2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report

Chapter 9, Text Descriptions for Figures

Figure 9.1. People under age 65 with health insurance, by race and income, 2000-2010

Race20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010
White84.685.184.58483.984.183.383.783.382.982.4
Black80.581.281.281.682.481.681.9838281.179.4
Asian82.482.782.681.883.582.98584.686.183.882.9
NHOPI72.486.374.98889.880.480.169.477.473.275.6
AI/AN61.666.960.96565.467.86261.271.667.556
>1 Race83.283.482.48487.783.581.68584.281.884.2

 

Income20002001200220032004200520062007200820092010
Poor65.866.969.768.96969.469.871.67169.669.8
Low Income6970.971.370.27171.470.47069.470.267.6
Middle Income84.685.183.484.484.484.384.583.183.482.282.6
High Income94.193.993.494.494.193.793.594.493.894.294.4

Key: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native; NHOPI = Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 2000-2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65.
Note: NHIS respondents are asked about health insurance coverage at the time of interview. Respondents are considered insured if they have private health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, State Children's Health Insurance Program, a State-sponsored health plan, other government-sponsored health plan, or a military health plan. If their only coverage is through the Indian Health Service, they are not considered insured. Estimates are not adjusted.

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Figure 9.2. People under age 65 who were uninsured all year, by ethnicity and income, 2002-2009

Ethnicity19992000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Non-Hispanic White8.99.79.910.110.310.310.310.811.811.711.9
Hispanic28.328.729.828.22828.928.528.629.528.929

 

Income19992000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Poor21.724.224.62423.92524.323.725.22726.5
Low Income23.824.224.524.924.823.824.324.526.42526.1
Middle Income11.413.412.11312.713.713.915.515.814.915.1
High Income5.45.55.75.26.366.25.76.676.2

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Figure 9.3. Predicted percentages of adults ages 18-64 who were uninsured all year, by race, age, gender, family income, and education, 2002-2009

Race, Age, Gender, Family Income, EducationPercentage
White17.6
Black15.8
Asian17.7
NHOPI8.9
AI/AN21.5
18-4418.6
45-6415
Male20.4
Female14.3
Poor32.5
Low Income30.1
Middle Income16.7
High Income7.4
<High School24.3
High School Grad18.5
Any College12.8

Key: NHOPI = Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, pooled 2002-2009 Full Year files.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Predicted percentages are predicted marginals from a logistic regression model that includes the covariates race, age, gender, family income, education, health insurance, and residence location. Predicted percentages for multiple races did not meet criteria for data reliability and are not reported.

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Figure 9.4. People under age 65 who were uninsured all year, Hispanics and Asians, California, 2001-2009

Hispanic Groups20012003200520072009
Hispanic Total2220.117.81818.1
Mexican23.921.818.418.918.1
Central American29.925.125.226.426.8
South American11.915.913.99.7 
Non-Hispanic White6.15.95.85.87.5

 

Asian Groups20012003200520072009
All Asian119.811.610.88.7
Chinese9.910.88.98.27.6
Filipino6.94.910.18 
Korean312529.731.723.6
Vietnamese13.511.811.912.37.5
South Asian5.2396.3 

Source: University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2009.
Denominator: Hispanic and Asian civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 0-64 in California.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Data for Filipinos, South Asians, and South Americans did not meet criteria for statistical reliability in 2009.

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Figure 9.5. People under age 65 whose family's health insurance premium and out-of-pocket medical expenses were more than 10% of total family income, by race and family income, 2006-2009

RaceWhiteBlackAsianAI/AN>1 Race
20061815.712.724.514.3
200716.814.3169.915.2
200817.814.714.716.319
200917.914.71520.618.3

 

Family IncomePoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
200633.923.618.88.2
200729.623.618.76.7
200829.125.320.26.7
200929.225.119.17.3

Key: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2006-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Total financial burden includes premiums and out-of-pocket costs for health care services.

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Figure 9.6. People with a specific source of ongoing care, by ethnicity and income, 2010

Ethnicity / Income%
Non-Hispanic White88.2
Hispanic76.2
Poor77.3
Low Income79.1
Middle Income85.5
High Income91.9

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population of all ages.
Note: Measure is age adjusted. A hospital emergency room is not included as a specific source of primary care.

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Figure 9.7. People with a usual primary care provider, by race and family income, 2002-2009

YearTotalWhiteBlackAsianAI/AN>1 Race
200277.378.174.969.373.175.7
200377.678.573.471.37978.6
200477.478.173.375.278.577.9
200576.677.571.970.279.377
200677.678.775.464.780.175.5
200776.377.273.369.47277.1
200875.676.372.271.779.777.6
200975.976.772.780.168.477.7

 

YearPoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
200270.471.777.781.8
200369.372.77882.3
200472.273.676.881.4
200570.47375.781.1
200672.372.77782.2
200770.571.575.181.5
200868.471.475.580.3
200967.27076.381.9

Key: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population of all ages.
Note:
A usual primary care provider is defined as the source of care that a person usually goes to for new health problems, preventive health care, and referrals to other health professionals.

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Figure 9.8. People who were unable to get or delayed in getting needed medical care, dental care, or prescription medicines in the last 12 months, by race and income, 2002-2009

YearWhiteBlackAsianAI/AN>1 Race
200211.19.86.213.617.6
20031111.66.815.916.7
20041111.4514.318
200511.511.1716.216.3
200611.712.26.416.617.2
200710.39.35.58.410.9
200810.69.26.110.212.7
200911.610.26.58.110.9

 

YearPoorLow IncomeMiddle IncomeHigh Income
200216.41410.28.2
200316.414.710.97.5
200416.514.111.27.4
200516.514.711.77.8
200615.414.612.88.2
200714.713.29.77.2
200814.613.19.38.1
200915.414.611.47.5

Key: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2002-2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population of all ages.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better.

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Page last reviewed May 2013
Internet Citation: 2012 National Healthcare Disparities Report: Chapter 9, Text Descriptions for Figures. May 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr12/chap9-text.html