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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 25 of 11856 Research Studies Displayed
Isbell LM, Graber ML, Rovenpor DR
Influence of comorbid depression and diagnostic workup on diagnosis of physical illness: a randomized experiment.
The purpose of this randomized experiment study was to investigate the influence of comorbid depression on diagnostic accuracy. The researchers utilized an interactive vignette that described a patient with a complex presentation of pernicious anemia. Fifty-nine physician participants were randomized to diagnose either a patient with or without (control) comorbid depression and related behaviors. All other clinical information was identical. Physicians recorded a differential diagnosis, ordered tests, and rated patient likeability. The study found that the patient with comorbid depression was less likeable than the control patient. Accuracy of diagnosis was lower in the depression condition compared to the control condition, but this difference was not statistically significant. Accuracy was lower in the depression condition (vs. control) when physicians ordered less tests, but there was no variation for physicians who ordered more tests.
Citation: Isbell LM, Graber ML, Rovenpor DR . Influence of comorbid depression and diagnostic workup on diagnosis of physical illness: a randomized experiment. Diagnosis 2023 Aug; 10(3):257-66. doi: 10.1515/dx-2020-0106..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health
Squires A, Gerchow L, Ma C
A multi-language qualitative study of limited English proficiency patient experiences in the United States.
The objective of this study was to understand the experience of limited English proficiency patients with health care services in an urban setting. Individuals who spoke either Spanish, Russian, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean shared their experiences through semi-structured interviews. A major theme that emerged throughout all interviews was a sense that the language barrier with clinicians posed a threat to safety when receiving healthcare. Participants also identified factors they felt would improve their sense of security specific to clinician interactions. The authors concluded that these findings highlight ongoing challenges that spoken language barriers pose at multiple points of care in the US health care system.
Citation: Squires A, Gerchow L, Ma C . A multi-language qualitative study of limited English proficiency patient experiences in the United States. PEC Innov 2023 Dec; 2:100177. doi: 10.1016/j.pecinn.2023.100177..
Keywords: Patient Experience, Disparities, Vulnerable Populations
Huff NR, Liu G, Chimowitz H
COVID-19 related negative emotions and emotional suppression are associated with greater risk perceptions among emergency nurses: a cross-sectional study.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between emergency nurses' emotional experiences in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and their perceptions of risk to both patients and themselves, and also to investigate the extent to which the use of suppression and reappraisal processes for emotion management were associated with these perceptions. Nurses' negative emotions in response to the pandemic were associated with greater perceptions of both personal and patient safety risks. Chronic tendencies to suppress emotions uniquely predicted higher perceptions of risk. The authors concluded that understanding the factors that influence perceptions of risk are important, since these perceptions can motivate behaviors that may impact patient safety adversely.
Citation: Huff NR, Liu G, Chimowitz H . COVID-19 related negative emotions and emotional suppression are associated with greater risk perceptions among emergency nurses: a cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud Adv 2023 Dec; 5:100111. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnsa.2022.100111.
Keywords: COVID-19, Emergency Department, Provider: Nurse
Miller MJ, Miller MJ, Pak SS, Keller DR SS, Keller DR
Physical therapist telehealth delivery at 1 year into COVID-19.
This study’s purpose was to examine telehealth physical therapy utilization 1 year into the COVID-19 pandemic and identify factors that influence physical therapists' delivery of telehealth in an urban academic medical center. Data was extracted from electronic medical records from March 22 to May 15, 2021. The proportion of physical therapy sessions delivered via telehealth were identified, and patient characteristics were compared by telehealth volume (0 vs ≥1 session, 1 vs >1 session). Telehealth was used for 3793 of 8038 (47.2%) physical therapist sessions, and 1028 unique patients had at least 2 physical therapist sessions (without telehealth: 6.6%, telehealth once: 39.1%, telehealth more than once: 54.3%). Patients who did not use telehealth were older, non-English speaking, had non-commercial insurance, and had at least 1 chronic health condition. Patients who used telehealth more than once had a neurologic diagnosis and lived farther from the treating clinic. Factors that influenced telehealth delivery were physical therapist clinical skills and knowledge, technical proficiency, telehealth-specific interpersonal skills, and cognitive flexibility. External factors outside of the physical therapist that influenced telehealth delivery included the environment, patient equipment and technology proficiency, physical therapist equipment, clinic factors, and patient and referring provider perspectives.
Citation: Miller MJ, Miller MJ, Pak SS, Keller DR SS, Keller DR . Physical therapist telehealth delivery at 1 year into COVID-19. Phys Ther 2022 Nov 6; 102(11). doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzac121..
Keywords: COVID-19, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Mahenthiran AK, Logan CD, Janczewski LM
Evaluation of nationwide trends in nodal sampling guideline adherence for gastric cancer: 2005-2017.
This study’s purpose was to evaluate trends in program-level disparities in adherence to gastric cancer nodal sampling guidelines. The cohort included 55,421 patients who underwent resection of gastric cancer from 2005 to 2017 identified in the National Cancer Database. Of that total 27,201 (49.1%) of patients met adherence criteria for lymph node sampling. Academic hospitals treated 44.4% of the total cohort. Overall, lymph node sampling criteria were met in 59.2% of patients treated at high-volume academic programs and 37.0% of patients treated at low-volume nonacademic programs. Adherence rates improved overall from 2005 to 2017 for both low-volume nonacademic programs (27.8% in 2005 to 50.1% in 2017) and high-volume academic programs (46.0% in 2005 to 69.8% in 2017).
Citation: Mahenthiran AK, Logan CD, Janczewski LM . Evaluation of nationwide trends in nodal sampling guideline adherence for gastric cancer: 2005-2017. J Surg Res 2023 Nov; 291:514-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2023.07.011..
Keywords: Cancer, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Plummer N, Guardado R, Ngassa Y
Racial differences in self-report of mental illness and mental illness treatment in the community: an analysis of jail intake data.
This cross-sectional study evaluated the frequency of racial/ethnic differences in the self-report of mental illness and psychiatric medication use at jail entry. The authors used data from the "Offender Management System," the administrative database used by the jail containing data on people who are incarcerated, and COREMR, the electronic medical record (EMR) used in the Middlesex Jail & House of Correction, located in Billerica, MA. They evaluated two primary outcomes: (1) self-reported mental illness history and (2) self-reported use of psychiatric medication, with the primary indicator of interest as race/ethnicity. At intake over half (57%) in the sample self-reported a history of mental illness, with 20% reporting the use of psychiatric medications. Among people who self-reported a history of mental illness, non-White inmates all had decreased odds of reporting psychiatric medication. Only 20% reported receiving medications in the community prior to incarceration.
Citation: Plummer N, Guardado R, Ngassa Y . Racial differences in self-report of mental illness and mental illness treatment in the community: an analysis of jail intake data. Adm Policy Ment Health 2023 Nov; 50(6):966-75. doi: 10.1007/s10488-023-01297-4..
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minorities, Behavioral Health, Vulnerable Populations
Mak A, Hwang R, Nace G
Trends in histrelin implantation at a pediatric tertiary care center.
This study investigated procedural outcomes and identified changing trends of utilization among patients undergoing histrelin implantation at a large pediatric tertiary care center over a 15 year period. A total of 746 patients underwent 1794 unique procedures, with 1364 placements/replacements and 430 removals. Procedures were performed in the clinic (60%), sedation unit (35%), and operating room (5%). A total of 14 patients had complications, including two patients that required early implant removal and one patient requiring antibiotics. 579 implants were placed for central precocious puberty (CPP) and 167 for gender dysphoria (GD). The cohort included 25.9% males and 74.1% females with mean age of implantation of 9.48 years. The GD cohort was comprised of 52.4% males and 47.6% females, compared to 18.3% males and 81.7% females in the CPP group. Significant difference was identified for mean age at placement by indication (CPP 8.65 years versus GD 12.34). New patient referrals and implant procedures increased significantly for patients over 14 years of age. Yearly frequency of patients receiving implants for CPP and GD increased significantly, with the proportion of GD patients increasing from 7% to 32%.
Citation: Mak A, Hwang R, Nace G . Trends in histrelin implantation at a pediatric tertiary care center. J Surg Res 2023 Nov; 291:73-79. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2023.05.019..
Vear KR, Esbrook E, Padley E
"Time and money and support": adolescents and young adults' perceived social and logistical support needs for safe abortion care.
This study’s objective was to understand what support adolescents and young adults need to access abortion amidst the changing legal landscape. A diverse nationwide sample of individuals aged 14-24 responded to a text message survey in July 2022 about the social and logistical support they would need for safe abortion access. Out of the sample of 638, there was a 78% response rate. Primary sources of social support from parents and friends were named by the respondents for potential abortion decisions. The respondents frequently cited money and transportation as logistical support needs for out-of-state abortion care.
Citation: Vear KR, Esbrook E, Padley E . "Time and money and support": adolescents and young adults' perceived social and logistical support needs for safe abortion care. Contraception 2023 Oct; 126:110128. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2023.110128..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Young Adults, Maternal Care, Patient Safety, Access to Care
Georgette N, Michelson K, Monuteaux M
A temperature- and age-adjusted shock index for emergency department identification of pediatric sepsis.
The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to derive a temperature- and age-adjusted mean shock index (TAMSI) for early identification of sepsis and septic shock in children with suspected infection. Researchers analyzed data on children who presented with suspected infection to a single emergency department over a 10-year period. Test characteristics for the TAMSI cutoffs were compared with those for the Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) tachycardia or systolic hypotension cutoffs. The results showed that TAMSI achieved a similar negative likelihood ratio and improved positive likelihood ratio compared with PALS vital sign cutoffs for the prediction of septic shock, but did not improve on PALS for sepsis prediction among children with suspected infection.
Citation: Georgette N, Michelson K, Monuteaux M . A temperature- and age-adjusted shock index for emergency department identification of pediatric sepsis. Ann Emerg Med 2023 Oct; 82(4):494-502. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.03.026..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Sepsis, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Chen Z, Gleason LJ, Konetzka RT
Accuracy of infection reporting in US nursing home ratings.
The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of publicly reported nursing home data on urinary tract infections (UTIs) and of pneumonia data, which are not publicly reported. Researchers developed a claims-based nursing home-level measure of hospitalized infections and estimated correlations between this and publicly reported ratings. Subjects were Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who were nursing home residents and hospitalized for UTI or pneumonia during the study period. Findings suggested that both UTI and pneumonia were substantially underreported in data used for national public reporting. The researchers concluded that alternative approaches were needed to improve surveillance of nursing home quality.
Citation: Chen Z, Gleason LJ, Konetzka RT . Accuracy of infection reporting in US nursing home ratings. Health Serv Res 2023 Oct; 58(5):1109-18. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14195..
Keywords: Provider Performance, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Pneumonia, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Elderly
Xie A, Koontz DW, Colantuoni EA
Application of participatory ergonomics to the dissemination of a quality improvement program for optimizing blood culture use.
The overuse of blood cultures in pediatric ICUs (PICUs) may lead to the unnecessary utilization of antibiotics and related resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to utilize a participatory ergonomics (PE) approach to disseminate a quality improvement (QI) program for optimizing blood culture use in PICUs and assess the dissemination process and its impact on blood culture reduction. The study found that overall, the participating sites were able to implement the program successfully and reduce their blood culture rates from 149.4 blood cultures per 1,000 patient-days/month before implementation to 100.5 blood cultures per 1,000 patient-days/month after implementation. Differences in the dissemination process, as well as in local interventions and implementation strategies, were observed across sites. Site-specific variations in the rates of blood cultures were weakly negatively associated with the number of preintervention interactions with the coordinating team but not associated with their experiences with the six domains of the dissemination process or their interventions.
AHRQ-funded; HS025642; HS025238.
Citation: Xie A, Koontz DW, Colantuoni EA . Application of participatory ergonomics to the dissemination of a quality improvement program for optimizing blood culture use. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2023 Oct; 49(10):529-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2023.06.004..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Strauss AT, Sidoti CN, Sung HC
Artificial intelligence-based clinical decision support for liver transplant evaluation and considerations about fairness: a qualitative study.
This study’s objective was to use human-centered design methods to elicit providers' perceptions of AI-based clinical decision support (AI-CDS) for liver transplant listing decisions. This multicenter qualitative study involved semistructured interviews with 53 multidisciplinary liver transplant providers from 2 transplant centers. The author’s analysis yielded 6 themes important for the design of fair AI-CDS for liver transplant listing decisions: (1) transparency in the creators behind the AI-CDS and their motivations; (2) understanding how the AI-CDS uses data to support recommendations (ie, interpretability); (3) acknowledgment that AI-CDS could mitigate emotions and biases; (4) AI-CDS as a member of the transplant team, not a replacement; (5) identifying patient resource needs; and (6) including the patient's role in the AI-CDS.
Citation: Strauss AT, Sidoti CN, Sung HC . Artificial intelligence-based clinical decision support for liver transplant evaluation and considerations about fairness: a qualitative study. Hepatol Commun 2023 Oct; 7(10). doi: 10.1097/hc9.0000000000000239..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Transplantation, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Mullens CL, Lussiez A, Scott JW
Association of health professional shortage area hospital designation with surgical outcomes and expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries.
This study’s objective was to compare surgical outcomes and expenditures at hospitals located in Health Professional Shortage Areas to nonshortage area designated hospitals among Medicare beneficiaries. This cross-sectional retrospective study used data from 842,787 Medicare beneficiary patient admissions to hospitals with and without Health Professional Shortage Area designations for common operations including appendectomy, cholecystectomy, colectomy, and hernia repair from 2014 to 2018. Primary outcomes measures were 30-day mortality, hospital readmissions, and 30-day surgical episode payments. Patients (mean age=75.6 years, males=44.4%) undergoing common surgical procedures in shortage area hospitals were less likely to be White (84.6% vs 88.4%) and less likely to have≥2 Elixhauser comorbidities (75.5% vs 78.2%). Patients undergoing surgery at Health Professional Shortage Area hospitals had lower risk-adjusted rates of 30-day mortality (6.05% vs 6.69%) and readmission (14.99% vs 15.74%). Medicare expenditures at Health Professional Shortage Area hospitals were also lower than nonshortage designated hospitals ($28,517 vs $29,685).
AHRQ-funded; HS028606; HS028672.
Citation: Mullens CL, Lussiez A, Scott JW . Association of health professional shortage area hospital designation with surgical outcomes and expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries. Ann Surg 2023 Oct 1; 278(4):e733-e39. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000005762..
Keywords: Hospitals, Surgery, Medicare, Healthcare Costs, Workforce, Outcomes
Gupta AB, Greene MT, Fowler KE
Associations between hospitalist shift busyness, diagnostic confidence, and resource utilization: a pilot study.
Hospitalists are frequently attending to multiple tasks when overseeing patient care, and patients are at risk for diagnostic errors. The purpose of this single-center, prospective, pilot observational study was to measure hospitalist workload and examine its influences on diagnostic performance in a real-world clinical setting. The researchers had hospitalists admitting new patients to the hospital complete an abbreviated Mindful Attention Awareness Tool and a survey on diagnostic confidence upon shift completion. Complete data were available for 37 unique hospitalists who admitted 160 unique patients. The study found that increases in admissions and pages were related with higher odds of hospitalists reporting it was "difficult to focus on what is happening in the present." Increased pages was associated with a decrease in the number of differential diagnoses listed.
AHRQ-funded; HS024385; HS025891.
Citation: Gupta AB, Greene MT, Fowler KE . Associations between hospitalist shift busyness, diagnostic confidence, and resource utilization: a pilot study. J Patient Saf 2023 Oct 1; 19(7):447-52. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000001157..
Keywords: Hospitals, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Patient Safety
Pederson CA, Dir AL, Schwartz K
Associations between outpatient treatment and the use of intensive psychiatric healthcare services.
This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between the utilization of outpatient and intensive psychiatric services among Medicaid-enrolled youth. Using an administrative dataset of Medicaid claims from 2007 to 2017, youth were included if they were between the ages of 10-18 (median = 13.4) and had a psychiatric Medicaid claim (N = 33,590). Outcome was use of psychiatric services coded as outpatient, emergency department (ED), inpatient, or residential based on Medicaid codes. Logistical regression analyses by the authors indicated that the receipt of even one outpatient visit significantly reduced the odds of having an ED, inpatient, and residential visit within 60-, 90-, and 120-day windows. Most youth did not have any ED, inpatient, or residential visit following their first outpatient visit. The authors found that for remaining youth, having an outpatient visit significantly increased the risk of having an ED, inpatient, and residential visit following their initial appointment, which may suggest these youth are being triaged to a more appropriate level of care.
AHRQ-funded; HS022681; HS023318
Citation: Pederson CA, Dir AL, Schwartz K . Associations between outpatient treatment and the use of intensive psychiatric healthcare services. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2023 Oct; 28(4):1380-92. doi: 10.1177/13591045231154106..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Healthcare Utilization
Rojas JC, Teran M, Umscheid CA
AHRQ Author: Teran M, Umscheid CA
Clinician trust in artificial intelligence: what is known and how trust can be facilitated.
This AHRQ-authored review discusses barriers to facilitating trust between clinicians and AI-based tools, which limits its current impact. The authors feel that potential solutions are available at both the local and national level. They feel that it will take a broad and diverse coalition of stakeholders, from health-care systems, EHR vendors, and clinical educators to regulators, researchers, and the patient community, to help facilitate this trust so that the promise of AI in health care can be realized.
Citation: Rojas JC, Teran M, Umscheid CA . Clinician trust in artificial intelligence: what is known and how trust can be facilitated. Crit Care Clin 2023 Oct; 39(4):769-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2023.02.004..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT)
Charkviani M, Barreto EF, Pearson KK
Development and implementation of an acute kidney injury remote patient monitoring program: research letter.
This paper describes the development and preliminary feasibility of an acute kidney injury remote patient monitoring (AKI RPM) program launched in October 2021 to help improve quality and efficiency of care. Enrolled patients were those who experienced AKI during a hospitalization and underwent nephrology consultation. Those patients were provided with home monitoring technology and underwent weekly laboratory assessments. Nurses evaluated the data daily and used prespecified protocols for management and escalation of care if needed. Twenty patients enrolled in the first 5 months, with a median duration of program participation of 36 days. Eight patients experienced an unplanned readmission or emergency department visit, half of which were attributed to AKI and related circumstances. Of the 9 patients who provided postgraduation surveys, all were satisfied with the RPM program and 89% would recommend RPM to other patients with similar health conditions.
Citation: Charkviani M, Barreto EF, Pearson KK . Development and implementation of an acute kidney injury remote patient monitoring program: research letter. Can J Kidney Health Dis 2023 Jan-Dec; 10:20543581231192746. doi: 10.1177/20543581231192746..
Keywords: Kidney Disease and Health, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Gómez-Lumbreras A, Boyce RD, Villa-Zapata L
Drugs that interact with colchicine via inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein: a signal detection analysis using a database of spontaneously reported adverse events (FAERS).
The objective of this study was to examine clinical outcomes associated with colchicine drug interactions. Researchers conducted a disproportionality analysis using the spontaneous reports of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The study’s results identified numerous safety signals for colchicine and CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitor drugs. The authors concluded that avoiding interactions or monitoring for toxicity in patients when co-prescribing colchicine and these agents is highly recommended.
Citation: Gómez-Lumbreras A, Boyce RD, Villa-Zapata L . Drugs that interact with colchicine via inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein: a signal detection analysis using a database of spontaneously reported adverse events (FAERS). Ann Pharmacother 2023 Oct; 57(10):1137-46. doi: 10.1177/10600280221148031..
Keywords: Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Patient Safety
Romijn AC, Rastogi V, Proaño-Zamudio JA
Early versus delayed thoracic endovascular aortic repair for blunt thoracic aortic injury: a propensity score-matched analysis.
This study examined the outcomes of ≤24 h) versus delayed (>24 h) thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI), taking the aortic injury severity into consideration. Current trauma surgery guidelines recommend delayed TEVAR. Patients undergoing TEVAR for BTAI in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program between 2016 and 2019 were included and then stratified into early (≤24 h) or delayed (>24 h). The cohort looked at included 1339 patients, of whom 1054 (79%) underwent early TEVAR. Compared with the delayed group, the early group had significantly less severe head injuries (early vs delayed; 25% vs 32%), fewer early interventions for AAS grade 1 occurred, and AAS grade 3 aortic injuries often were intervened upon within 24 hours (grade 1: 28% vs 47%; grade 3: 49% vs 23%). Compared with the delayed group, the early group had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (8.8% vs 4.4%, relative risk: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.4), alongside a shorter length of hospital stay (5.0 vs 10 days), a shorter intensive care unit length of stay (4.0 vs 11 days) and fewer days on the ventilator (4.0 vs 6.5 days). Regardless of the higher risk of acute kidney injury in the delayed group (3.3% vs 7.7%), no other differences in in-hospital complications were observed between the early and delayed group.
Citation: Romijn AC, Rastogi V, Proaño-Zamudio JA . Early versus delayed thoracic endovascular aortic repair for blunt thoracic aortic injury: a propensity score-matched analysis. Ann Surg 2023 Oct 1; 278(4):e848-e54. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000005817..
Keywords: Surgery, Cardiovascular Conditions, Risk, Outcomes
Yu J, Huckfeldt PJ, Mink PJ
Evaluating the association between expanded coverage of direct-to-consumer telemedicine and downstream utilization and quality of care for urinary tract infections and sinusitis.
The purpose of this study was to compare rates of testing, follow-up health care use, and quality for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and sinusitis between direct-to-consumer (DTC) telemedicine and in-person visits. Primary outcomes included number of laboratory tests, antibiotics filled, office and outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and standardized spending, based on standardized health service prices. The UTI and sinusitis samples included 215,134 and 624,630 episodes of care, respectively. Following the introduction of coverage for DTC telemedicine, 15.7% of UTI episodes and 8.9% of sinusitis episodes were initiated with DTC telemedicine. When compared to episodes without coverage for DTC telemedicine, UTI episodes with coverage had 0.25 fewer lab tests, lower standardized spending for the first UTI visit, and no change in office and outpatient visits, ED visits, antibiotics filled, or standardized medical spending. Sinusitis episodes with coverage for DTC telemedicine had fewer antibiotics filled and a minor increase in ED visits but no difference in lab tests, office and outpatient visits, or standardized medical spending.
Citation: Yu J, Huckfeldt PJ, Mink PJ . Evaluating the association between expanded coverage of direct-to-consumer telemedicine and downstream utilization and quality of care for urinary tract infections and sinusitis. Health Serv Res 2023 Oct; 58(5):976-87. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14129..
Keywords: Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Healthcare Utilization, Quality of Care
Montgomery KB, Fazendin JM, Broman KK
Evolving variation in the extent of surgery for low-risk papillary thyroid cancer in the United States.
This study looked at contemporary trends in the extent of surgery in patients with clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer ≤4 cm. Since 2015 there has been a debate over total thyroidectomy versus lobectomy and declining favor for prophylactic central neck dissection in this low-risk cohort. The authors used retrospective data from the National Cancer Database to identify adult patients with clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer ≤4 cm who underwent resection from 2012 to 2020. Primary outcome was the extent of surgery (lobectomy or total thyroidectomy, with or without prophylactic central neck dissection). Of 83,464 included patients, 79.3% were female with a median age of 51 years. Most patients underwent total thyroidectomy either with prophylactic central neck dissection (39.1%) or without (37.5%) versus lobectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection (7.2%) or without (16.2%). There was an increase in lobectomy from 18.3% in 2012 to 29.9% in 2020. Prophylactic central neck dissection rates also increased from 42.9% to 52.1%. There was a decreased likelihood of total thyroidectomy in patients who were male sex, Asian American, had smaller tumors or were treated at community cancer programs. There was a decreased likelihood of prophylactic central neck dissection in patients who were older, male sex, Black race, with smaller tumors, or were treated at community cancer programs or mid- or low-volume facilities.
Citation: Montgomery KB, Fazendin JM, Broman KK . Evolving variation in the extent of surgery for low-risk papillary thyroid cancer in the United States. Surgery 2023 Oct; 174(4):828-35. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2023.07.001.
Keywords: Surgery, Cancer
Dekeyser GJ, Martin BI, Marchand LS
Geriatric distal femur fractures treated with distal femoral replacement are associated with higher rates of readmissions and complications.
The objective of this study was to compare mortality and complications of distal femur fracture repair among elderly patients who received operative fixation versus distal femur replacement (DFR). Participants were Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older with distal femur fracture who were identified using Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services data. Most of the patients received operative fixation surgery. Results indicated that DFR was associated with significantly greater rates of infection, device-related complication, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, costs, and readmission.
Citation: Dekeyser GJ, Martin BI, Marchand LS . Geriatric distal femur fractures treated with distal femoral replacement are associated with higher rates of readmissions and complications. J Orthop Trauma 2023 Oct; 37(10):485-91. doi: 10.1097/bot.0000000000002638..
Keywords: Elderly, Injuries and Wounds, Hospital Readmissions, Adverse Events
Scott JW, Neiman PU, Scott KW
High deductibles are associated with severe disease, catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for emergency surgical conditions.
This retrospective analysis of claims data examined the association of a high-deductible health insurance plan (HDHP) with severe disease and catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for emergency surgical conditions (e.g., appendicitis, cholecystitis, diverticulitis, and intestinal obstruction). Primary outcome was disease severity at presentation-determined using ICD-10-CM diagnoses codes and based on validated measures of anatomic severity (e.g., perforation, abscess, diffuse peritonitis). The secondary outcome was catastrophic out-of-pocket spending, defined by the World Health Organization as out-of-pocket spending >10% of annual income. Among 43,516 patients [mean age 48.4 years; 51% female], 41% were enrolled in HDHPs. Despite being younger, healthier, wealthier, and more educated, HDHP enrollees were more likely to present with more severe disease (28.5% vs 21.3%); even after adjusting for relevant demographics. HDHP enrollees were also more likely to incur 30-day out-of-pocket spending that exceeded 10% of annual income (20.8% vs 6.4%).
AHRQ-funded; HS027788; HS028672.
Citation: Scott JW, Neiman PU, Scott KW . High deductibles are associated with severe disease, catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for emergency surgical conditions. Ann Surg 2023 Oct 1; 278(4):e667-e74. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000005819..
Keywords: Health Insurance, Healthcare Costs, Payment, Surgery
Yan CH, Hubbard CC, Lee TA
Impact of hydrocodone rescheduling on dental prescribing of opioids.
In 2014, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration rescheduled hydrocodone’s controlled substance schedule from III to II, introducing increasing regulations in prescribing and dispensing. In the U.S., dentists often prescribe hydrocodone, and these changes in scheduling may have altered dental prescribing of opioids. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the hydrocodone rescheduling on dental prescribing of opioids in the United States. Across the 49-month study period, dentists prescribed 50,412,942 opioid prescriptions. Hydrocodone was the most prescribed opioid, followed by codeine, oxycodone, and tramadol. At index, hydrocodone prescribing immediately decreased by -834.8 Rx/1,000 dentists with increased prescribing of codeine, oxycodone, and tramadol. The mean MME increased at index for all opioids except for hydrocodone, and dosages subsequently decreased during the postindex period.
Citation: Yan CH, Hubbard CC, Lee TA . Impact of hydrocodone rescheduling on dental prescribing of opioids. JDR Clin Trans Res 2023 Oct; 8(4):402-12. doi: 10.1177/23800844221102830..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Dental and Oral Health, Practice Patterns
Beck D, Hall S, Costa DK
Leveraging population health datasets to advance maternal health research.
Researchers reviewed a sample of population health datasets and highlighted recommended changes to the datasets to identify existing gaps in maternal health research and help address maternal morbidity and mortality. Their findings showed insufficient representation of pregnant and postpartum individuals across all datasets. They recommended that pregnant and postpartum individuals should be oversampled in population health data to facilitate rapid policy and program evaluation and that individuals with pregnancies resulting in outcomes other than livebirth be included or asked about their experiences.
Citation: Beck D, Hall S, Costa DK . Leveraging population health datasets to advance maternal health research. Matern Child Health J 2023 Oct; 27(10):1683-88. doi: 10.1007/s10995-023-03695-4..
Keywords: Maternal Care, Women, Social Determinants of Health