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AHRQ Research Studies

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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.

Wilkinson ST, Kiselycznyk C, Banasr M
Serum and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and response in a randomized controlled trial of riluzole for treatment resistant depression.
In this paper, the authors report serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and plasma BDNF levels from a randomized controlled, adjunctive, sequential parallel comparison design trial of riluzole in major depressive disorder. The investigators noted that preliminary evidence suggested that lower baseline BDNF may be associated with better clinical response to riluzole.
J Affect Disord 2018 Dec 1;241:514-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.075.
AHRQ-funded; HS023000.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Depression, Medication, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Spatz ES
Fostering a culture to support surgical outcome measures.
This editorial comments on the relationship of surgical skills (referring to the gentleness, tissue exposure, instrument handling, time and motion, and flow of operation) and patient outcomes
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2016 Jul;9(4):345-7. doi: 10.1161/circoutcomes.116.003038.
AHRQ-funded; HS023000.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Outcomes, Provider Performance, Quality Measurement, Surgery
Silbverberg JI, Kantor RW, Dalal P
A comprehensive conceptual model of the experience of chronic itch in adults.
This study sought to develop a comprehensive conceptual model of itch to improve the understanding of itch for clinicians and to serve as a framework for development of efficient and valid patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) of itch. The study’s conceptual model demonstrated the profound patient-burden of itch and identified unmet needs in the evaluation and management of itch.
Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Oct;19(5):759-69. doi: 10.1007/s40257-018-0381-6.
AHRQ-funded; HS023011.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Chronic Care, Chronic Conditions, Patient Experience
Oates GR, Hamby BW, Bae S
Bikeshare use in urban communities: individual and neighborhood factors.
This study examined factors associated with bikeshare use in a metropolitan area in the southern United States. The study found that higher neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher bikeshare use. Bikeshare was a viable transportation option in low-resource neighborhoods and may be an effective tool to improve the connectivity, livability, and health of urban communities.
Ethn Dis 2017 Nov 9;27(Suppl 1):303-12. doi: 10.18865/ed.27.S1.303.
AHRQ-funded; HS023009.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Health Status, Socioeconomic Factors, Urban Health
Wheeler KK, Shi J, Xiang H
US pediatric trauma patient unplanned 30-day readmissions.
This study sought to determine readmission rates and risk factors for acutely injured pediatric trauma patients. The study found that overall, the readmission rate for pediatric trauma patients was low. Measures of injury severity, specifically length of stay, were most useful in identifying those who would benefit from targeted care coordination resources.
J Pediatr Surg 2018 Apr;53(4):765-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.08.003.
AHRQ-funded; HS024263.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Pediatrics, Readmissions, Trauma
Peltier WL, Gani F, Blissitt J
Initial experience with "Honoring Choices Wisconsin": implementation of an advance care planning pilot in a tertiary care setting.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a pilot program using the "Honoring Choices Wisconsin" (HCW) model for advance care planning (ACP) in a tertiary care setting, and to understand barriers to system-wide implementation. The study concluded that implementation of a facilitator-based ACP care model was associated with fewer ICU admissions, and a higher use of hospice care.
J Palliat Med 2017 Sep;20(9):998-1003. doi: 10.1089/jpm.2016.0530.
AHRQ-funded; HS024736.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: End-of-Life Care, Health Services Research (HSR), Palliative Care
Brennan-Cook J, Bonnabeau E, Aponte R
Barriers to care for persons with sickle cell disease: the case manager's opportunity to improve patient outcomes.
The purpose of this paper was to review the barriers to care for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Chronic pain and the perception of addiction, implicit bias, frequent hospitalizations and emergency department visits, clinician and patient knowledge deficits, and SCD stigma all impede the ability to provide evidence-based care for patients with SCD. The authors assert that case managers can coordinate and advocate for appropriate care that improves patient outcomes.
Prof Case Manag 2018 Jul/Aug;23(4):213-19. doi: 10.1097/ncm.0000000000000260.
AHRQ-funded; HS024501.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Access to Care, Care Delivery, Health Services Research (HSR), Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Sickle Cell Disease
Bauer NS, Azer N, Sullivan PD
Acceptability of group visits for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in pediatric clinics.
The objective of the study was to describe the acceptability of ADHD group visits in busy pediatric clinics based on caregivers, child participants and facilitators. The authors found that the majority of comments from families and facilitators highlighted a variety of benefits of the use of a group visit model for ADHD chronic care. Despite systems-level barriers to implementation, families and facilitators felt the benefits outweighed the challenges.
J Dev Behav Pediatr 2017 Oct;38(8):565-72. doi: 10.1097/dbp.0000000000000492.
AHRQ-funded; HS022434.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Behavioral Health, Children/Adolescents, Mental Health, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Wu VY, Fingar KR, Jiang HJ
Early impact of the Affordable Care Act coverage expansion on safety-net hospital inpatient payer mix and market shares.
The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act's coverage expansion on safety-net hospitals (SNHs). The investigators concluded that postexpansion, non-SNHs experienced a greater percentage increase in Medicaid stays than did SNHs, which may reflect patients choosing non-SNHs over SNHs or a crowd-out of private insurance.
Health Serv Res 2018 Oct;53(5):3617-39. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12812.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201300002.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Health Reform, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Hospitals, Medicaid, Safety Net
AHRQ Author: Jiang HJ
Washington DM, Curtis LM, Waite K
Sociodemographic factors mediate race and ethnicity-associated childhood asthma health disparities: a longitudinal analysis.
This study characterized the longitudinal effects associated with being African-American/Black or Hispanic/Latino on a range of asthma outcomes, and the extent to which sociodemographic factors, caregiver health literacy, education level, and asthma knowledge mediated these associations. The investigators concluded that African-American race and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity are significantly associated with worse asthma compared to Whites in longitudinal analyses.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2018 Oct;5(5):928-38. doi: 10.1007/s40615-017-0441-2.
AHRQ-funded; HS022242.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Asthma, Children/Adolescents, Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Socioeconomic Factors
Utter GH, Cox GL, Atolagbe OO
Conversion of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Quality indicators from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM/PCS: the process, results, and implications for users.
The purpose of this study was to describe the process, results, and implications for users, of converting the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) Quality Indicators (QIs) from International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) specifications to ICD, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification and Procedure Classification System (ICD-10-CM/PCS) specifications.
Health Serv Res 2018 Oct;53(5):3704-27. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12981.
AHRQ-funded; 290201200003I; 290201200001C.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Quality Indicators, Quality Measurement, Quality Measures
Schnall R, Cho H, Mangone A
Mobile health technology for improving symptom management in low income persons living with HIV.
This study aimed to examine the impact of an mHealth application (app), comprised of evidence-based self-care strategies, on the symptom experience of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In this 12-week trial, an mHealth app, mobile Video Information Provider (mVIP), was associated with improved symptom burden and increased medication adherence in PLWH.
AIDS Behav 2018 Oct;22(10):3373-83. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-2014-0.
AHRQ-funded; HS023963.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Chronic Care, Health Information Technology (HIT), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Low-Income Population, Vulnerable Populations
Roydhouse JK, Gutman R, Keating NL
The association of proxy care engagement with proxy reports of patient experience and quality of life.
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of proxy-specific covariates with proxy-reported patient cancer care experience, quality rating, and quality of life. The investigators concluded that collecting data on proxy engagement in care is warranted if proxy responses are used.
Health Serv Res 2018 Oct;53(5):3809-24. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12980.
AHRQ-funded; HS000011.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Cancer, Patient Experience, Patient and Family Engagement, Quality of Life
Rhee C, Filben MR, Massaro AF
Compliance with the national SEP-1 quality measure and association with sepsis outcomes: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.
Many septic patients receive care that fails the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' SEP-1 measure, but it is unclear whether this reflects meaningful lapses in care, differences in clinical characteristics, or excessive rigidity of the "all-or-nothing" measure. This study’s investigators compared outcomes in cases that passed versus failed SEP-1 during the first 2 years after the measure was implemented.
Crit Care Med 2018 Oct;46(10):1585-91. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000003261.
AHRQ-funded; HS025008.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Quality Measurement, Quality Measures, Outcomes, Sepsis
Meyers D, LeRoy L, Bailit M
Workforce configurations to provide high-quality, comprehensive primary care: a mixed-method exploration of staffing for four types of primary care practices.
The aim of this study was to explore the team configurations and associated costs required to deliver high-quality, comprehensive primary care. The study estimates provided health care decision-makers with needed guideposts for considering primary care staffing and financing and informed broader discussions on primary care innovations and the necessary resources to provide high-quality, comprehensive primary care in the USA.
J Gen Intern Med 2018 Oct;33(10):1774-79. doi: 10.1007/s11606-018-4530-7.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201000004I; 29032009T.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Care Delivery, Health Care Quality, Primary Care, Workforce, Teams
AHRQ Author: Meyers D, Zhan C
Makris UE, Alvarez CA, Mortensen EM
Association of statin use with increased risk of musculoskeletal conditions: a retrospective cohort study.
This study examined the association between statin use and the risk of being diagnosed with non-traumatic arthropathies, use-related injury, and undergoing rehabilitation in a cohort with longitudinal follow-up. Statin use was associated with a significant increased risk of non-traumatic arthropathies and use-related injury. The results provide additional data that can inform patient and clinician conversations about the benefits and risks of statin use.
Drug Saf 2018 Oct;41(10):939-50. doi: 10.1007/s40264-018-0682-y.
AHRQ-funded; HS022418.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Arthritis and Osteoarthritis, Medication, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Risk
Frogner BK
Update on the stock and supply of health services researchers in the United States.
This study examines the stock and supply including educational pipeline of health services researchers (HSRers) in the United States. The study found that the average annual growth rate of HSRers appeared to be within range of national recommendations. The authors asserted that additional work is needed to assess whether supply of HSRers is meeting demand and to ensure a competent and diverse educational pipeline that meets the needs of an evolving health system.
Health Serv Res 2018 Oct;53(Suppl 2):3945-66. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12988.
AHRQ-funded; 233201600155.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Education: Academic, Health Services Research (HSR), Research
Cartmell KB, Dismuke CE, Dooley M
Effect of an evidence-based inpatient tobacco dependence treatment service on 1-year postdischarge health care costs.
In 2014, the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) implemented a Tobacco Dependence Treatment Service (TDTS) consistent with the Joint Commission (JC) standards recommending that hospitals screen patients for smoking, provide cessation support, and follow-up contact for relapse prevention within 1 month of discharge. This paper examined whether exposure to the TDTS influenced downstream health care charges 12 months after patients were discharged from the hospital.
Med Care 2018 Oct;56(10):883-89. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000000979.
AHRQ-funded; HS023863.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Health Care Costs, Inpatient Care, Screening, Substance Abuse, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation
Carpenter D, Hassell S, Mardon R
Ambulatory Surgery, Cost-Effectiveness, Health Care Costs, Evidence-based Practice, Organization and Administration
This paper describes the concept of using learning communities to support adoption of health care innovations. The authors assert that the learning community model of group learning can serve as an effective method to support dissemination and implementation of innovations, and to achieve desired outcomes in local settings.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2018 Oct;44(10):566-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2018.03.010.
AHRQ-funded; 290201100001C.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Innovations and Emerging Issues, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Quality Improvement, Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP)
Burgess JF, Menachemi N, Maciejewski ML
Update on the health services research doctoral core competencies.
The purpose of this study was to present revised core competencies for doctoral programs in health services research (HSR), modalities to deliver these competencies, and suggested methods for assessing mastery of these competencies. The study concluded that core competencies in HSR are a continually evolving work in progress because new research questions arise, new methods are developed, and the trans-disciplinary nature of the field leads to new multidisciplinary and team building needs.
Health Serv Res 2018 Oct;53(Suppl 2):3985-4003. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12851.
AHRQ-funded.
View abstract on the National Library of Medicine site.
Keywords: Education: Academic, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Health Services Research (HSR), Training

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