Evidence-based Reports

EPCs conduct research on methods to enhance the scientific rigor and consistency of systematic reviews, develop White Papers on systematic review methods that describe the current understanding of the state of the science of emerging methods issues, and have produced methods guidance for conducting systematic reviews.

Methods Guidance
   Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews
   Methods Guide for Medical Test Reviews
Methods Research Reports
   Health Systems Partnership Project Reports
   Methods Research on Future Research Needs
   Nutritional Research Series
White Papers

Methods Guidance

Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews

Download the full Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews (PDF, 5.58 MB)

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Methods Guide for Medical Test Reviews

Download the complete Methods Guide for Medical Test Reviews (PDF, 2.4 MB)

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Methods Research Reports

Improving Health Systems’ Access to High-Quality Evidence (August 2019)

Supplemental Project To Assess the Transparency of Reporting Requirements for Studies Evaluating the Effectiveness of Treatment Options for Symptoms of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (July 2017)

Supplemental Project To Assess the Transparency of Reporting for Trials Evaluating Treatment for Infertility (June 2017)

Supplemental Project To Assess the Transparency of Reporting Requirements: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease (June 2017)

Supplemental Project To Assess the Transparency of Reporting Requirements: Tympanostomy Tubes in Children With Otitis Media (June 2017)

Modeling and Simulation in the Context of Health Technology Assessment: Review of Existing Guidance, Future Research Needs, and Validity Assessment (January 2017)

Supplemental Project To Assess the Transparency of Reporting for Strategies To Improve Mental Health Care for Children and Adolescents (January 2017)

The Empirical Evidence of Bias in Trials Measuring Treatment Differences (September 2014)

Use of Evidence-based Practice Center Comparative Effectiveness Reviews by Clinical Point-of-Care Tools (April 2014)

Developing and Assessing Contextual Frameworks for Research on the Implementation of Complex System Interventions (March 2014)

Simulation-Based Comparison of Methods for Meta-Analysis of Proportions and Rates (November 2013)

Towards a Framework for Communicating Confidence in Methodological Recommendations for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (September 2013)

Assessing Risk of Bias and Confounding in Observational Studies of Interventions or Exposures: Further Development of the RTI Item Bank (August 2013)

Surveillance and Identification of Signals for Updating Systematic Reviews: Implementation and Early Experience (June 2013)

Identifying and Managing Nonfinancial Conflicts of Interest for Systematic Reviews (May 2013)

Progression-Free Survival: What Does It Mean for Psychological Well-Being or Quality of Life? (April 2013)

Meta-Analytic Statistical Inferences for Continuous Measure Outcomes as a Function of Effect Size Metric and Other Assumptions (April 2013)

Case Study Comparing Bayesian and Frequentist Approaches for Multiple Treatment Comparisons (March 2013)

Empirical Simulation-Based Comparison of Univariate and Multivariate Meta-Analysis for Binary Outcomes (March 2013)

Harmonization of Cognitive Measures in Individual Participant Data and Aggregate Data Meta-Analysis (March 2013)

Decision and Simulation Modeling in Systematic Reviews (February 2013)

Framework for Determining Research Gaps During Systematic Review: Evaluation (February 2013)

Findings of Bayesian Mixed Treatment Comparison Meta-Analyses: Comparison and Exploration Using Real-World Trial Data and Simulation (January 2013)

Evaluating Practices and Developing Tools for Comparative Effectiveness Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy: Methods for the Joint Meta-Analysis of Multiple Tests (January 2013)

A Bayesian Missing Data Framework for Multiple Continuous Outcome Mixed Treatment Comparisons (January 2013)

Assessing the Accuracy of Google Translate To Allow Data Extraction From Trials Published in Non-English Languages (January 2013)

An Empirical Assessment of Bivariate Methods for Meta-Analysis of Test Accuracy (November 2012)

Empirical Assessment of Within-Arm Correlation Imputation in Trials of Continuous Outcomes (November 2012)

Methods for Benefit and Harm Assessment in Systematic Reviews (November 2012)

Quality of Reporting in Systematic Reviews of Implantable Medical Devices (November 2012)

Assessing the Impact of Economic Evidence on Policymakers in Health Care—A Systematic Review (October 2012)

Usefulness of Economic Evaluation Data in Systematic Reviews of Evidence (October 2012)

Best Practices for Conducting Economic Evaluations in Health Care: A Systematic Review of Quality Assessment Tools (October 2012)

A Pilot Study Using Machine Learning and Domain Knowledge To Facilitate Comparative Effectiveness Review Updating (September 2012)

Machine Learning Methods in Systematic Reviews: Identifying Quality Improvement Intervention Evaluations (September 2012)

Use of Mixed Treatment Comparisons in Systematic Reviews (August 2012)

Systematizing the Use of Value of Information Analysis in Prioritizing Systematic Reviews (August 2012)

Peer Review of Search Strategies (June 2012)

Assessing Equivalence and Noninferiority (June 2012)

Reliability Testing of the AHRQ EPC Approach To Grading the Strength of Evidence in Comparative Effectiveness Reviews (May 2012)

Accuracy of Data Extraction of Non–English-Language Trials With Google Translate (April 2012)

Validity and Inter-rater Reliability Testing of Quality Assessment Instruments (March 2012)

Comprehensive Overview of Methods and Reporting of Meta-Analyses of Test Accuracy (March 2012)

OpenMetaAnalyst: Powerful Open-Source Software for Meta-Analysis (February 2012)

Detection of Associations Between Trial Quality and Effect Sizes (January 2012)

A Process for Robust and Transparent Rating of Study Quality: Phase 1 (November 2011)

Correcting for Publication Bias in the Presence of Covariates (September 2011)

Development of the RTI Item Bank on Risk of Bias and Precision of Observational Studies (September 2011)

Feasibility Study of a Wiki Collaboration Platform for Systematic Reviews (September 2011)

Bayesian Approaches to Indirect Comparisons (September 2011)

A Framework for "Best Evidence" Approaches in Systematic Reviews (June 2011)

Empirical Evidence of Associations Between Trial Quality and Effect Size (June 2011)

Addressing Challenges in Genetic Test Evaluation: Evaluation Frameworks and Assessment of Analytic Validity (June 2011)

Identifying Signals for Updating Systematic Reviews: A Comparison of Two Methods (June 2011)

Development of Quality Criteria To Evaluate Nontherapeutic Studies of Incidence, Prevalence, or Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases: Pilot Study of New Checklists (February 2011)

Developing and Testing a Tool for the Classification of Study Designs in Systematic Reviews of Interventions and Exposures  (January 2011)

Comparative Effectiveness Review Methods: Clinical Heterogeneity (September 2010)

Updating Systematic Reviews (September 2007)

Consumer-Oriented Strategies for Improving Health Benefit Design: An Overview (Archived) (July 2007)

A Critical Analysis of Care Coordination Strategies for Children With Special Health Care Needs (Archived) (June 2007)

Empirical Evaluation of the Association Between Methodological Shortcomings and Estimates of Adverse Events (October 2006)

Criteria for Distinguishing Effectiveness From Efficacy Trials in Systematic Reviews (April 2006)

Developing a Methodology for Establishing a Statement of Work for a Policy-Relevant Technical Analysis (Archived) (January 2006)

Meta-Regression Approaches: What, Why, When, and How? (March 2004)

Determinants of Increases in Medicare Expenditures for Physicians' Services (Archived) (October 2003)

Current Validity of AHRQ Clinical Practice Guidelines (Archived) (September 2002)

Health Systems Partnership Project Reports

Methods Research on Future Research Needs

Nutritional Research Series: Advancing the Role of Systematic Reviews in Nutrition Research and Applications

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White Papers

Standardized Library of Asthma Outcome Measures (April 2019)

A Framework for Conceptualizing Evidence Needs of Health Systems (December 2017)

Understanding Health-Systems' Use of and Need for Evidence To Inform Decisionmaking (October 2017)

Discerning the Perception and Impact of Patients Involved in Evidence-based Practice Center Key Informant Interviews (September 2017)

EPC Methods: AHRQ End-User Perspectives of Rapid Reviews (April 2016)

EPC Methods: An Exploration of the Use of Text Mining Software in Systematic Reviews (April 2016)

Change Score or Followup Score? An Empirical Evaluation of the Impact of Choice of Mean Difference Estimates (April 2015)

Comparison of Effects as Evidence Evolves From Single Trials to High-Quality Bodies of Evidence (March 2015)

EPC Methods: An Exploration of Methods and Context for the Production of Rapid Reviews (January 2015)

Integration of Existing Systematic Reviews (June 2014)

Impact of Contacting Study Authors on Systematic Review Conclusions: Diagnostic Tests for Hepatic Fibrosis (April 2014)

Observational Evidence and Strength of Evidence Domains: Case Examples (April 2014)

Systematic Reviews of Complex Multicomponent Health Care Interventions (March 2014)

Assessment of a Method To Detect Signals for Updating Systematic Reviews (March 2014)

Defining the Benefits of Stakeholder Engagement in Systematic Reviews (March 2014)

Payer Perspectives on Improving Usability of Effective Health Care Products: Bridging the Gap Between Information Needs and Evidence Translation (February 2014)

Observational Studies: Empirical Evidence of Their Contributions to Comparative Effectiveness Reviews (June 2013)

A Primer for Systematic Reviewers on the Measurement of Functional Status and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults (September 2013)

Global Health Evidence Evaluation Framework  (June 2013)

Mechanistic Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine: A Conceptual Framework (June 2013)

Reporting the Findings of Updated Systematic Reviews of Comparative Effectiveness: How Do Users Want To View New Information? (May 2013)

EPC Response to IOM Standards for Systematic Reviews (April 2013)

Role of Single Group Studies in Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Comparative Effectiveness Reviews (January 2013)

Proposed Governance and Data Management Policy for the Systematic Review Data Repository (September 2012)

Systematic Review Data Repository (July 2012)

A Framework to Facilitate the Use of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in the Design of Primary Research Studies (January 2012)

Developmental Disabilities Issues Exploration Forum: Cerebral Palsy (November 2011)

Stakeholder Involvement in Improving Comparative Effectiveness Reviews: AHRQ and the Effective Health Care Program (September 2011)

Identifying Priorities for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research for Serious Mental Illness (September 2011)

Using the Principles of Randomized Controlled Trial Design To Guide Test Evaluation (November 2009)

Additional Patient Outcomes and Alternative Pathways in Evaluations of Testing (November 2009)

Medical Tests—White Paper Series (November 2009)

Proposals for a Phased Evaluation of Medical Tests (November 2009)

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Page last reviewed September 2019
Page originally created January 2013
Internet Citation: Methodology. Content last reviewed September 2019. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.
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