- Data Infographics
- Data Visualizations
- Data Tools
- Data Innovations
- All-Payer Claims Database
- Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)
- Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)
- AHRQ Quality Indicator Tools for Data Analytics
- State Snapshots
- United States Health Information Knowledgebase (USHIK)
- Data Sources Available from AHRQ
Search All Research Studies
AHRQ Research Studies Date
- Access to Care (373)
- Adverse Drug Events (ADE) (303)
- Adverse Events (699)
- Alcohol Use (57)
- Ambulatory Care and Surgery (189)
- Antibiotics (215)
- Antimicrobial Stewardship (139)
- Anxiety (43)
- Arthritis (127)
- Asthma (115)
- Autism (31)
- Back Health and Pain (55)
- Behavioral Health (621)
- Blood Clots (59)
- Blood Pressure (91)
- Blood Thinners (68)
- Brain Injury (59)
- Breast Feeding (18)
- Burnout (54)
- Cancer (705)
- Cancer: Breast Cancer (184)
- Cancer: Cervical Cancer (18)
- Cancer: Colorectal Cancer (112)
- Cancer: Lung Cancer (70)
- Cancer: Ovarian Cancer (9)
- Cancer: Prostate Cancer (95)
- Cancer: Skin Cancer (12)
- Cardiovascular Conditions (642)
- Care Coordination (100)
- Caregiving (212)
- Care Management (224)
- Case Study (102)
- Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) (54)
- Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) (12)
- Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI) (59)
- Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) (40)
- Children/Adolescents (1389)
- Chronic Conditions (648)
- Clinical Decision Support (CDS) (176)
- Clinician-Patient Communication (264)
- Clostridium difficile Infections (51)
- Colonoscopy (36)
- Communication (355)
- Community-Acquired Infections (54)
- Community-Based Practice (136)
- Community Partnerships (17)
- Comparative Effectiveness (462)
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine (22)
- Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) (9)
- Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) (79)
- COVID-19 (240)
- Critical Care (204)
- Cultural Competence (56)
- Data (177)
- Decision Making (563)
- Dementia (93)
- Dental and Oral Health (58)
- Depression (226)
- Diabetes (350)
- Diagnostic Safety and Quality (495)
- Dialysis (24)
- Digestive Disease and Health (107)
- Disabilities (65)
- Disparities (401)
- Domestic Violence (27)
- Ear Infections (4)
- Education (30)
- Education: Academic (24)
- Education: Continuing Medical Education (154)
- Education: Curriculum (22)
- Education: Patient and Caregiver (225)
- Elderly (896)
- Electronic Health Records (EHRs) (688)
- Electronic Prescribing (E-Prescribing) (23)
- Emergency Department (510)
- Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (158)
- Emergency Preparedness (23)
- Evidence-Based Practice (851)
- Eye Disease and Health (29)
- Falls (80)
- Family Health and History (65)
- Genetics (92)
- Guidelines (340)
- Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) (399)
- Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) (347)
- Healthcare Costs (747)
- Healthcare Delivery (520)
- Healthcare Utilization (372)
- Health Information Exchange (HIE) (49)
- Health Information Technology (HIT) (1270)
- Health Insurance (401)
- Health Literacy (118)
- Health Promotion (74)
- Health Services Research (HSR) (319)
- Health Status (129)
- Health Systems (91)
- Heart Disease and Health (429)
- Hepatitis (40)
- Home Healthcare (130)
- Hospital Discharge (202)
- Hospitalization (499)
- Hospital Readmissions (307)
- Hospitals (698)
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (244)
- Hypertension (26)
- Imaging (225)
- Implementation (176)
- Infectious Diseases (242)
- Influenza (39)
- Injuries and Wounds (193)
- Innovations and Emerging Issues (15)
- Inpatient Care (197)
- Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (244)
- Kidney Disease and Health (180)
- Labor and Delivery (106)
- Learning Health Systems (36)
- Lifestyle Changes (133)
- Long-Term Care (210)
- Low-Income (158)
- Maternal Care (133)
- Medicaid (327)
- Medical Devices (58)
- Medical Errors (184)
- Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (181)
- Medical Liability (26)
- Medicare (533)
- Medication (1549)
- Medication: Safety (212)
- Men's Health (49)
- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (71)
- Mortality (377)
- Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) (43)
- Neurological Disorders (183)
- Newborns/Infants (234)
- Nursing (102)
- Nursing Homes (306)
- Nutrition (127)
- Obesity (235)
- Obesity: Weight Management (97)
- Opioids (274)
- Organizational Change (70)
- Orthopedics (99)
- Osteoporosis (30)
- Outcomes (755)
- Pain (199)
- Palliative Care (134)
- Patient-Centered Healthcare (432)
- Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (1018)
- Patient Adherence/Compliance (221)
- Patient and Family Engagement (264)
- Patient Experience (243)
- Patient Safety (1243)
- Patient Self-Management (132)
- Payment (190)
- Pneumonia (75)
- Policy (412)
- Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN) (16)
- Practice Improvement (31)
- Practice Patterns (297)
- Pregnancy (291)
- Pressure Ulcers (27)
- Prevention (742)
- Primary Care (664)
- Primary Care: Models of Care (87)
- Provider (300)
- Provider: Clinician (62)
- Provider: Health Personnel (82)
- Provider: Nurse (96)
- Provider: Pharmacist (84)
- Provider: Physician (212)
- Provider: Physician Assistant (1)
- Provider Performance (184)
- Public Health (164)
- Public Reporting (41)
- Quality Improvement (528)
- Quality Indicators (QIs) (135)
- Quality Measures (221)
- Quality of Care (939)
- Quality of Life (188)
- Racial / Ethnic Minorities (684)
- Registries (146)
- Rehabilitation (84)
- Research Methodologies (397)
- Respiratory Conditions (333)
- Risk (725)
- Rural Health (112)
- Safety Net (86)
- Screening (416)
- Sepsis (128)
- Sex Factors (63)
- Sexual Health (105)
- Sickle Cell Disease (46)
- Simulation (44)
- Skin Conditions (113)
- Sleep Problems (62)
- Social Determinants of Health (324)
- Social Media (45)
- Social Stigma (50)
- Spinal Cord Injury (9)
- Stress (71)
- Stroke (151)
- Substance Abuse (263)
- Surgery (1035)
- Surveys on Patient Safety Culture (13)
- System Design (15)
- Teams (130)
- TeamSTEPPS (16)
- Telehealth (216)
- Tobacco Use (78)
- Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation (20)
- Tools & Toolkits (47)
- Training (136)
- Transitions of Care (177)
- Transplantation (130)
- Trauma (93)
- Treatments (181)
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) (197)
- Uninsured (73)
- Urban Health (83)
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) (65)
- Vaccination (148)
- Value (198)
- Veterans (116)
- Vitamins and Supplements (28)
- Vulnerable Populations (198)
- Web-Based (84)
- Women (480)
- Workflow (58)
- Workforce (86)
- Young Adults (80)
AHRQ Research Studies
Sign up: AHRQ Research Studies Email updates
Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 11147 Research Studies Displayed
Levin JS, Komanduri S, Whaley C
Association between hospital-physician vertical integration and medication adherence rates.
This study’s goal was to test the association between vertical integration of primary care providers (PCPs) and adherence rates for anti-diabetics, renin angiotensin system antagonists (RASA), and statins. Data was extracted from Medicare Part B outpatient fee-for-service claims and Medicare Part D event data from 2014 to 2017. There was a 23% increase in the proportion of patients who had a vertically integrated PCP during the study period. Changes in adherence did not differ significantly between patients based on whether their PCP became integrated. However, among patients with PCPs who become integrated, there were significant decreases in patients who were above 80 years old, were Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Native America, and had greater comorbidities for all three classes.
Citation: Levin JS, Komanduri S, Whaley C . Association between hospital-physician vertical integration and medication adherence rates. Health Serv Res 2023 Apr; 58(2):356-64. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14090..
Keywords: Medication, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Medicare, Primary Care
Garrett SB, Walia A, Miller F
Antibias efforts in United States maternity care: a scoping review of the publicly funded health equity intervention pipeline.
Clin Obstet Gynecol 2023 Mar 1; 66(1):110-23. doi: 10.1097/grf.0000000000000761.
Citation: Garrett SB, Walia A, Miller F . Antibias efforts in United States maternity care: a scoping review of the publicly funded health equity intervention pipeline. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2023 Mar 1; 66(1):110-23. doi: 10.1097/grf.0000000000000761..
Keywords: Maternal Care, Women, Training, Evidence-Based Practice
Schuttner L, Guo R, Wong E
High-risk patient experiences associated with an intensive primary care management program in the Veterans Health Administration.
This study assessed high-risk patient experiences associated with an intensive primary care management program conducted at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The authors assessed patient experience using a patient survey based on the CAHPS Survey in 2019. Patient experience was assessed among 1) prior enrollees (n = 59) of an intensive management program (2014-2018); (2) nonenrollees (n = 356) at program sites; and (3) nonprogram site patients (n = 728). The VHA Office of Primary Care used a patient-centered medical home model (PACT) to deliver coordinated, continuous primary care through multidisciplinary teams. The PACT-Intensive Management (PIM) program was piloted at 5 sites from 2014 to 2018. Outcomes examined included patient ratings of patient-centered care; overall health care experience; and satisfaction with their usual outpatient care provider. Enrollees were more satisfied with their current provider versus nonenrollees within program sites. However, the authors weren’t sure if the benefits persisted after program conclusion.
Citation: Schuttner L, Guo R, Wong E . High-risk patient experiences associated with an intensive primary care management program in the Veterans Health Administration. J Ambul Care Manage 2023 Jan-Mar;46(1):45-53. doi: 10.1097/jac.0000000000000428..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Veterans, Patient Experience, Primary Care
Kirby JB, Nogueira LM, Zhao J
AHRQ Author: Kirby JB
Past disruptions in health insurance coverage and access to care among insured adults.
This AHRQ-authored study investigated whether disruptions in health insurance coverage continued to be associated with poor access even after coverage was regained. The study used a nationally representative cohort of insured adults aged 18-64 years (N=39,904). The authors estimated the association between past disruptions in coverage (occurring at least 1 year before) and the risks of lacking a usual source of care provider and having unmet medical need. Among insured nonelderly adults, the risk of being without a usual source of care provider was between 18% and 75% higher than for those with continuous coverage and the risk of having unmet medical needs was between 41% and 66% higher.
Citation: Kirby JB, Nogueira LM, Zhao J . Past disruptions in health insurance coverage and access to care among insured adults. Am J Prev Med 2023 Mar; 64(3):405-13. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2022.10.005..
Keywords: Health Insurance, Access to Care
Gay HC, Yu J, Persell SD
Comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist prescribing in patients with diabetes mellitus with and without cardiovascular disease.
Researchers sought to describe trends in prescribing for sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in diverse care settings. Their focus was on outpatient clinics in a midwestern integrated health system and small- and medium-sized community-based primary care practices and health centers in three Midwestern states. Results showed that an increase in prescription rates was greater for SGLT2is than for GLP1-RAs in a large integrated medical center and community primary care practices; overall, prescription rates for eligible patients were low, and the researchers observed racial disparities.
AHRQ-funded; HS026385; HS023921.
Citation: Gay HC, Yu J, Persell SD . Comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist prescribing in patients with diabetes mellitus with and without cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 2023 Feb 15; 189:121-30. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.10.041..
Keywords: Diabetes, Cardiovascular Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Medication, Primary Care
Gregory ME, MacEwan SR, Sova LN
A qualitative examination of interprofessional teamwork for infection prevention: development of a model and solutions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of interprofessional teamwork in the prevention of health care-associated infections (HAIs), focusing on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention. The authors interviewed participating physicians, nurses, and other staff from 18 hospitals about interprofessional collaboration, and proposed an Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) model as well as strategies to support teamwork for the prevention of HAIs.
Citation: Gregory ME, MacEwan SR, Sova LN . A qualitative examination of interprofessional teamwork for infection prevention: development of a model and solutions. Med Care Res Rev 2023 Feb;80(1):30-42. doi: 10.1177/10775587221103973..
Keywords: Teams, Prevention, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs)
Djulbegovic B, Hozo I, Lizarraga D
Evaluation of a fast-and-frugal clinical decision algorithm ('pathways') on clinical outcomes in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 treated with anticoagulants.
The objective of this study was to assess if delivery of anticoagulant prophylaxis according to an algorithm improved clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in comparison with anticoagulant treatment given at individual practitioners' discretion. Findings indicated that the algorithm did not reduce death, venous thromboembolism, nor major bleeding, but helped avoid longer hospital stay and admission to an intensive-care unit.
Citation: Djulbegovic B, Hozo I, Lizarraga D . Evaluation of a fast-and-frugal clinical decision algorithm ('pathways') on clinical outcomes in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 treated with anticoagulants. J Eval Clin Pract 2023 Feb; 29(1):3-12. doi: 10.1111/jep.13780..
Keywords: COVID-19, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Blood Thinners, Medication, Evidence-Based Practice, Health Information Technology (HIT)
De Roo AC, Ha J, Regenbogen SE
Impact of Medicare eligibility on informal caregiving for surgery and stroke.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the intensity of family and friend care changes after older individuals enroll in Medicare at 65. Researchers used Health and Retirement Study survey data covering a 20-year period to compare informal care received by patients who had been hospitalized for stroke, heart surgery, or joint surgery, and who were stratified into propensity-weighted pre- and post-Medicare eligibility cohorts. Their results showed that onset of Medicare eligibility was associated with a substantial decrease in family and friend caregiving use received by stroke patients, but not in the other acute care cohorts. They concluded that this effect of Medicare coverage on informal caregiving had implications for patient function and caregiver burden, and should be considered in episode-based reimbursement models that alter professional rehabilitative care intensity.
Citation: De Roo AC, Ha J, Regenbogen SE . Impact of Medicare eligibility on informal caregiving for surgery and stroke. Health Serv Res 2023 Feb; 58(1):128-39. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14019..
Keywords: Medicare, Caregiving, Surgery, Stroke, Cardiovascular Conditions
Holcomb J, Rajan SS, Ferguson GM
Implementation of an evidence-based intervention with safety net clinics to improve mammography appointment adherence among underserved women.
This study evaluated the implementation of an evidence-based intervention in safety-net clinics to improve mammography appointment adherence in underserved women called the Peace of Mind Program. The intervention was implemented in 19 Federally Qualified Health centers and charity care clinics within the Greater Houston area. Surveys were given prior to adoption and at eight weeks post implementation to assess Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs. A total of 4402 women were surveyed (baseline period 2078, intervention period 2324). Women in the intervention period or who completed the intervention were more likely to attend or reschedule their mammography appointment than those who did not complete the intervention. A total of 15 clinics prior to adoption and eight clinics completed the survey post implementation.
Citation: Holcomb J, Rajan SS, Ferguson GM . Implementation of an evidence-based intervention with safety net clinics to improve mammography appointment adherence among underserved women. J Cancer Educ 2023 Feb; 38(1):309-18. doi: 10.1007/s13187-021-02116-w..
Keywords: Safety Net, Evidence-Based Practice, Screening, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Imaging, Vulnerable Populations, Ambulatory Care and Surgery
Hobensack M, Song J, Scharp D
Machine learning applied to electronic health record data in home healthcare: a scoping review.
This literature review aimed to synthesize and appraise the literature describing the application of machine learning to predict adverse outcomes (e.g., hospitalization, mortality) using electronic health record (EHR) data in the home healthcare (HHC) setting. The secondary aim was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of predictors used in the machine learning algorithms guided by the Biopsychosocial Model. Studies were included if they 1) described services provided in the HHC setting, 2) applied machine learning algorithms to predict adverse outcomes, defined as outcomes related to patient deterioration, 3) used EHR data and, 4) focused on the adult population. Predictors were mapped to the Biopsychosocial Model. The final sample included 20 studies, of which 18 used predictors from standardized assessments integrated in the EHR. The most common outcome was hospitalization (55%), followed by mortality (25%). About 35% of studies excluded psychological predictors. Most studies (75%) demonstrated high or unclear risk of bias with tree based algorithms most frequently applied (75%).
Citation: Hobensack M, Song J, Scharp D . Machine learning applied to electronic health record data in home healthcare: a scoping review. Int J Med Inform 2023 Feb; 170:104978. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2022.104978..
Keywords: Home Healthcare, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Nguyen T, Meille G, Buchmueller T
AHRQ Author: Meille G
Mandatory prescription drug monitoring programs and overlapping prescriptions of opioids and benzodiazepines: evidence from Kentucky.
This AHRQ-authored study examined how overlapping benzodiazepine and opioid prescription rates changed after Kentucky implemented a PDMP mandate in July 2012 in response to the opioid epidemic. The authors conducted an interrupted time series analysis using monthly data from Kentucky's PDMP from 2010 to 2016. They also conducted an individual-level longitudinal analysis that compared changes in utilization patterns after the mandate went into effect to changes in earlier periods during which the mandate was not in effect. The PDMP mandate was associated with an immediate 7.5 % decline in the rate of overlapping benzodiazepine and opioid prescriptions and a significant change in the trend from increasing to decreasing. A single provider was responsible for approximately half of the immediate effect in level terms who was writing overlapping benzodiazepine and opioid prescriptions. Their longitudinal analysis suggests that over one year the mandate reduced initiation of overlapping prescriptions by 29.3 % and reduced continuation of overlapping prescriptions by 9.4 %, with effects of the policy being largest for women and men aged 36-50.
Citation: Nguyen T, Meille G, Buchmueller T . Mandatory prescription drug monitoring programs and overlapping prescriptions of opioids and benzodiazepines: evidence from Kentucky. Drug Alcohol Depend 2023 Feb 1; 243:109759. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109759..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Practice Patterns
Bartels K, Howard-Quijano K, Prin M
Meeting report: first Cardiovascular Outcomes Research in Perioperative Medicine conference.
This article summarized the background and objectives of the first Cardiovascular Outcomes Research in Perioperative Medicine (COR-PM) conference. It also described the conduct of the conference and outlined future directions for scientific meetings which are focused on the fostering of high-quality clinical research in the broader perioperative medicine community.
Citation: Bartels K, Howard-Quijano K, Prin M . Meeting report: first Cardiovascular Outcomes Research in Perioperative Medicine conference. Anesth Analg 2023 Feb; 136(2):418-20. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000006248..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Fishbein AB, Lor J, Penedo FJ
Patient-reported outcomes for measuring sleep disturbance in pediatric atopic dermatitis: cross-sectional study of the patient reported outcomes measurement information system pediatric sleep measures and actigraphy.
The purposes of this cross-sectional study were to test the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) sleep measures in pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD) and to develop an algorithm to screen, evaluate, and intervene to reduce sleep disturbances. Participants were children with AD aged 5 to 17 and one parent who completed sleep, itch, and AD-specific questionnaires. Clinicians assessed disease severity. PROMIS sleep disturbance parent proxy reliability was high and was differentiated among Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM)-determined disease severity groups. The authors concluded that sleep disturbance in pediatric AD should be screened using the POEM sleep question, and further assessment using the PROMIS sleep disturbance measure or objective sleep monitoring if it is needed.
Citation: Fishbein AB, Lor J, Penedo FJ . Patient-reported outcomes for measuring sleep disturbance in pediatric atopic dermatitis: cross-sectional study of the patient reported outcomes measurement information system pediatric sleep measures and actigraphy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2023 Feb; 88(2):348-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.05.138..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sleep Problems, Skin Conditions, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Difazio RL, Shore BJ, Melvin P
Pneumonia after hip surgery in children with neurological complex chronic conditions.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to estimate rates of postoperative pneumonia in children with neurological complex chronic conditions (CCC) undergoing hip surgery, to determine the effect of pneumonia on postoperative hospital resource use, and to identify predictors. Researchers used data from the Pediatric Health Information System for children 4 years and older with a neurological CCC who had undergone hip surgery from 2016 to 2018 in U.S. children's hospitals. Findings indicate that postoperative pneumonia in children with a neurological CCC was associated with longer length-of-stay, readmissions, and higher costs. Children who had undergone pelvic osteotomies and who had multimorbidity needed additional clinical support to prevent postoperative pneumonia and to decrease resource utilization.
Citation: Difazio RL, Shore BJ, Melvin P . Pneumonia after hip surgery in children with neurological complex chronic conditions. Dev Med Child Neurol 2023 Feb; 65(2):232-42. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15339..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Surgery, Neurological Disorders, Pneumonia, Respiratory Conditions, Hospital Readmissions, Adverse Events
Iantorno SE, Ulugia JG, Kastenberg ZJ
Postdischarge racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric appendicitis: a mediation analysis.
This retrospective cohort study sought to explore whether racial and ethnic disparities for children presenting with acute appendicitis persist after initial management and hospital discharge. The cohort included children under 18 years who underwent treatment for acute appendicitis in 47 U.S. Children's Hospitals from 2017 to 2019. Findings showed that children of racial and ethnic minorities were more likely to visit the emergency department after treatment for acute appendicitis, but Hispanic/Latinx patients did not have a corresponding increase in readmission. These differences were mediated mainly by insurance status and urban residence.
Citation: Iantorno SE, Ulugia JG, Kastenberg ZJ . Postdischarge racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric appendicitis: a mediation analysis. J Surg Res 2023 Feb;282:174-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2022.09.027..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Hospital Discharge, Surgery
Kumar V, Encinosa W
AHRQ Author: Encinosa W
Racial disparities in the perceived risk of COVID-19 and in getting needed medical care.
This AHRQ-authored study examined racial and ethnic disparities in eight measures on the perceived risks of COVID-19. The authors used the nationally representative Stanford University School of Medicine Coronavirus Attitudes and Behaviors Survey fielded in May of 2020. Black respondents were 15 percentage points more likely than White respondents to believe the pandemic would not end by Summer 2020 (92% vs 77%), and were 19 percentage points more likely than any other race to feel a need to protect their family from COVID-19 (81% vs 62%). Latinx respondents were 10 percentage points more fearful than White respondents of catching COVID-19 in public places (55% vs 45%). Black respondents were 20 percentage points more likely than White respondents to think they would need medical care if infected (71% vs 51%), and 18 percentage points more likely to think they would need to be hospitalized (59% vs 41%). The proportion of Black respondents believing that the hospital would not have enough capacity to treat them if infected with COVID-19 was 12 percentage points higher than White respondents (41% vs 29%).
Citation: Kumar V, Encinosa W . Racial disparities in the perceived risk of COVID-19 and in getting needed medical care. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2023 Feb; 10(1):4-13. doi: 10.1007/s40615-021-01191-5..
Keywords: COVID-19, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities
O'Donnell TFX,, Dansey KD, Marcaccio CL
Racial disparities in treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.
This study evaluated regional center transfer rates, turndown rates, and outcomes for Black vs White patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) in two large databases. All rAAA repairs in the Vascular Quality Initiative from 2003 to 2020 was used. The authors used the National Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2015 to examine turndown rates for repair. They identified 4935 patients with rAAAs in the Vascular Quality Initiative (6.2% Black) and 48,489 in the National Inpatient Sample (6.0% Black). Transfer rates were high; however, Black patients were significantly less likely to undergo transfer before repair compared with White patients (49% Black vs 62% White). No significant differences were found in perioperative mortality or complications. However, Black patients were significantly more likely to be turned down for repair (37% vs 28%). This difference was mostly found to be due to insurance status. Patients with private insurance had undergone surgery at a similar rate. However, among patients with Medicare or Medicaid/self-pay, Black patients were less likely than were White patients to undergo repair (Medicare, 64% vs 72%; Medicaid/self-pay, 43% vs 61%). Medicaid/self-pay patients were less likely to undergo repair than were patients of the same race with either Medicare or private insurance.
Citation: O'Donnell TFX,, Dansey KD, Marcaccio CL . Racial disparities in treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. J Vasc Surg 2023 Feb; 77(2):406-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.08.009..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Cardiovascular Conditions
Ali MM, McClellan C, Mutter R
AHRQ Author: McClellan C
Recreational marijuana laws and the misuse of prescription opioids: evidence from National Survey on Drug Use and Health microdata.
Using micro data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, researchers examined the relationship between recreational marijuana laws (RMLs) and the misuse of prescription opioids. They found that RML adoption reduced the likelihood of misusing prescription opioids; however, this initial effect appeared to dissipate 2 or 3 years after RML adoption, when the relationship to the likelihood of misusing prescription opioids became positive.
Citation: Ali MM, McClellan C, Mutter R . Recreational marijuana laws and the misuse of prescription opioids: evidence from National Survey on Drug Use and Health microdata. Health Econ 2023 Feb; 32(2):277-301. doi: 10.1002/hec.4620..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, Behavioral Health, Policy
Ervin JN, Vitous CA, Wells EE
Rescue Improvement Conference: a novel tool for addressing failure to rescue.
The objective of this study was to understand the effectiveness of the Rescue Improvement Conference, a forum that addresses failure to rescue (FTR). FTR is the phenomenon where delayed recognition or response to surgical complications leads to a progressive cascade of adverse events culminating in patient death. The authors used 5 indicators of effectiveness: educational value, conference takeaways, discussion time, changes to surgical practice, and opportunities for improvement and conducted semi-structured interviews. The results showed that conference felt that the Rescue Improvement Conference was effective in all five indicators. The authors concluded that the conference has the potential to support other surgical departments in developing system-level strategies to recognize and manage postoperative complications that contribute to FTR.
AHRQ-funded; HS024403; HS023621.
Citation: Ervin JN, Vitous CA, Wells EE . Rescue Improvement Conference: a novel tool for addressing failure to rescue. Ann Surg 2023 Feb; 277(2):233-37. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004832..
Keywords: Surgery, Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Quality of Care, Quality Improvement
Carey K, Lin MY
Safety-net hospital performance under comprehensive care for joint replacement.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relative progress of safety-net hospitals (SNHs) under Medicare's Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) mandatory bundled payment model and to identify contributors to SNHs' realization of success under the CJR program. Secondary data on all CJR hospitals from 2016-2020 were taken from CMS public use files and from the American Hospital Association. The findings indicated that SNHs were less successful in meeting spending targets when compared to CJR hospitals overall. The authors concluded that the formula used by CMS to determine spending targets may not be sufficient to address disparities in SNH financial performances under mandatory bundled payment.
Citation: Carey K, Lin MY . Safety-net hospital performance under comprehensive care for joint replacement. Health Serv Res 2023 Feb; 58(1):101-06. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14042..
Keywords: Safety Net, Hospitals, Surgery, Orthopedics, Provider Performance
Giordano NA, Swan BA, Johnson TM
Scalable and sustainable approaches to address the well-being of healthcare personnel.
This article discusses scalable and sustainable approaches to alleviate burnout issues among healthcare professionals. Burnout and turnover rates have increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This commentary discusses current research that stemmed from a HRSA grant to implement interventions to reduce burnout and optimize behavioral health in the healthcare workforce as part of their Health and Public Safety Workforce Resilient Training Program. A total of 34 awards were made, with the common focus on implementing individual-level mindfulness and compassion-based interventions. The authors are one of the awardees and discuss their efforts to implement a program called Atlanta’s Resiliency Resource fOr frontline Workers (ARROW). This program offers comprehensive resources for resiliency enrichment, mindfulness training and professional development for clinicians and staff working within metropolitan Atlanta healthcare systems. The authors hope to address concerns regarding the paucity of long-term data following participation in mindfulness training, the use of heterogenous and unscalable interventions and restricted enrollment that hinders generalizability.
Citation: Giordano NA, Swan BA, Johnson TM . Scalable and sustainable approaches to address the well-being of healthcare personnel. J Adv Nurs 2023 Feb; 79(2):e12-e15. doi: 10.1111/jan.15505..
Keywords: Burnout, Provider: Health Personnel, Stress
Aswani MS, Roberts ET
Social risk adjustment in the hospital readmission reduction program: pitfalls of peer grouping, measurement challenges, and potential solutions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the limitations of peer grouping and associated challenges in the measurement of social risk in Medicare's Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP). Public data on hospitals in the HRRP were used to examine the relationship between hospital dual share and readmission rates within peer groups as well as changes in hospital peer group assignments, readmission rates, and penalties, and the relationship between state Medicaid eligibility rules and peer groups. The findings indicated that peer grouping is limited in the extent to which it accounts for differences in hospitals' patient populations. The authors concluded that problems arise from the construction of peer groups and the measure of social risk used to define them.
Citation: Aswani MS, Roberts ET . Social risk adjustment in the hospital readmission reduction program: pitfalls of peer grouping, measurement challenges, and potential solutions. Health Serv Res 2023 Feb; 58(1):51-59. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13969..
Keywords: Hospital Readmissions, Hospitals, Risk
Kanbar LJ, Dexheimer Jw, Zahner J
Standardizing electronic health record ventilation data in the pediatric long-term mechanical ventilator-dependent population.
This research aimed to create a framework for standardizing mechanical ventilation terminology using ventilator data for a cohort of children who were weaned from mechanical ventilation (MV) to long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV). Currently there is a lack of data standardization which is a major barrier to data sharing. The authors proposed a framework for standardizing the data using a common data model (CDM) across multiple populations and sites. They extracted and described relevant electronic health record (EHR) ventilation data. They developed a framework for Clinical Ideas into the PEDSnet CDM based on the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP). They identified 78 children with LMTV dependence who were weaned from ventilator support. They found 25 unique device names and 28 unique ventilation mode names used in the cohort. They decided on the following data concepts: device, interface, ventilation mode, settings, measurements, and duration of ventilation usage per day. They used Concepts from the SNOMED-CT vocabulary and integrated an existing ventilator mode taxonomy to create a framework for CDM and OMOP integration.
Citation: Kanbar LJ, Dexheimer Jw, Zahner J . Standardizing electronic health record ventilation data in the pediatric long-term mechanical ventilator-dependent population. Pediatr Pulmonol 2023 Feb; 58(2):433-40. doi: 10.1002/ppul.26204..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Herman WH, Bullock A, Boltri JM
AHRQ Author: Tracer H
The National Clinical Care Commission report to Congress: background, methods, and foundational recommendations.
This AHRQ-authored paper describes the background, methods, and recommendations of the National Clinical Care Commission (NCCC) focused on factors likely to improve the delivery of high-quality care to all people with diabetes. It is the first in a series of five articles describing the recommendations. The Commission made recommendations at all levels: patient, practice, health system, and health policy. This is the first paper in a series of five articles about the NCCC recommendations. The five articles include recommendations to 1) reduce diabetes-related risks, prevent type 2 diabetes, and avert diabetes complications through changes in federal policies and programs affecting the general population; 2) prevent type 2 diabetes in at-risk individuals through targeted lifestyle and medication interventions; and 3) improve the treatment of diabetes and its complications to improve the health outcomes of people with diabetes. This first article reviews the successes and limitations of previous federal efforts to combat diabetes, describes the establishment of and charge to the NCCC, and discusses the development of a hybrid conceptual model that guided the NCCC’s novel all-of-government approach to address diabetes as a societal and medical problem. The authors then review the procedures used by the NCCC to gather information from federal agencies, stakeholders, key informants, and the public and to conduct literature reviews. Finally, they review the NCCC's three foundational recommendations: 1) improve the coordination of non-health-related and health-related federal agencies to address the social and environmental conditions that are accelerating the diabetes epidemic; 2) ensure that all Americans at risk for and with diabetes have health insurance and access to health care; and 3) ensure that all federal policies and programs promote health equity in diabetes.
Citation: Herman WH, Bullock A, Boltri JM . The National Clinical Care Commission report to Congress: background, methods, and foundational recommendations. Diabetes Care 2023 Feb; 46(2):e14-e23. doi: 10.2337/dc22-0611..
Keywords: Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Prevention, Research Methodologies
Greenlee MC, Bolen S, Chong W
The National Clinical Care Commission report to Congress: leveraging federal policies and programs to improve diabetes treatment and reduce complications.
This paper is the fourth in a series of five articles describing the recommendations of the National Clinician Care Commission (NCCC) on diabetes care. This paper focused on the recommendations of the Treatment and Complications subcommittee of the National Clinical Care Commission. The Commission made recommendations at all levels: patient, practice, health system, and health policy. They also identified several areas that need additional research, such as studying the barriers to uptake of diabetes self-management education and support, exploring methods to implement team-based care, and evaluating the importance of digital connectivity as a social determinant of health.
Citation: Greenlee MC, Bolen S, Chong W . The National Clinical Care Commission report to Congress: leveraging federal policies and programs to improve diabetes treatment and reduce complications. Diabetes Care 2023 Feb; 46(2):e51-e59. doi: 10.2337/dc22-0621..
Keywords: Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Policy, Prevention, Quality of Life