AHRQ Research Studies

Sign up: mail-updates-icon AHRQ Research Studies Email updates

Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.

Cosgrove L, Krimsky S, Wheeler EE
Conflict of interest policies and industry relationships of guideline development group members: A cross-sectional study of clinical practice guidelines for depression.
The purpose of the present study was to assess a) the disclosure requirements of guideline development groups in a cross-section of guidelines for major depression; and, b) the extent and type of conflicts of panel members. It found that most of the guidelines were developed by panels that had members with industry financial ties to drug companies that manufacture antidepressant medication.
Account Res 2017;24(2):99-115. doi: 10.1080/08989621.2016.1251319.
AHRQ-funded; HS022940.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Guidelines, Disclosure, Antidepressant, Depression, Pharmaceuticals
Ratanawongsa N, Chan LL, Fouts MM
The challenges of electronic health records and diabetes electronic prescribing: implications for safety net care for diverse populations.
This review highlights how the EHR electronic prescribing transformation has affected diabetes care for vulnerable patients and offers recommendations for improving patient safety through EHR electronic prescribing design, implementation, policy, and research. Specifically, it presents evidence for the adoption of RxNorm and standardized naming and picklist options for high alert medications such as insulin.
J Diabetes Res 2017;2017:8983237. doi: 10.1155/2017/8983237.
AHRQ-funded; HS022561; HS023558.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Computer-Based Provider Order Entry (CPOE), Safety Net, Diabetes, Patient Safety
Gans I, Jain A, Sirisreetreerux N
Current practice of antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical fixation of closed long bone fractures: a survey of 297 members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association.
This study found heterogeneity in the use of single- versus multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical repair of closed long bone fractures. Many surgeons were unsure of current evidence-based recommendations regarding perioperative antibiotic use. Most respondents indicated they would be receptive to high-level evidence regarding the single- versus multiple-dose perioperative prophylactic antibiotics for the treatment of closed long bone fractures.
Patient Saf Surg 2017;11:2. doi: 10.1186/s13037-016-0118-5.
AHRQ-funded; HS024547.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Fractures, Surgery, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Prevention and Care Management, Medications
Riehle-Colarusso TJ, Bergersen L, Broberg CS
Databases for congenital heart defect public health studies across the lifespan.
Key experts and stakeholders have identified public health knowledge gaps about congenital heart defects (CHDs). These gaps, and strategies to address them, formed the basis of a CHD public health science agenda. The strategies included leveraging information in existing databases to examine the epidemiology, health outcomes, and health service utilization of the CHD population. The authors discuss this complex constellation of databases, their relative characteristics and possible linkages.
J Am Heart Assoc 2016 Oct 26;5(11). doi: 10.1161/jaha.116.004148.
AHRQ-authored.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Public Health, Data
AHRQ Author: Gray DT
Abramson EL, Patel V, Pfoh ER
How physician perspectives on E-prescribing evolve over time. a case study following the transition between EHRs in an outpatient clinic.
The study objective was to examine how perceptions about using the new electronic health record (EHR) evolved over time, with focus on electronic prescribing. It found that for even experienced e-prescribers, achieving prior levels of perceived prescribing efficiency took nearly two years. Despite the fact that speed in performing prescribing-related tasks was highly important, most were still not utilizing system short cuts or customization features designed to maximize efficiency.
Appl Clin Inform 2016 Oct 26;7(4):994-1006. doi: 10.4338/aci-2016-04-ra-0069.
AHRQ-funded; R18 HS017029.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Electronic Prescribing (E-Prescribing), Computer-Based Provider Order Entry (CPOE), Transition of Care
Liu S, Wu Y, Chang X
A novel computer software system, namely APDV (Automatic Pre-Delivery Verification), was developed for verifying patient treatment plan parameters right prior to treatment deliveries in order to automatically detect and prevent catastrophic errors. This study implemented APDV as a stand-alone program to ensure required real time performance. It concluded that APDV could be useful in detecting and preventing catastrophic errors immediately before treatment deliveries.
Med Phys 2016 Jun;43(6):3753. doi: 10.1118/1.4957526.
AHRQ-funded; HS022888.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Cancer, health care delivery, Treatments, Patient Safety, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Bibbins-Domingo K, Whitlock E, Wolff T
Developing recommendations for evidence-based clinical preventive services for diverse populations: methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) summarizes the principles and considerations that guide development of its recommendations for diverse U.S. populations. It uses these principles through each step in the evidence-based guideline process: developing the research plan, conducting the evidence review, developing the recommendation, and communicating to guideline users. A comprehensive list of recommendations that includes considerations for specific populations is provided.
Ann Intern Med 2017 Apr 18;166(8):565-71. doi: 10.7326/m16-2656.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Evidence-based Medicine, Prevention and Care Management, Research Methodologies, Guidelines
AHRQ Author: Wolff T, Ngo-Metzger Q
Alpert A, Hsi H, Jacobson M
Evaluating the role of payment policy in driving vertical integration in the oncology market.
The researchers documented the increase in vertical integration in the market for cancer care in the period 2003-15, finding that the rate of hospital or health system ownership of practices doubled from about 30 percent to about 60 percent. They concluded that increased consolidation in the market for cancer care rather than being due to changes in Federal payment policies for chemotherapy drugs were instead part of a broader post-ACA trend toward integrated health care systems.
Health Aff 2017 Apr;36(4):680-88. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0830.
AHRQ-funded; HS022741.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Cancer, Health Care Payment, Policy, Organization and Delivery, Systems
Waljee JF, Cron DC, Steiger RM
Effect of preoperative opioid exposure on healthcare utilization and expenditures following elective abdominal surgery.
The researchers examined the extent to which preoperative opioid use is correlated with healthcare utilization and costs following elective surgical procedures. They found that compared with non-users, patients using opioids preoperatively were more likely to have a longer hospital stay and were more likely to be discharged to a rehabilitation facility , adjusting for covariates.
Ann Surg 2017 Apr;265(4):715-21. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000002117.
AHRQ-funded; HS023313.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Opioids, Surgery, health care delivery, Health Care Costs, Adverse Drug Events (ADE)
Tung EL, Baig AA, Huang ES
Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes screening between asian americans and other adults: BRFSS 2012-2014.
The researchers assessed racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes screening between Asian Americans and other adults. They found that Asian Americans were the least likely racial and ethnic group to receive recommended diabetes screening. Overall, Asian Americans had 34 percent lower adjusted odds of receiving recommended diabetes screening compared to non-Hispanic whites.
J Gen Intern Med 2017 Apr;32(4):423-29. doi: 10.1007/s11606-016-3913-x.
AHRQ-funded; HS000078.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups, Diabetes, Screening, Disparities, Prevention and Care Management
Tak YR, Brunwasser SM, Lichtwarck-Aschoff A
The prospective associations between self-efficacy and depressive symptoms from early to middle adolescence: A cross-lagged model.
This study investigated the bidirectional and prospective associations between depressive symptoms and academic, social and emotional self-efficacy from early to mid adolescence in a cross-lagged path model. It found that depressive symptoms predicted subsequent levels of academic and emotional self-efficacy on all time points, and social self-efficacy on one time point. Self-efficacy did not predict subsequent levels of depressive symptoms.
J Youth Adolesc 2017 Apr;46(4):744-56. doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0614-z.
AHRQ-funded; HS022990.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Depression, Child/Adolescent Health, Education, Wellness, Mental Health
Martsolf G, Fingar KR, Coffey R
Association between the opening of retail clinics and low-acuity emergency department visits.
This study assessed whether the opening of retail clinics near emergency departments (ED) is associated with decreased ED utilization for low-acuity conditions. It concluded that with increased patient demand resulting from the expansion of health insurance coverage, retail clinics may emerge as an important care location, but to date, they have not been associated with a meaningful reduction in low-acuity ED visits.
Ann Emerg Med 2017 Apr;69(4):397-403.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.08.462.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Health Care Utilization, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Health Services, Outpatient
AHRQ Author: Elixhauser A
Cornelius T, Earnshaw VA, Menino D
Treatment motivation among caregivers and adolescents with substance use disorders.
The researchers used self-determination theory to examine intersecting motivational narratives among caregivers and adolescents in substance use disorder treatment. Relationships between motivation, interpretation of caregiver pressures, adolescent autonomy, and relatedness were also explored. Their results suggest the importance of intrinsically motivated treatment, and highlight autonomy support and relatedness as mechanisms that might facilitate treatment engagement.
J Subst Abuse Treat 2017 Apr;75:10-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2017.01.003.
AHRQ-funded; HS022986.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Caregiving, Child/Adolescent Health, Substance Abuse, Patient & Family Engagement, Patient Adherence
Biener A, Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C
The high and rising costs of obesity to the US health care system.
The purpose of this editorial is to provide new information on the medical care costs of obesity that help motivate various weight loss interventions. The editorial is a part of a special issue with articles examining behavioral, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions for weight loss, based on a 2016 conference on state-of-the-art weight management hosted by the Veterans Health Administration.
J Gen Intern Med 2017 Apr;32(Suppl 1):6-8. doi: 10.1007/s11606-016-3968-8.
AHRQ-authored.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Obesity, Health Care Costs, Weight Management, Lifestyle Changes, Nutrition
AHRQ Author: Biener A
Hamdy FC, Donovan JL
Patient-reported outcomes following treatment for localized prostate cancer: Helping decision making for patients and their physicians.
Men affected by prostate cancer realize increasingly that there are trade-offs between cancer control and adverse treatment effects. This editorial discusses two AHRQ-funded articles in this issue of JAMA by Barocas and colleagues and by Chen and colleagues that address this important problem by providing information for patients about the short-term adverse effects of contemporary treatments.
JAMA 2017 Mar 21;317(11):1121-23. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.1703.
Editorial on AHRQ-funded studies.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Adverse Medical Events, Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Surgery
Chen RC, Basak R, Meyer AM
Association between choice of radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, or active surveillance and patient-reported quality of life among men with localized prostate cancer.
This study compared quality of life after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, and brachytherapy vs active surveillance. By 24 months, mean scores between treatment groups vs active surveillance were not significantly different in most domains. However, each treatment strategy was associated with distinct patterns of adverse effects over 2 years.
JAMA 2017 Mar 21;317(11):1141-50. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.1652.
AHRQ-funded; AHRQ contract (no number given).
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Surgery, Quality of Life
Barocas DA, Alvarez J, Resnick MJ
Association between radiation therapy, surgery, or observation for localized prostate cancer and patient-reported outcomes after 3 years.
This study compares functional outcomes and adverse effects associated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and active surveillance. It concluded that radical prostatectomy was associated with a greater decrease in sexual function and urinary incontinence than either EBRT or active surveillance after 3 years and was associated with fewer urinary irritative symptoms than active surveillance.
JAMA 2017 Mar 21;317(11):1126-40. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.1704.
AHRQ-funded; HS019356; HS022640.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Adverse Medical Events, Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Surgery
Guirguis-Blake JM, Henderson JT, Perdue LA
Periodic screening pelvic examination: Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The researchers systematically reviewed literature on health benefits, accuracy, and harms of the screening pelvic examination for gynecologic conditions for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). : No direct evidence was identified for overall benefits and harms of the pelvic examination as a 1-time or periodic screening test. Limited evidence was identified regarding the diagnostic accuracy and harms of routine screening pelvic examinations in asymptomatic primary care populations.
JAMA 2017 Mar 7;317(9):954-66. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.12819.
AHRQ-funded.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Screening, Prevention, Evidence-based Medicine, Women's Health
Adamson B, Dimitrov D, Devine B
The potential cost-effectiveness of HIV vaccines: a systematic review.
The aim of this paper was to review and compare HIV vaccine uncertainty in model, methodology, and parameterization. Model assumptions about vaccine price, HIV treatment costs, epidemic context, and willingness to pay influenced results more consistently than assumptions on HIV transmission dynamics.
Pharmacoeconom Open 2017 Mar;1(1):1-12. doi: 10.1007/s41669-016-0009-9.
AHRQ-funded; HS013853.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Cost-Effectiveness, Vaccination, Value, Research Methodologies
Sathe N, Chinnadurai S, McPheeters M
Comparative effectiveness of partial versus total tonsillectomy in children.
This review assessed the effectiveness of partial versus total tonsillectomy in children. Data did not allow firm conclusions regarding the comparative benefit of partial versus total removal; however, neither surgical technique nor extent of surgery appeared to affect outcomes markedly. Partial tonsillectomy conferred moderate advantages in return to normal diet/activity but was also associated with tonsillar regrowth and symptom recurrence.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Mar;156(3):456-63. doi: 10.1177/0194599816683916.
AHRQ-funded; 290201500003I.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Children, Surgery, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Child/Adolescent Health

Pages