2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report

Chapter 3, Text Descriptions for Figures

Figure 3.1. Postoperative sepsis per 1,000 elective-surgery discharges with an operating room procedure, by race/ethnicity and insurance, 2008 and 2009

Race/Ethnicity20082009
White14.815.6
Black19.618.9
API14.719
Hispanic16.917.7

 

Insurance Type20082009
Private Insurance13.814.1
Medicare14.915.8
Medicaid19.318.7
Uninsured/Self-Pay9.113.0

Key: API = Asian and Pacific Islander.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases disparities analysis file, 2007, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, modified version 4.1.
Denominator: All elective hospital surgical discharges, age 18 and over, with length of stay of 4 or more days, excluding patients admitted for infection, patients with cancer or immunocompromised states, patients with obstetric conditions, and admissions specifically for sepsis.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, and API are non-Hispanic. Rates are adjusted by age, gender, age-gender interactions, comorbidities, and diagnosis-related group clusters.

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Figure 3.2. Adult surgery patients with postoperative catheter-associated urinary tract infection, by race/ethnicity, diabetes status, and gender, 2009-2010

Race/Ethnicity / Diabetes Status / Gender20092010
White2.93.4
Black4.24.0
Asian 5.0
Hispanic 5.1
Diabetes - Yes4.54.8
Diabetes - No2.53.0
Male2.62.9
Female3.34.0

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System, 2009-2010.
Denominator: Selected discharges of hospitalized patients age 18 and over having major surgery and meeting specific criteria for each measure.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.White. Black, and Asian are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races. Data for Asians and Hispanics in 2009 did not meet criteria for statistical reliability.

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Figure 3.3. Admissions with central line-associated bloodstream infections per 1,000 medical and surgical discharges of length 2 or more days, by patient income and hospital geographic location, 2008-2009

Income / Geographic Location20082009
Poor2.62.8
Low Income2.62.8
Middle Income2.62.9
High Income2.72.5
Large Central MSA3.23.4
Large Fringe MSA2.72.8
Medium MSA2.72.7
Small MSA2.02.1
Micropolitan1.21.6
Nonmetropolitan0.50.6

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, version 4.1, 2008-2009.
Denominator: People age 18 and over or obstetric admissions.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Figure 3.4. Mechanical adverse events associated with central venous catheter placement, by race, gender, and age, 2009-2010

Race / Gender / Age20092010
White3.23.1
Black8.54.5
Male3.73.2
Female4.13.4
18-644.43.5
65-743.23.4
75-843.12.9
85+5.95.9

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System, 2009-2010.
Denominator: Selected discharges of hospitalized patients age 18 and over with central venous catheter placement.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White and Black are non-Hispanic groups. Mechanical adverse events include allergic reaction to the catheter, tamponade, perforation, pneumothorax, hematoma, shearing off of the catheter, air embolism, misplaced catheter, thrombosis or embolism, knotting of the pulmonary artery catheter, and certain other events.

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Figure 3.5. Obstetric trauma with 3rd or 4th degree laceration per 1,000 vaginal deliveries without instrument assistance, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2004-2009

YearTotalWhiteBlackAPIHispanic
200429.833.215.646.223.5
200528.231.014.648.523.3
200625.728.413.345.320.8
200724.426.813.541.819.3
200823.525.913.340.718.4
200922.825.413.24016.5

 

YearQ1 (Lowest)Q2Q3Q4 (Highest)
200422.828.332.236.2
200522.327.53035.2
200619.923.627.632.5
200719.122.125.129.7
200819.822.824.528.4
200918.120.624.126.1

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; Q1 represents the lowest income quartile and Q4 represents the highest income quartile based on the median income of a patient's ZIP Code of residence.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, State Inpatient Databases disparities analysis file, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, modified version 4.1.
Denominator: All patients hospitalized for vaginal delivery without indication of instrument assistance.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are adjusted by age. White, Black, and API groups are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 3.6. Average Percentage of Respondents Who Did Not Report Any Patient Safety Events by Hospital Ownership

Hospital OwnershipPercentage
Government-owned59%
Non-government owned54%

Source: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture: 2012 Comparative Database Report.
Denominator: Hospital staff responding to the 2011 Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

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Figure 3.7. Figure 3.7. Average percent positive response for teamwork across units and handoffs and transitions, by hospital teaching status

Teaching StatusTeamwork Across UnitsHandoffs and Transitions
Non-Teaching60%47%
Teaching55%42%

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture: 2012 User Comparative Database Report.
Denominator: Hospital staff responding to the 2011 Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

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Current as of May 2013
Internet Citation: 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report: Chapter 3, Text Descriptions for Figures. May 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr12/chap3-text.html