2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report

Chapter 2, Text Descriptions for Figures (continued)

Figure 2.39. Adults age 65 and over who reported having influenza vaccination in the past 12 months, by race/ethnicity and income, 2000-2010

Race/Ethnicity20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010
Total64.663.265.965.664.759.764.366.867.36763.6
Hispanic55.652.249.446.654.643.545.553.155.556.754
Black48.247.649.848.346.239.748.656.35153.452.5
White66.665.468.868.667.26367.269.37069.165.7

 

Income20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010
High Income69.367.171.467.969.862.870.772.77368.971.8
Middle Income67.766.568.769.367.162.26567.367.469.264.9
Low Income60.158.861.862.561.755.760.661.463.363.756.8
Poor55.45353.855.252.252.656.359.757.160.450.5

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2000-2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 65 and over.
Note: Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Benchmark is derived from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; go to Chapter 1, Introduction and Methods, for details. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.40. State variation in disparities related to education: adults age 65 and over who reported having influenza vaccination in the past 12 months, 2010

QuartileStates
Largest Disparity QuartileCalifornia, Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Mississippi, Alabama, Virginia, South Carolina, Florida, New Jersey
Second QuartileNorth Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Arkansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Georgia, Maryland, Delaware, New York, Vermont, Connecticut
Third QuartileOregon, Idaho, Colorado, South Dakota, Missouri, Texas, Wisconsin, Tennessee, West Virginia, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Maine
Smallest Disparity QuartileWashington, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Massachusetts, New Hampshire
MissingAlaska

Key: Largest Disparity Quartile identifies States with the largest relative difference in rates of influenza vaccination between adults with less than a high school education and adults who graduated from college; Smallest Disparity Quartile identifies States with the smallest relative differences in rates of influenza vaccination between adults with less than a high school education and adults who graduated from college.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010.

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Figure 2.41. Hospital patients with pneumonia who received recommended hospital care, by race/ethnicity, 2007-2010.

Race/Ethnicity2007200820092010
Total87.089.892.994.3
White87.890.793.394.8
Black84.587.691.093.1
Hispanic82.185.291.690.9
AI/AN83.284.887.989.8
Asian83.287.691.994.0

Key: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Medicare Quality Improvement Organization Program, 2007-2010.
Denominator: Patients hospitalized with a principal discharge diagnosis of pneumonia or a principal discharge diagnosis of either septicemia or respiratory failure and secondary diagnosis of pneumonia.
Note: White, Black, AI/AN, and Asian groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races. Recommended care includes initial antibiotics within 6 hours of hospital arrival, antibiotics consistent with current recommendations, blood culture before antibiotics are administered, influenza vaccination status assessment or provision, and pneumococcal vaccination status assessment or provision.

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Figure 2.42. Patients with tuberculosis who completed a curative course of treatment within 1 year of initiation of treatment, by race/ethnicity and place of birth, 2000-2008

YearWhiteBlackAPIHispanic
200081.280.778.679.9
200182.281.280.478.5
200283.180.881.379.5
200382.881.881.880.1
200483.982.983.380.0
200583.783.681.582.5
200685.283.384.581.8
20078586.783.482.6
200887.686.485.181.4

 

YearTotalForeign Born
200080.279.1
200180.580.0
200280.980.9
200381.581.4
200482.381.7
200582.881.9
200683.583.4
200784.483.4
200884.783.3

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Tuberculosis Surveillance System, 2000-2008.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population treated for tuberculosis.
Note: White, Black, and API are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.43. Patients with tuberculosis who completed a curative course of treatment within 1 year of initiation of treatment, by Asian and Pacific Islander and Hispanic granular ethnicities, 2008

EthnicityPercentage
Korean83.3
Vietnamese84.4
Asian Indian84.5
Filipino85.3
Chinese85.9
Other Asian85.7
Native Hawaiian82.4
Other Pacific Islander80.9

 

EthnicityPercentage
Mexican79.4
Cuban91.9
Puerto Rican93.8
Other Hispanic86.2

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Tuberculosis Surveillance System, 2008.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population treated for tuberculosis.

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Figure 2.44. People with current asthma who report taking preventive asthma medicine daily or almost daily, by race/ethnicity and income, 2003-2009

Race/Ethnicity2003200420052006200720082009
Total29.629.731.230.928.325.925.1
White29.730.934.533.929.828.027
Black29.830.628.425.626.320.222.3
Hispanic29.527.321.623.025.024.521.7

 

Income2003200420052006200720082009
High Income3533.937.73232.830.130.7
Middle Income29.326.629.129.829.824.423.7
Low Income25.126.727.328.323.824.623.9
Poor27.930.525.931.52323.520.1

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2003-2009.
Denominator: Noninstitutionalized population with asthma.
Note: Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. People with current asthma reported that they still had asthma or had an asthma attack in the last 12 months. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.45. People with current asthma who received a written asthma management plan from their health provider, by race, ethnicity, income, education, and activity limitation, 2009

Race/Ethnicity / Income / Education / LimitationAsthma Management
Total33.4
White32.3
Black41.7
Asian39.2
>1 Race30.6
Non-Hispanic White32.7
Hispanic28.4
Poor30.9
Low Income32.4
Middle Income35.4
High Income35.0
<High School24.5
High School Grad26.8
Any College33.3
Basic35.6
Complex28.6
Neither32.3

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Patients with current asthma.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Health insurance refers to adults under age 65. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.46. Adult current smokers with a checkup in the last 12 months who received advice from a doctor to quit smoking, by race/ethnicity and education 2002-2009

Race/Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Total63.165.363.163.462.765.164.567.6
White64.866.464.264.663.065.066.170.5
Black62.362.261.561.064.867.358.760.5
Hispanic52.057.255.758.554.256.155.656.6

 

Education20022003200420052006200720082009
<High School62.367.564.063.964.265.062.763.1
High School Grad62.663.362.464.963.763.063.265.3
Any College63.964.663.561.560.967.066.572.8

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized adult current smokers who had a checkup in the last 12 months.

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Figure 2.47. Adults with obesity age 20 and over who reported being told by a doctor they were overweight, by race/ethnicity and education, 2007-2010

Race/Ethnicity / Education2007-2010
Total35
White33
Black47
Mexican American41
<High School38
High School Grad38
Any College34

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Denominator: People age 20 and over with a body mass index of 30 or greater.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Total and race/ethnicity are adjusted using three age groups: 20-44, 45-64, and 65 and over; education is also adjusted using three age groups 25-44, 45-64, and 65 and over. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups.

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Figure 2.48. Obese children and teens ages 2-19 who were told by a doctor or health professional that they were obese, by race/ethnicity and income, 2007-2010

Race/Ethnicity / Income2007-2010
Total45
White41
Black51
Mexican American48
Poor46
Low Income50
Middle Income42
High Income38

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 2-19 who were obese.
Note: Obese children are identified using age- and sex-specific reference data from the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index (BMI) for age growth charts. Children with BMI values at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific BMI growth charts are categorized as obese. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups.

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Figure 2.49. Adults with obesity who ever received advice from a health provider to exercise more, by race/ethnicity and income, 2002-2009

Race/Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Total55.657.057.256.757.157.957.459.1
White57.559.060.159.758.858.757.859.1
Black55.856.655.156.356.860.854.758.5
Hispanic45.949.747.446.550.852.857.259.4

 

Income20022003200420052006200720082009
Poor49.653.151.850.250.353.257.056.4
Low Income51.150.852.650.754.952.055.556.2
Middle Income54.957.057.357.955.256.255.459.4
High Income61.462.961.661.662.664.261.162.1

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 18 and over.
Note: Obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.50. Adults with obesity who did not spend half an hour or more in moderate or vigorous physical activity at least three times a week, by race/ethnicity and education, 2002-2009

Race/Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Total54.354.353.052.052.353.353.151.7
White52.753.253.051.751.752.451.651.1
Black58.356.251.750.651.750.753.052.1
Hispanic59.754.354.754.655.157.958.454.1

 

Education20022003200420052006200720082009
<High School58.658.458.058.357.557.959.556.8
High School Grad52.953.253.752.552.053.953.953.9
Any College52.252.449.848.549.550.149.648.0

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 18 and over.
Note: White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.51. Children ages 2-17 for whom a health provider gave advice within the past 2 years about exercise, by race/ethnicity and income, 2002-2009

Race/Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Total30.029.331.031.934.636.233.534.7
White30.529.530.132.133.236.832.235.2
Black30.527.731.531.536.934.734.731.7
Hispanic30.432.534.234.337.836.036.336.8

 

Income20022003200420052006200720082009
Poor27.529.829.329.133.735.632.032.0
Low Income26.724.528.932.433.633.231.432.9
Middle Income28.227.229.230.431.033.431.932.8
High Income36.435.035.635.239.941.638.640.3

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 2-17.
Note: Exercise advice includes the amount and kind of sports or physically active hobbies children should engage in. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.52. Adults with obesity who ever received advice from a health provider about eating fewer high-fat or high-cholesterol foods, by race/ethnicity and education, 2002-2009

Race/Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Total47.748.347.448.148.550.049.251.3
White49.349.749.950.950.150.248.750.4
Black46.747.444.747.145.851.348.050.3
Hispanic38.644.341.040.945.748.153.056.7

 

Education20022003200420052006200720082009
<High School42.145.345.043.443.344.549.152.0
High School Grad46.445.245.545.247.447.246.047.6
Any College52.052.750.853.252.054.951.753.6

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 18 and over.
Note: Obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.53. Children ages 2-17 for whom a health provider ever gave advice about healthy eating, by race/ethnicity and household income, 2002-2009

Race/Ethnicity20022003200420052006200720082009
Total46.947.548.750.151.452.849.649.5
White47.248.148.050.750.553.749.049.0
Black49.347.149.451.754.152.552.650.3
Hispanic45.548.051.048.952.051.449.751.8

 

Household Income20022003200420052006200720082009
Poor42.447.148.047.451.753.752.249.8
Low Income44.142.244.946.747.147.545.448.7
Middle Income44.345.545.949.150.749.346.146.5
High Income55.154.155.555.555.059.656.053.6

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 2-17.
Note: White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.54. Adult home health care patients whose ability to walk or move around improved, by race and ethnicity, 2010

Race2010
Total54.4
White55.6
Black51.2
NHOPI55.1
>1 Race52.1

 

Ethnicity2010
Non-Hispanic White55.6
Hispanic48.1

Key: NHOPI = Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), 2010.
Denominator: Adult nonmaternity patients completing an episode of skilled home health care and not already performing at the highest level at the start of the episode, according to the OASIS question on ambulation.
Note: Starting January 1, 2010, the patient assessment instrument for home health agencies was changed to OASIS-C and ambulation improvement is measured differently than with the previous version of the assessment instrument. Therefore, we are presenting only 2010 data.

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Figure 2.55. Long-stay nursing home residents whose need for help with daily activities increased, by race/ethnicity, 2000-2010

Race/Ethnicity20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010
White16.316.516.516.516.516.416.816.216.416.015.6
Black13.813.914.114.114.614.615.314.915.214.814.7
API13.913.812.713.112.713.113.313.013.012.112.2
AI/AN14.713.614.214.714.114.414.114.314.915.014.6
Hispanic13.914.314.214.314.213.814.614.115.015.114.7

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Minimum Data Set, 2000-2010. Data are from the third quarter of each calendar year.
Denominator: All long-stay residents in Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing home facilities.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, API, and AI/AN are non-Hispanic groups. Hispanic includes all races. On October 1, 2010, CMS required nursing homes to begin using the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0. The figure uses the earlier MDS 2.0 instrument, which includes data from the first 9 months of 2010

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Figure 2.56. FIM scores at admission and discharge and changes in total functional gain among patients with all diagnoses in inpatient rehabilitation facilities, by race/ethnicity, 2004-2011

White20042005200620072008200920102011
Admission Score71.869.867.966.665.864.764.363.9
Discharge Score97.696.695.294.594.39494.294.5
Gain25.826.827.327.928.529.329.930.7

 

Black20042005200620072008200920102011
Admission Score69.267.665.764.163.462.562.262.0
Discharge Score93.992.991.490.590.289.990.490.7
Gain24.625.325.726.326.827.428.228.8

 

Asian20042005200620072008200920102011
Admission Score66.165.264.963.162.561.261.160.5
Discharge Score93.491.390.689.289.288.989.389.3
Gain27.226.025.626.226.727.728.328.9

 

Hispanic20042005200620072008200920102011
Admission Score69.366.564.563.661.660.459.960.0
Discharge Score94.592.790.990.289.288.789.189.6
Gain25.226.226.426.627.528.329.329.7

Key: FIM = Functional Independence Measure.
Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Patient Assessment Instrument, 2004-2011.
Denominator: All Medicare patients in an inpatient rehabilitation facility for initial rehabilitation and discharged to the community (home, board and care, transitional living, or assisted living).
Note: White, Black, and Asian are non-Hispanic.

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Figure 2.57. Adult home health care patients who had less shortness of breath between the start and end of a home health care episode, by race and ethnicity, 2002-2010

Race200220032004200520062007200820092010
White53.455.257.759.361.361.961.160.963.6
Black53.355.457.758.959.660.159.659.362.2
Asian52.758.059.659.261.962.763.061.865.0
NHOPI54.956.959.261.662.165.062.963.466.4
AI/AN51.452.454.455.657.558.557.557.660.3
>1 Race51.654.658.959.560.659.060.558.460.6

 

Ethnicity200220032004200520062007200820092010
Non-Hispanic White53.455.257.759.361.361.961.160.963.6
Hispanic51.352.955.055.456.555.554.352.650.1

Key: NHOPI = Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), 2002-2010.
Denominator: Adult nonmaternity patients completing an episode of skilled home health care.
Note: Starting January 1, 2010, the patient assessment instrument for home health agencies was changed to OASIS-C. Because dyspnea improvement is measured similarly in both the previous and current versions of the assessment instrument, we are presenting 2002 through 2010 trend data.

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Figure 2.58. Short-stay (top) and high-risk long-stay (bottom) nursing home residents with pressure sores, by race/ethnicity, 2000-2010

Race/Ethnicity20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010
White21.821.421.021.120.620.219.619.018.417.316.5
Black28.227.326.525.825.024.523.822.722.020.819.8
API23.022.322.521.722.722.222.320.820.919.418.6
AI/AN24.820.822.622.522.421.421.021.019.718.418.4
Hispanic27.226.425.425.024.723.824.123.322.121.020.4

 

Race/Ethnicity20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010
White13.313.213.113.312.912.511.911.311.010.39.8
Black17.617.717.517.316.816.716.315.515.114.213.6
API12.512.212.112.111.211.411.311.111.110.49.4
AI/AN16.915.415.516.715.513.414.413.114.813.111.8
Hispanic15.215.415.114.814.614.213.513.412.912.311.8

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI /AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Minimum Data Set, 2000-2010. Data for long-stay residents are from the third quarter of each calendar year. Data for short-stay residents are full calendar-year estimates.
Denominator: Short-stay and high-risk long-stay nursing home residents in Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing and long-term care facilities.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, API, and AI/AN are non-Hispanic groups; Hispanic includes all races.On October 1, 2010, CMS required nursing homes to begin using the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0. The figure uses the earlier MDS 2.0 instrument, which includes data from the first 9 months of 2010.

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Figure 2.59. Hospice patients age 18 and over who did NOT receive the right amount of help for feelings of anxiety or sadness, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2011

Race2008200920102011
White8.98.58.79.0
Black14.014.914.214.0
API19.020.520.623.6
AI/AN15.011.513.615.8

 

Ethnicity2008200920102011
Non-Hispanic White8.88.48.78.9
Hispanic14.714.413.214.3

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, Family Evaluation of Hospice Care, 2008-2011.
Denominator: Adult hospice patients.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Figure 2.60. Hospice patients age 18 and over whose family caregivers wanted more information about what to expect while the patient was dying, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2011

Race2008200920102011
White14.714.414.314.8
Black15.716.115.716.4
API21.223.522.622.1
AI/AN17.817.316.116.2

 

Ethnicity2008200920102011
Non-Hispanic White14.514.214.214.7
Hispanic19.018.517.618.7

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, Family Evaluation of Hospice Care, 2008-2011.
Denominator: Adult hospice patients.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Figure 2.61. Hospice patients age 18 and over who did NOT receive care consistent with their stated end-of-life wishes, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2011

Race2008200920102011
White5.35.05.24.8
Black12.410.910.111
API12.917.09.413.8
AI/AN9.810.114.411.5

 

Ethnicity2008200920102011
Non-Hispanic White5.24.95.24.7
Hispanic11.210.111.011.3

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, Family Evaluation of Hospice Care, 2008-2011.
Denominator: Adult hospice patients.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Page last reviewed May 2013
Internet Citation: 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report: Chapter 2, Text Descriptions for Figures (continued). May 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr12/chap2-text3.html