2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report

Chapter 2, Text Descriptions for Figures (continued)

Figure 2.15. New adult end stage renal disease patients beginning nephrology care more than 12 months before start of dialysis, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2009

Race20082009
Asian26.327.7
Black24.524.8
White30.029.8

 

Ethnicity20082009
Total28.328.3
Hispanic21.321.6
Non-Hispanic White32.031.8

Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2008-2009.
Denominator: New end stage renal disease patients age 18 and over.

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Figure 2.16. Incident hemodialysis patients who used an arteriovenous fistula at first outpatient dialysis, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2011

Race2008200920102011
White14.114.615.416.2
Black12.213.013.714.5
API16.316.716.918.26
AI/AN16.115.917.815.5

 

Ethnicity2008200920102011
Total13.714.315.015.8
Non-Hispanic White1414.715.416.3
Hispanic11.311.612.913.1

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Medicare eligibility forms (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS] Form 2728) (2008-2011), Fistula First Incident AVF Dataset, CMS.
Denominator: New end stage renal disease hemodialysis patients, all ages.

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Figure 2.17. Dialysis patients who were registered on a waiting list for transplantation, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2008

Race200020012002200320042005200620072008
White16.516.116.316.616.817.618.518.218.1
Black10.910.310.710.611.712.113.113.413.4
API27.527.826.827.629.726.430.132.232.2
AI/AN9.98.411.19.211.011.411.513.113.9

 

Ethnicity200020012002200320042005200620072008
Total14.714.314.514.715.415.917.017.017.0
Hispanic13.113.714.214.614.515.917.817.617.6
Non-Hispanic White14.914.414.614.715.515.916.816.916.9

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2000-2008.
Denominator: End stage renal disease hemodialysis patients and peritoneal dialysis patients under age 70.

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Figure 2.18. Adults age 40 and over with diagnosed diabetes who reported receiving four recommended services for diabetes in the calendar year (2+ HbA1c tests, foot exam, dilated eye exam, and flu shot), by race/ethnicity and income, 2008-2009

Race/Ethnicity20082009
Total21.023.2
White22.726.9
Black16.618.3
Hispanic18.713.3

 

Income20082009
Poor16.215.4
Low Income17.917.8
Middle Income17.020.1
High Income27.832.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population with diagnosed diabetes, age 40 and over.
Note: Data include people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.19. Composite measure: Adjusted percentages of adults ages 40-64 with diagnosed diabetes who received four recommended services for diabetes in the calendar year, by gender, race/ethnicity, family income, education, insurance status, and residence location, 2008/2009

Gender / Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / Insurance / Location2008-2009
Male18.8
Female22.1
Non-Hispanic White22.3
Non-Hispanic Black16.4
Hispanic16.9
Poor14.5
Low Income16.4
Middle Income16.1
High Income27.3
<High School19.2
High School Grad16.1
Any College23.7
Private Insurance21.4
Public Insurance Only22.7
Uninsured9.9
Metropolitan20.5
Nonmetropolitan19.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, pooled 2008/2009.
Note: Adjusted percentages are predicted marginals from a statistical model that includes the covariates race/ethnicity, family income, education, health insurance, gender, and residence location. Chapter 1, Introduction and Methods, provides more information.

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Figure 2.20. Adults age 40 and over with diagnosed diabetes with hemoglobin A1c and blood pressure under control, by race/ethnicity, 1988-1994, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010

Race1988-19941999-20022003-20062007-2010
Total41.245.554.652.1
Mexican34.534.337.640.5
Black39.935.243.051.8
White41.651.860.552.2

 

Ethnicity1988-19941999-20022003-20062007-2010
Total54.553.458.564.9
Mexican48.548.966.864.2
Black39.438.757.956.7
White57.561.958.967.9

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population with diagnosed diabetes, age 40 and over.
Note: Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using two age groups: 40-59 and 60 and over. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Mexican American includes all races.

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Figure 2.21. Hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes per 100,000 population, age 18 and over, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2009

Race/Ethnicity200120022003200420052006200720082009
Total26.225.222.022.121.020.320.920.620.9
White16.915.213.512.913.112.212.713.613.5
Black84.785.267.570.763.265.765.061.462.4
API13.610.09.410.88.07.210.09.17.8
Hispanic43.550.148.251.040.737.837.330.734.0

 

Area Income200120022003200420052006200720082009
Q1 (Lowest)47.941.443.841.338.441.437.840.740.8
Q228.729.126.822.620.122.322.522.722.5
Q318.419.016.414.714.514.515.015.615.6
Q4 (Highest)13.211.710.39.710.89.99.411.010.4

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander. Q1 represents the lowest income quartile and Q4 represents the highest income quartile based on the median income of a patient's ZIP Code of residence.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases disparities analysis file and Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2001-2009, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, version 4.1.
Denominator: U.S. resident population age 18 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, and API groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races. Data are adjusted for age and gender.

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Figure 2.22. Hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes per 100,000 population in IHS, Tribal, and contract hospitals, age 18 and over, by age group, 2003-2010

Age Group20032004200520062007200820092010
Total37.831.429.326.323.817.323.922.4
18-4420.515.314.414.514.910.315.114.3
45-6451.747.737.836.532.623.827.428.8
65+62.550.156.240.932.224.541.131.7

Source: Indian Health Service, Office of Information Technology/National Patient Information Reporting System, National Data Warehouse, Workload and Population Data Mart, 2003-2010.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Total estimates are age adjusted using the total U.S. population for 2000 as the U.S. standard population. Service population does not include the Portland and California regions.

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Figure 2.23. End stage renal disease due to diabetes per million population, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2009

Race2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
White116.6118.6116.7117.5119.7119.7123.4119.9118.0119.6
Black438.3457.4456.1452.6439.5442.8447.5429.2425.6419.6
API184.4187.1178.4176.2179.2179.9198.5191.5190.7193.5
AI/AN484.3438.3419.9404.8405.7361.0332.3341.2343.2357.6

 

Ethnicity2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Total154.0157.3155.0155.3156.0156.1160.3155.2153.4154.1
Hispanic364.0324.5326.7328.4323.4315.4325.2315.7315.3306.4
Non-Hispanic White138.0144.2141.7141.7142.8143.5146.9142.1140.0141.5

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2000-2009.
Denominator: U.S. resident population.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are age adjusted. Hispanic and non-Hispanic include all races.

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Figure 2.24. New AIDS cases per 100,000 population age 13 and over, by race/ethnicity, 2000-2009

Race/Ethnicity2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Total16.816.216.216.315.614.814.514.413.813.5
Non-Hispanic White7.06.66.86.66.66.36.26.15.75.5
Non-Hispanic Black73.070.570.070.266.161.559.159.256.955.2
Hispanic26.425.123.924.422.221.420.920.419.318.8

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance System, 2000-2009.
Denominator: U.S. population age 13 and over.

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Figure 2.25. Adults with HIV who received recommended care, by race/ethnicity and gender, 2009

Race/Ethnicity2 or More Outpatient Visits2 or More CD4 TestsHAARTPCPMAC
Total88.982.893.093.388.3
White86.284.694.392.384.6
Black88.579.992.095.089.3
Hispanic92.888.593.790.387.2

 

Gender2 or More Outpatient Visits2 or More CD4 TestsHAARTPCPMAC
Male88.982.793.593.288.0
Female88.983.291.693.386.7

Key: HAART = highly active antiretroviral therapy; PCP = Pneumocystis pneumonia; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HIV Research Network, 2009.
Note: For HAART measure, adult HIV patients had to be enrolled in an HIV Network clinic, receive at least one CD4 test, and have at least one outpatient visit in addition to having at least one CD4 test result of 350 or less.

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Figure 2.26. HIV infection deaths per 100,000 population, by race/ethnicity and gender, 2000-2009

Race/Ethnicity2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Total5.25.04.94.74.54.24.03.73.33.0
White2.22.12.12.01.91.81.71.51.41.2
Black23.623.223.021.720.919.819.117.815.714.4
Hispanic6.76.25.85.95.34.74.54.13.63.3

 

Gender2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Male7.97.57.47.16.66.25.95.44.84.4
Female2.52.52.52.42.42.32.22.11.91.7

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System—Mortality, 2007.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

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Figure 2.27. Absolute differences between percentages of White and Black infants born in 2009 whose mothers had obtained early and adequate prenatal care, by State quartiles

QuartileStates
First quartile, smallest differenceCalifornia, Wyoming, New Mexico, Texas, Kentucky, South Carolina, Delaware
2nd quartileWashington, Oregon, Colorado, Nebraska, Florida, New York
3rd quartileNorth Dakota, Kansas, Michigan, Ohio, Vermont, New Hampshire
4th quartile, largest differenceIdaho, Montana, Utah, South Dakota, Iowa, Indiana, Tennessee
MissingAlaska, Hawaii, Nevada, Arizona, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, District of Columbia, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, massachusetts, Maine

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, 2009.

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Figure 2.28. Children ages 19-35 months who received the 4:3:1:3:3:1:4 vaccine series, by race/ethnicity, 2009-2010

Race/Ethnicity20092010
Total63.670.2
White65.370.9
Black58.566.7
Asian62.368.4
Hispanic67.172
>1 Race56.971.1

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, National Immunization Survey, 2009-2010.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 19-35 months.
Note: White, Black, Asian, and more than one race are non-Hispanic groups; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.29. Children ages 3-6 who ever had their vision checked by a health provider, by race/ethnicity and income, United States, 2002-2009

YearTotalWhiteBlackHispanic
200259.860.465.253.9
200360.761.662.057.9
200457.656.761.656.6
200560.261.064.158.6
200662.864.665.257.5
200766.069.473.056.0
200863.963.868.463.2
200964.264.966.759.9

 

YearPoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
200254.957.559.366.6
200358.257.560.265.8
200456.458.051.466.0
200559.159.858.463.3
200656.959.762.369.9
200764.560.366.670.6
200863.661.464.066.5
200960.262.362.772.1

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 3-6.
Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.30. Children ages 0-17 years with a well visit in the last 12 months, by race/ethnicity and income, 2009-2010

Race/Ethnicity20092010
Total77.979.9
White77.680.4
Black83.683.5
Hispanic74.976.3

 

Income20092010
High Income84.585.9
Middle Income77.179.4
Low Income73.575.4
Poor75.877.9

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009-2010.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 0-17.
Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.31. Adolescents ages 13-15 who ever received at least 1 dose of the meningococcal vaccine, by race/ethnicity and income, 2008-2010

Race/Ethnicity200820092010
Total43.954.864.8
White40.753.463.0
Black46.753.465.5
Hispanic50.658.568.2

 

Income200820092010
High Income51.361.871.2
Middle Income41.350.963.1
Low Income35.651.760.1
Poor44.752.662.6

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, National Immunization Survey, 2008-2010.
Note: White, Black, and Asian groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.32. Adults (top) and adolescents (bottom) with a major depressive episode in the past year who received treatment for depression in the past year, by age and race/ethnicity, 2008-2010

Race/Ethnicity200820092010
Total68.364.468.2
White71.868.771.8
Black56.153.254.5
Hispanic57.449.364.2

 

Race/Ethnicity200820092010
Total37.734.737.8
White43.137.641.1
Black32.625.423.0
Hispanic30.333.138.4

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2010.
Denominator: Adults age 18 and over (left) and adolescents ages 12-17 (right) with a major depressive episode in the last 12 months.
Note: Major depressive episode is defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of the symptoms of depression described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Treatment for depression is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication in the past year for depression. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.33. Suicide deaths per 100,000 population, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2009

Race20082009
Total1414.2
White15.615.9
Black6.46.2
API77.6
AI/AN14.214.5

 

Ethnicity20082009
Non-Hispanic White17.117.3
Hispanic6.87.2

Key: API = Asian and Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System—Mortality, 2000-2009.
Denominator: U.S. population age 12 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

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Figure 2.34. People age 12 and over who needed treatment for illicit drug use or an alcohol problem and who received such treatment at a specialty facility in the last 12 months, by race/ethnicity and gender, 2002-2010

Race/Ethnicity200220032004200520062007200820092010
White10.18.28.68.59.69.910.310.811.7
Black15.313.117.318.414.218.213.214.712.8
Hispanic7.46.49.711.714.365.47.48.1

 

Gender200220032004200520062007200820092010
Total10.38.59.910.010.810.49.910.711.2
Male9.98.810.210.210.710.910.311.211
Female117.99.49.510.99.39.39.711.4

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 12 and over who needed treatment for illicit drug use or alcohol problem.
Note: Treatment refers to treatment at a specialty facility, such as a drug and alcohol inpatient and/or outpatient rehabilitation facility, inpatient hospital setting, or a mental health center. White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.35. People age 12 and over treated for substance abuse who completed treatment course, by race/ethnicity and education, 2005-2009

Race/Ethnicity20052006200720082009
Total4547.545.146.646.7
White46.749.246.648.348.3
Black40.443.64142.543.8
Hispanic4646.745.846.547.1

 

Education20052006200720082009
<High School4143.140.642.042.4
High School Grad46.348.746.147.748.2
Any College5052.750.752.351.9

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Treatment Episode Data Set, Discharge Data Set, 2005-2009.
Denominator: Discharges age 12 and over from publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities.
Note: White and Black groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.36. Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they had effective, evidence-based arthritis education as an integral part of the management of their condition, by race, ethnicity, income, education, and activity limitation, 2009

Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / LimitationEffective arthritis education
Total11.2
White10.9
Black13.4
Non-Hispanic White11.1
Hispanic9.8
Poor10.2
Low Income12.9
Middle Income9.1
High Income12.4
<High School9.7
High School Grad8.8
Any College13
Basic14.7
Complex15.1
Neither9.1

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.37. Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they received health care provider counseling about physical activity or exercise, by race, ethnicity, income, education, and activity limitation, 2009

Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / LimitationFitness
Total57.2
White56.6
Black61.5
Asian49.6
AI/AN55.7
>1 Race61.1
Non-Hispanic White56
Hispanic64.7
Poor56.4
Low Income52.6
Middle Income56.9
High Income61.1
<High School53.4
High School Grad52.5
Any College61.5
Basic64.5
Complex63.6
Neither53.3

Key: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.38. Overweight adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they received health care provider counseling about weight reduction, by race, ethnicity, income, education, and activity limitation, 2009

Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / LimitationFitness
Total42.1
White40.7
Black47.7
Asian44.1
>1 Race49.5
Non-Hispanic White39.5
Hispanic52.8
Poor46.2
Low Income40.4
Middle Income40
High Income44.4
<High School45.6
High School Grad38.7
Any College44.3
Basic52.3
Complex48.8
Neither36.1

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. Hispanic includes all races.

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Current as of May 2013
Internet Citation: 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report: Chapter 2, Text Descriptions for Figures (continued). May 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr12/chap2-text2.html