4 14.2 18.2 13.2 14.7 12.8
Hispanic 7.4 6.4 9.7 11.7 14.3 6 5.4 7.4 8.1

 

Gender 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total 10.3 8.5 9.9 10.0 10.8 10.4 9.9 10.7 11.2
Male 9.9 8.8 10.2 10.2 10.7 10.9 10.3 11.2 11
Female 11 7.9 9.4 9.5 10.9 9.3 9.3 9.7 11.4

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 12 and over who needed treatment for illicit drug use or alcohol problem.
Note: Treatment refers to treatment at a specialty facility, such as a drug and alcohol inpatient and/or outpatient rehabilitation facility, inpatient hospital setting, or a mental health center. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.35. People age 12 and over treated for substance abuse who completed treatment course, by race/ethnicity and education, 2005-2009

Race/Ethnicity 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total 45 47.5 45.1 46.6 46.7
White 46.7 49.2 46.6 48.3 48.3
Black 40.4 43.6 41 42.5 43.8
Hispanic 46 46.7 45.8 46.5 47.1

 

Education 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
<High School 41 43.1 40.6 42.0 42.4
High School Grad 46.3 48.7 46.1 47.7 48.2
Any College 50 52.7 50.7 52.3 51.9

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set, Discharge Data Set, 2005-2009.
Denominator: Discharges age 12 and over from publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities.
Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.36. Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they had effective, evidence-based arthritis education as an integral part of the management of their condition, by race, ethnicity, income, education, and activity limitation, 2009

Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / Limitation Effective arthritis education
Total 11.2
White 10.9
Black 13.4
Non-Hispanic White 11.1
Hispanic 9.8
Poor 10.2
Low Income 12.9
Middle Income 9.1
High Income 12.4
<High School 9.7
High School Grad 8.8
Any College 13
Basic 14.7
Complex 15.1
Neither 9.1

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.37. Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they received health care provider counseling about physical activity or exercise, by race, ethnicity, income, education, and activity limitation, 2009

Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / Limitation Fitness
Total 57.2
White 56.6
Black 61.5
Asian 49.6
AI/AN 55.7
>1 Race 61.1
Non-Hispanic White 56
Hispanic 64.7
Poor 56.4
Low Income 52.6
Middle Income 56.9
High Income 61.1
<High School 53.4
High School Grad 52.5
Any College 61.5
Basic 64.5
Complex 63.6
Neither 53.3

Key: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.38. Overweight adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they received health care provider counseling about weight reduction, by race, ethnicity, income, education, and activity limitation, 2009

Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / Limitation Fitness
Total 42.1
White 40.7
Black 47.7
Asian 44.1
>1 Race 49.5
Non-Hispanic White 39.5
Hispanic 52.8
Poor 46.2
Low Income 40.4
Middle Income 40
High Income 44.4
<High School 45.6
High School Grad 38.7
Any College 44.3
Basic 52.3
Complex 48.8
Neither 36.1

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. Hispanic includes all races.

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Page last reviewed May 2013
Internet Citation: 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report. May 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr12/chap2-text2.html