Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement

Table 4-4: Language Categories in Selected Collection Instruments

Census Broad
Categories
Census 39 Granular
Categories for Reporting
HRET Toolkit Anthem Blue Cross, CA
English English English English
Spanish Spanisha Spanish Spanish
Other
Indo-European
Armenianf
French (incl. Patois, Cajun)a,b
French Creolee
Germana,b
Greeke
Gujarathif
Hindi

Italiana,c
Persianf
Polisha,d
Portuguese or
Portuguese Creolee
Russiana,c
Scandinavian languagese

Serbo-Croatiand

Urduf
Yiddishf

Other West Germanic languagese Other Slavic languagesd
Other Indic languagese
Other Indo-European languagese

Armenian
French
French Creole
German
Greek
Gujarathi
Hindi

Italian
Persian
Polish
Portuguese
Portuguese Creole
Russian
Scandinavian languages

Serbo-Croatian

Urdu
Yiddish

Armenian
French
German

Hindi
Irish
Italian
Persian/Farsi
Polish
Portuguese

Russian

Scottish

Turkish
Pushto

Aramaic

Asian and Pacific Islander

Chinesea,b

Japanesed
Koreana,c
Laotiane
Miao Hmongf
Mon-Khmer Cambodianf

Tagaloga,c
Thaif
Vietnamesea,c
Other Asian languagese

Other Pacific Islander languagesf

Chinese

Japanese
Korean
Laotian
Miao Hmong
Mon-Khmer Cambodian

Tagalog
Thai
Vietnamese

Cantonese
Chinese
Mandarin
Japanese
Korean
Lao
Hmong
Cambodian/Khmer
Mien
Tagalog
Thai
Vietnamese

Hawaiian
Ilokano
Indonesian
Samoan
Tahitian

Native American Navajof
Other Native North American languagesd
Navajo
Other Native North American languages
American Indian
Other Languages Other and Unspecified
African languagesd
Arabica,c
Hebrew
Hungarian
African languages
Arabic
Hebrew
Hungarian
Other Non-English
Nigerian
Arabic
Hebrew
NA Unspecified or do not know in "other" Do not know
Unavailable
Declined
Undetermined

Decline to state

NA  

American Sign Language

Availability of Sign Language or other auxiliary aids or services

Sign Language American
Sign Language Other

Hearing loss
Speech Loss

a Top 10 non-English languages in the United States.
b Top 10 of 50 individual states in addition to Spanish.
c Top 10 of 20 or more states in addition to Spanish.
d Top 10 of 10 or more states in addition to Spanish.
e Top 10 of 5 or more states in addition to Spanish.
f Top 10 of at least one state in addition to Spanish.

Sources: Hasnain-Wynia, 2007; Ting, 2009; U.S. Census Bureau, 2003e.

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Page last reviewed May 2018
Page originally created September 2012
Internet Citation: Table 4-4: Language Categories in Selected Collection Instruments. Content last reviewed May 2018. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/iomracereport/reldata4tab4-4.html
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