(1) Massie BM, Shah NB. Evolving trends in the epidemiologic factors of heart failure: rationale for preventive strategies and comprehensive disease management. [Review] [52 refs]. American Heart Journal 1997 June;133(6):703-12.
(2) American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics: 2005 Update. American Heart Association Dallas Texas 2005.
(3) Jong P, Vowinckel E, Liu PP, Gong Y, Tu JV. Prognosis and determinants of survival in patients newly hospitalized for heart failure: a population-based study.[see comment]. Archives of Internal Medicine 2002 August 12;162(15):1689-94.
(4) McAlister FA, Teo KK, Taher M et al. Insights into the contemporary epidemiology and outpatient management of congestive heart failure.[see comment]. American Heart Journal 1999 July;138(1:Pt 1):t-94.
(5) Tsuyuki RT, McKelvie RS, Arnold JM et al. Acute precipitants of congestive heart failure exacerbations. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001 October 22;161(19):2337-42.
(6) O'Connell JB. The economic burden of heart failure. Clinical Cardiology 2000 March;23(3:Suppl):Suppl-10.
(7) Krumholz HM, Parent EM, Tu N et al. Readmission after hospitalization for congestive heart failure among Medicare beneficiaries.[see comment]. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997 January 13;157(1):99-104.
(8) Rich MW, Beckham V, Wittenberg C, Leven CL, Freedland KE, Carney RM. A multidisciplinary intervention to prevent the readmission of elderly patients with congestive heart failure.[see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine 1995 November 2;333(18):1190-5.
(9) Greenwald J. The Hospital Discharge: A Review of a High Risk Care Transition With Highlights of a Reengineered Discharge Process. Journal of Patient Safety 2007;3(2):97-106.
(10) American Heart Association. Team Management of Patients with Heart Failure. A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Cardiovascular Nursing Council of the American Heart Association. American Heart Association Dallas Texas 2000.
(11) Phillips CO, Singa RM, Rubin HR, Jaarsma T. Complexity of program and clinical outcomes of heart failure disease management incorporating specialist nurse-led heart failure clinics. A meta-regression analysis. European Journal of Heart Failure 2005 March 16;7(3):333-41.
(12) Taylor S, Bestall J, Cotter S et al. Clinical service organisation for heart failure. [Review] [87 refs]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005;(2):CD002752.
(13) GESICA I. Randomised trial of telephone intervention in chronic heart failure: DIAL trial.[see comment]. BMJ 2005 August 20;331(7514):425.
(14) Riegel B, Carlson B, Kopp Z, LePetri B, Glaser D, Unger A. Effect of a standardized nurse case-management telephone intervention on resource use in patients with chronic heart failure.[see comment]. Archives of Internal Medicine 2002 March 25;162(6):705-12.
(15) Goldberg LR, Piette JD, Walsh MN et al. Randomized trial of a daily electronic home monitoring system in patients with advanced heart failure: the Weight Monitoring in Heart Failure (WHARF) trial. American Heart Journal 2003 October;146(4):705-12.
(16) Cleland JG, Louis AA, Rigby AS, Janssens U, Balk AH, TEN-HMS I. Noninvasive home telemonitoring for patients with heart failure at high risk of recurrent admission and death: the Trans-European Network-Home-Care Management System (TEN-HMS) study.[see comment]. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2005 May 17;45(10):1654-64.
(17) Harrison MB, Browne GB, Roberts J, Tugwell P, Gafni A, Graham ID. Quality of life of individuals with heart failure: a randomized trial of the effectiveness of two models of hospital-to-home transition.[see comment]. Medical Care 2002 April;40(4):271-82.
(18) Holland R, Brooksby I, Lenaghan E et al. Effectiveness of visits from community pharmacists for patients with heart failure: HeartMed randomised controlled trial.[see comment]. BMJ 2007 May 26;334(7603):1098.
(19) Holland R, Lenaghan E, Harvey I et al. Does home based medication review keep older people out of hospital? The HOMER randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2005 February 5;330(7486):293.
(20) Clark RA, Inglis SC, McAlister FA, Cleland JG, Stewart S. Telemonitoring or structured telephone support programmes for patients with chronic heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis.[see comment]. [Review] [16 refs]. BMJ 2007 May 5;334(7600):942.
(21) Gonseth J, Guallar-Castillon P, Banegas JR, Rodriguez-Artalejo F. The effectiveness of disease management programmes in reducing hospital re-admission in older patients with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published reports.[see comment]. [Review] [113 refs]. Eur Heart J 2004 September;25(18):1570-95.
(22) Holland R, Battersby J, Harvey I, Lenaghan E, Smith J, Hay L. Systematic review of multidisciplinary interventions in heart failure.[see comment]. [Review] [44 refs]. Heart 2005 July;91(7):899-906.
(23) McAlister FA, Stewart S, Ferrua S, McMurray JJ. Multidisciplinary strategies for the management of heart failure patients at high risk for admission: a systematic review of randomized trials.[see comment]. [Review] [46 refs]. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2004 August 18;44(4):810-9.
(24) Phillips CO, Wright SM, Kern DE, Singa RM, Shepperd S, Rubin HR. Comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support for older patients with congestive heart failure: a meta-analysis.[see comment][erratum appears in JAMA. 2004 Sep 1;292(9):1022]. JAMA 2004 March 17;291(11):1358-67.
(25) Roccaforte R, Demers C, Baldassarre F, Teo KK, Yusuf S. Effectiveness of comprehensive disease management programmes in improving clinical outcomes in heart failure patients. A meta-analysis.[see comment][erratum appears in Eur J Heart Fail. 2006 Mar;8(2):223-4]. European Journal of Heart Failure 2005 December;7(7):1133-44.
(26) Trochu JN, Baleynaud S, Mialet G, et.al. Efficacy of multdisciplinary management of chronic heart failure patients: one year results of a multicentre randomised trial in French medical practice. European Heart Journal 2004;in press.
(27) Giliarevskii SR OVKLBNBOSE. [Effect of therapeutic education of patients with chronic heart failure on quality of life and requirement of rehospitalizations. Results of 12-months randomized study]. Kardiologiia 2002;(5):56-61.
(28) DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials 503. Control Clin Trials 1986 September;7(3):177-88.
(29) Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003 September 6;327(7414):557-60.
(30) Atienza F. Multicenter randomized trial of a comprehensive hospital discharge and outpatient heart failure management program. European journal of heart failure : journal of the Working Group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology 2004 August;(5):643-52.
(31) Barth V. A nurse-managed discharge program for congestive heart failure patients: outcomes and costs. Home Health Care Management & Practice 2001;13(6):436-43.
(32) Capomolla S, Febo O, Ceresa M et al. Cost/utility ratio in chronic heart failure: comparison between heart failure management program delivered by day-hospital and usual care.[see comment]. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2002 October 2;40(7):1259-66.
(33) Cline CM, Israelsson BY, Willenheimer RB, Broms K, Erhardt LR. Cost effective management programme for heart failure reduces hospitalisation.[see comment]. Heart 1998 November;80(5):442-6.
(34) Del SD, Pulignano G, Minardi G et al. Two-year outcome of a prospective, controlled study of a disease management programme for elderly patients with heart failure.[see comment]. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 2007 May;8(5):324-9.
(35) Dunagan WC, Littenberg B, Ewald GA et al. Randomized trial of a nurse-administered, telephone-based disease management program for patients with heart failure.[see comment]. Journal of Cardiac Failure 2005 June;11(5):358-65.
(36) Jaarsma T, Halfens R, Tan F, bu-Saad HH, Dracup K, Diederiks J. Self-care and quality of life in patients with advanced heart failure: the effect of a supportive educational intervention. Heart & Lung 2000 September;29(5):319-30.
(37) Kasper EK, Gerstenblith G, Hefter G et al. A randomized trial of the efficacy of multidisciplinary care in heart failure outpatients at high risk of hospital readmission. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2002 February 6;39(3):471-80.
(38) Koelling TM, Johnson ML, Cody RJ, Aaronson KD. Discharge education improves clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 2005 January 18;111(2):179-85.
(39) Laramee AS, Levinsky SK, Sargent J, Ross R, Callas P. Case management in a heterogeneous congestive heart failure population: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003 April 14;163(7):809-17.
(40) Ledwidge M, Ryan E, O'Loughlin C et al. Heart failure care in a hospital unit: a comparison of standard 3-month and extended 6-month programs. European Journal of Heart Failure 2005 March 16;7(3):385-91.
(41) Linne AB, Liedholm H. Effects of an interactive CD-program on 6 months readmission rate in patients with heart failure - a randomised, controlled trial [NCT00311194]. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2006;6:30.
(42) Lopez CC, Falces SC, Cubi QD et al. Randomized clinical trial of a postdischarge pharmaceutical care program vs regular follow-up in patients with heart failure.[see comment]. Farmacia Hospitalaria 2006 November;30(6):328-42.
(43) McDonald K, Ledwidge M, Cahill J et al. Heart failure management: multidisciplinary care has intrinsic benefit above the optimization of medical care. Journal of Cardiac Failure 2002 June;8(3):142-8.
(44) Naylor MD, Brooten DA, Campbell RL, Maislin G, McCauley KM, Schwartz JS. Transitional care of older adults hospitalized with heart failure: a randomized, controlled trial.[see comment][erratum appears in J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Jul;52(7):1228]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2004 May;52(5):675-84.
(45) Nucifora G, Albanese MC, De BP et al. Lack of improvement of clinical outcomes by a low-cost, hospital-based heart failure management programme. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 2006 August;7(8):614-22.
(46) Rainville EC. Impact of pharmacist interventions on hospital readmissions for heart failure. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 1999 July 1;56(13):1339-42.
(47) Rich MW, Vinson JM, Sperry JC et al. Prevention of readmission in elderly patients with congestive heart failure: results of a prospective, randomized pilot study. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1993 November;8(11):585-90.
(48) Sethares KA, Elliott K. The effect of a tailored message intervention on heart failure readmission rates, quality of life, and benefit and barrier beliefs in persons with heart failure. Heart & Lung 2004 July;33(4):249-60.
(49) Stewart S, Pearson S, Horowitz JD. Effects of a home-based intervention among patients with congestive heart failure discharged from acute hospital care. Archives of Internal Medicine 1998 May 25;158(10):1067-72.
(50) Tsuyuki RT, Fradette M, Johnson JA et al. A multicenter disease management program for hospitalized patients with heart failure.[see comment]. Journal of Cardiac Failure 2004 December;10(6):473-80.
(51) Benatar D, Bondmass M, Ghitelman J, Avitall B. Outcomes of chronic heart failure.[see comment]. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003 February 10;163(3):347-52.
(52) Blue L, Lang E, McMurray JJV et al. Randomized controlled trial of specialist nurse intervention in heart failure. BMJ 2001 Sep 29; 323(7315): 715-8 (10 ref)(7315):715-8.
(53) Capomolla S P. Heart failure case disease management program: a pilot study of home telemonitoring versus usual care. European Heart Journal Supplements 2004;(6):F91-F98.
(54) DeBusk RF, Miller NH, Parker KM et al. Care management for low-risk patients with heart failure: a randomized, controlled trial.[see comment][summary for patients in Ann Intern Med. 2004 Oct 19;141(8):I58; PMID: 15492334]. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004 October 19;141(8):606-13.
(55) Doughty RN, Wright SP, Pearl A et al. Randomized, controlled trial of integrated heart failure management: The Auckland Heart Failure Management Study.[see comment]. European Heart Journal 2002 January;23(2):139-46.
(56) Ducharme A, Doyon O, White M, Rouleau JL, Brophy JM. Impact of care at a multidisciplinary congestive heart failure clinic: a randomized trial.[see comment]. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal 2005 July 5;173(1):40-5.
(57) Ekman I, Andersson B, Ehnfors M, Matejka G, Persson B, Fagerberg B. Feasibility of a nurse-monitored, outpatient-care programme for elderly patients with moderate-to-severe, chronic heart failure.[see comment]. European Heart Journal 1998 August;19(8):1254-60.
(58) Jerant AF, Azari R, Nesbitt TS. Reducing the cost of frequent hospital admissions for congestive heart failure: a randomized trial of a home telecare intervention. Medical Care 2001 November;39(11):1234-45.
(59) Krumholz HM, Amatruda J, Smith GL et al. Randomized trial of an education and support intervention to prevent readmission of patients with heart failure.[see comment]. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2002 January 2;39(1):83-9.
(60) Mejhert M, Kahan T, Persson H, Edner M. Limited long term effects of a management programme for heart failure.[see comment]. Heart 2004 September;90(9):1010-5.
(61) Morcillo C. [Evaluation of a home-based intervention in heart failure patients. Results of a randomized study]. Revista espanola de cardiologia 2005 June;(6):618-25.
(62) Riegel B, Carlson B, Glaser D, Romero T. Randomized controlled trial of telephone case management in Hispanics of Mexican origin with heart failure.[see comment]. Journal of Cardiac Failure 2006 April;12(3):211-9.
(63) Stewart S, Marley JE, Horowitz JD. Effects of a multidisciplinary, home-based intervention on unplanned readmissions and survival among patients with chronic congestive heart failure: a randomised controlled study. Lancet 1999 September 25;354(9184):1077-83.
(64) Stromberg A, Martensson J, Fridlund B, Levin LA, Karlsson JE, Dahlstrom U. Nurse-led heart failure clinics improve survival and self-care behaviour in patients with heart failure: results from a prospective, randomised trial.[see comment]. European Heart Journal 2003 June;24(11):1014-23.
(65) Thompson DR, Roebuck A, Stewart S. Effects of a nurse-led, clinic and home-based intervention on recurrent hospital use in chronic heart failure.[see comment]. European Journal of Heart Failure 2005 March 16;7(3):377-84.
(66) Wierzchowiecki M, Poprawski K, Nowicka A et al. A new programme of multidisciplinary care for patients with heart failure in Pozna: one-year follow-up. Kardiologia Polska 1071 February;64(10):1063-70.
(67) Bouvy ML, Heerdink ER, Urquhart J, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW, Leufkens HG. Effect of a pharmacist-led intervention on diuretic compliance in heart failure patients: a randomized controlled study.[erratum appears in J Card Fail. 2003 Dec;9(6):481 Note: Hoe Arno W [corrected to Hoes Arno W]]. Journal of Cardiac Failure 2003 October;9(5):404-11.
(68) Gattis WA, Hasselblad V, Whellan DJ, O'Connor CM. Reduction in heart failure events by the addition of a clinical pharmacist to the heart failure management team: results of the Pharmacist in Heart Failure Assessment Recommendation and Monitoring (PHARM) Study.[see comment]. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999 September 13;159(16):1939-45.
(69) Murray MD, Young J, Hoke S et al. Pharmacist intervention to improve medication adherence in heart failure: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2007 May 15;146(10):714-25.
(70) Sisk JE, Hebert PL, Horowitz CR, McLaughlin MA, Wang JJ, Chassin MR. Improving patient care. Effects of nurse management on the quality of heart failure care in minority communities: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006 Aug 15; 145(4): 273-83, I-28 (40 ref)(4):273-83.
(71) Varma S, McElnay JC, Hughes CM, Passmore AP, Varma M. Pharmaceutical care of patients with congestive heart failure: interventions and outcomes. Pharmacotherapy 1999 July;19(7):860-9.
(72) Ferreira-Gonzalez I, Busse JW, Heels-Ansdell D et al. Problems with use of composite end points in cardiovascular trials: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.[see comment]. [Review] [5 refs]. BMJ 2007 April 14;334(7597):786.