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Research Studies is a compilation of published research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers.
Results1 to 16 of 16 Research Studies Displayed
Fitzpatrick MC, Shah HA, Pandey A
One Health approach to cost-effective rabies control in India.
The authors developed a data-driven rabies transmission model fit to human rabies autopsy data and human rabies surveillance data from Tamil Nadu, India. They found that highly feasible strategies focused on stray dogs, vaccinating as few as 7% of dogs annually, could very cost-effectively reduce human rabies deaths by 70% within 5 years, and a modest expansion to vaccinating 13% of stray dogs could cost-effectively reduce human rabies by almost 90%. Futher, if owners are willing to bring dogs to central point campaigns at double the rate that campaign teams can capture strays, expanded annual targets become cost-effective.
Citation: Fitzpatrick MC, Shah HA, Pandey A . One Health approach to cost-effective rabies control in India. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 Dec 20;113(51):14574-81. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1604975113.
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Infectious Diseases, Prevention, Vaccination
Wang D, Luque AE
Evaluation of a statewide HIV-HCV-STD online clinical education program by healthcare providers - a comparison of nursing and other disciplines.
The authors evaluated the New York State HIV-HCV-STD Clinical Education Initiative (CEI) online education program and compared the self-reported measures by clinicians from different disciplines. They found that physicians and nurse practitioners were the most satisfied, while pharmacists and case/care managers recorded lower than average responses. They recommended that online education programs consider the unique needs by clinicians from specific disciplines.
Citation: Wang D, Luque AE . Evaluation of a statewide HIV-HCV-STD online clinical education program by healthcare providers - a comparison of nursing and other disciplines. Stud Health Technol Inform 2016;225:267-71.
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Education: Continuing Medical Education, Infectious Diseases, Provider, Web-Based
Burnham CA, Hogan PG, Wallace MA
Topical decolonization does not eradicate the skin microbiota of community-dwelling or hospitalized adults.
The authors compared microbial communities and levels of richness and diversity in community-dwelling subjects and in intensive care unit patients before and after the use of topical decolonization protocols. They found a reduction in S. aureus without eradicating endogenous microbiota.
AHRQ-funded; HS021736; HS024269.
Citation: Burnham CA, Hogan PG, Wallace MA . Topical decolonization does not eradicate the skin microbiota of community-dwelling or hospitalized adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016 Dec;60(12):7303-12. doi: 10.1128/aac.01289-16.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Stewardship, Antibiotics, Infectious Diseases, Prevention, Patient Safety
Bartsch SM, Huang SS, Wong KF
Impact of delays between Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and Food and Drug Administration revisions of interpretive criteria for carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae.
The authors used their Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA) simulation model and found that the 32-month delay in changing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) breakpoints might have resulted in 1,821 additional carriers in Orange County, CA. They recommend that policymakers aim to minimize the delay in the adoption of new breakpoints for antimicrobials against emerging pathogens when containment of spread is paramount, ideally less than 1.5 years.
Citation: Bartsch SM, Huang SS, Wong KF . Impact of delays between Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and Food and Drug Administration revisions of interpretive criteria for carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. J Clin Microbiol 2016 Nov;54(11):2757-62. doi: 10.1128/jcm.00635-16.
Keywords: Infectious Diseases, Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Stewardship
Denman DC, Baldwin AS, Marks EG
Modification and validation of the Treatment Self Regulation Questionnaire to assess parental motivation for HPV vaccination of adolescents.
The researchers investigated measures of motivation for HPV vaccination using confirmatory factor analysis to test a three-factor measurement model. Their findings support the use of three subscales to measure motivation in HPV vaccination and suggest possible cultural differences in motivation.
Citation: Denman DC, Baldwin AS, Marks EG . Modification and validation of the Treatment Self Regulation Questionnaire to assess parental motivation for HPV vaccination of adolescents. Vaccine 2016 Sep 22;34(41):4985-90. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.08.037.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Infectious Diseases, Patient and Family Engagement, Vaccination
Shay LA, Street RL, Jr., Baldwin AS
Characterizing safety-net providers' HPV vaccine recommendations to undecided parents: a pilot study.
The researchers developed a tool to describe strength and content of provider HPV vaccination recommendations. The tool showed how providers undercut their recommendations through qualifications or support them with a rationale. The authors recommended that providers would benefit from communication skills training on how to make explicit recommendations with an evidence-based rationale.
Citation: Shay LA, Street RL, Jr., Baldwin AS . Characterizing safety-net providers' HPV vaccine recommendations to undecided parents: a pilot study. Patient Educ Couns 2016 Sep;99(9):1452-60. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2016.06.027.
Keywords: Practice Patterns, Vaccination, Infectious Diseases, Sexual Health, Clinician-Patient Communication, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Communication
Yun H, Yang S, Chen L
Risk of herpes zoster in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases: implications for vaccination.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the age-stratified incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with autoimmune or inflammatory (AI) diseases as compared to older adults for whom the HZ vaccine is currently recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The researchers found that systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis are AI diseases associated with a higher risk of HZ compared to that in older adults for whom vaccination is currently recommended, suggesting that individuals with these conditions who are as young as age 40 years could potentially benefit from the HZ vaccine.
AHRQ-funded; HS021694; HS018517.
Citation: Yun H, Yang S, Chen L . Risk of herpes zoster in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases: implications for vaccination. Arthritis Rheumatol 2016 Sep;68(9):2328-37. doi: 10.1002/art.39670.
Keywords: Infectious Diseases, Prevention, Arthritis, Risk, Sexual Health, Vaccination
Trogdon JG, Shafer PR, Shah PD
Are state laws granting pharmacists authority to vaccinate associated with HPV vaccination rates among adolescents?
Researchers explored whether state laws allowing pharmacists to administer human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations to adolescents are associated with a higher likelihood of HPV vaccine uptake. They concluded that, as currently implemented, state laws allowing pharmacists to administer HPV vaccine to adolescents were not associated with uptake.
Citation: Trogdon JG, Shafer PR, Shah PD . Are state laws granting pharmacists authority to vaccinate associated with HPV vaccination rates among adolescents? Vaccine 2016 Aug 31;34(38):4514-19. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.07.056.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Infectious Diseases, Policy, Provider: Pharmacist, Vaccination
Roosan D, Del Fiol G, Butler J
Feasibility of population health analytics and data visualization for decision support in the infectious diseases domain: a pilot study.
The objectives of this study were: 1) to explore the feasibility of extracting and displaying population-based information from an actual clinical population's database records, 2) to explore specific design features for improving population display, 3) to explore perceptions of population information displays, and 4) to explore the impact of population information display on cognitive outcomes. It concluded that a population database has great potential for reducing complexity and uncertainty in medicine to improve clinical care.
Citation: Roosan D, Del Fiol G, Butler J . Feasibility of population health analytics and data visualization for decision support in the infectious diseases domain: a pilot study. Appl Clin Inform 2016 Jun 29;7(2):604-23. doi: 10.4338/aci-2015-12-ra-0182.
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Data, Decision Making, Infectious Diseases, Public Health
Muenks CE, Hogan PG, Wang JW
Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing various niches of the human body.
The objectives of this study were to determine whether S. aureus polyclonal colonization exists within one body niche and to determine the optimal sampling sites and culture methodology to capture the diversity of S. aureus strains in community-dwelling individuals. The researchers found S. aureus polyclonality within a single body niche and that culture methodology and sampling sites influenced the analytical sensitivity of S. aureus colonization detection and the robustness of phenotypic and genotypic strain recovery.
AHRQ-funded; HS021736; HS024269.
Citation: Muenks CE, Hogan PG, Wang JW . Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing various niches of the human body. J Infect 2016 Jun;72(6):698-705. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.03.015.
Keywords: Infectious Diseases, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Risk
Palar K, Laraia B, Tsai AC
Food insecurity is associated with HIV, sexually transmitted infections and drug use among men in the United States.
The researchers examined the population-level association between food insecurity, HIV risk factors, and HIV serostatus among men. They found that food insecurity is associated with prevalent HIV, STIs, and illicit drug use among men in the United States.
Citation: Palar K, Laraia B, Tsai AC . Food insecurity is associated with HIV, sexually transmitted infections and drug use among men in the United States. AIDS 2016 Jun 1;30(9):1457-65. doi: 10.1097/qad.0000000000001095.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Infectious Diseases, Men's Health, Nutrition, Substance Abuse
Wares JR, Lawson B, Shemin D
Evaluating infection prevention strategies in out-patient dialysis units using agent-based modeling.
The researchers hypothesized that targeting patients receiving antimicrobial treatment would more effectively reduce transmission and acquisition of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) and further that environmental contamination plays a role in the dissemination of MDRO in the dialysis unit. They found that reducing antimicrobial treatment markedly reduces overall colonization rates and also the levels of environmental contamination in the dialysis unit. They suggested that improving the environmental decontamination efficacy between patient dialysis treatments as an effective method for reducing colonization and contamination rates.
Citation: Wares JR, Lawson B, Shemin D . Evaluating infection prevention strategies in out-patient dialysis units using agent-based modeling. PLoS One 2016 May 19;11(5):e0153820. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153820.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Stewardship, Antibiotics, Medication, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Prevention, Ambulatory Care and Surgery, Infectious Diseases
Khan MJ, Massad LS, Kinney W
A common clinical dilemma: Management of abnormal vaginal cytology and human papillomavirus test results.
The researchers reviewed the literature on vaginal cytology and high-risk HPV testing and developed guidance for the management of abnormal vaginal screening tests. Since vaginal cancer is rare, the authors suggested that asymptomatic low-risk women not be screened. They further proposed an algorithm based on expert opinion for managing women with abnormal vaginal test results.
Citation: Khan MJ, Massad LS, Kinney W . A common clinical dilemma: Management of abnormal vaginal cytology and human papillomavirus test results. J Low Genit Tract Dis 2016 Apr;20(2):119-25. doi: 10.1097/lgt.0000000000000185.
Keywords: Cancer, Care Management, Infectious Diseases, Sexual Health, Women
Rosenman MB, Szucs KA, Finnell SM
Nascent regional system for alerting infection preventionists about patients with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: implementation and initial results.
The authors sought to build and to begin evaluating a regional automated system to notify infection preventionists (IPs) when a patient with a history of gram-negative rod multidrug-resistant organism (GNRMDRO) is admitted to an emergency department (ED) or inpatient setting. They found it feasible to create a regional microbiology-based alert system and observed substantial crossover between institutions. They concluded that this system, if it contributes to timely isolation, may help reduce the spread of GNRMDROs.
Citation: Rosenman MB, Szucs KA, Finnell SM . Nascent regional system for alerting infection preventionists about patients with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: implementation and initial results. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014 Oct;35 Suppl 3:S40-7. doi: 10.1086/677833.
Keywords: Emergency Department, Infectious Diseases, Inpatient Care, Patient Safety, Prevention
Jacobs JH, Viboud C, Tchetgen ET
AHRQ Author: Steiner C
The association of meningococcal disease with influenza in the United States, 1989-2009.
The purpose of this paper is to quantify the fraction of meningococcal disease attributable to influenza. The authors found that, over 20 years, 12.8% of meningococcal disease can be attributable to influenza in the preceding weeks with H3N2 accounting for 5.2%, H1N1 4.3%, B 3.0%, and pH1N1 0.2%. They concluded that influenza vaccination could provide protection, particularly in young children where the meningococcal disease vaccine is not recommended or protective against the most common serogroup.
Citation: Jacobs JH, Viboud C, Tchetgen ET . The association of meningococcal disease with influenza in the United States, 1989-2009. PLoS One 2014 Sep 29;9(9):e107486. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Infectious Diseases, Influenza
Kappagoda S, Ioannidis JP
Prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: overview of randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
The purpose of this review was to analyze evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and to identify areas where evidence is lacking. The most studied diseases were geohelminth infection (51 RCTs) and leishmaniasis (46 RCTs). Vaccines, chemoprophylaxis and interventions targeting insect vectors were evaluated in 113, 99 and 39 RCTs, respectively. Few addressed how best to deliver preventive chemotherapy.
Citation: Kappagoda S, Ioannidis JP . Prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: overview of randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Bull World Health Organ 2014 May;92(5):356-66c. doi: 10.2471/blt.13.129601..
Keywords: Prevention, Infectious Diseases, Evidence-Based Practice