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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 13 of 13 Research Studies Displayed
Daniel VT, Ayturk D, Kiefe CI
The current State of the acute care surgery workforce: a boots on the ground perspective.
Acute care surgery (ACS) was proposed to address a general surgery workforce crisis; however, the ACS workforce composition is unknown. A national survey was conducted to determine the differences in the emergency general surgery (EGS) workforce between ACS and non-ACS hospitals. The investigators concluded that ACS and non-ACS hospitals differ in their surgical workforce. It is clear that ACS hospitals have more human capital, which suggests that ACS hospitals may require more dedicated resources compared to non-ACS hospitals.
Citation: Daniel VT, Ayturk D, Kiefe CI . The current State of the acute care surgery workforce: a boots on the ground perspective. Am J Surg 2018 Dec;216(6):1076-81. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2018.08.023..
Keywords: Critical Care, Emergency Department, Hospitals, Workforce
Tabano DC, Anderson ML, Ritzwoller DP
Estimating the impact of diabetes mellitus on worker productivity using self-report, electronic health record and human resource data.
In this study, the investigators assessed the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and measures of worker productivity, direct health care costs, and costs associated with lost productivity (LP) among health care industry workers across two integrated health care systems. They concluded that the impact of DM was reflected in higher rates of LP and higher indirect costs for employers related to LP and higher health care resource use.
Citation: Tabano DC, Anderson ML, Ritzwoller DP . Estimating the impact of diabetes mellitus on worker productivity using self-report, electronic health record and human resource data. J Occup Environ Med 2018 Nov;60(11):e569-e74. doi: 10.1097/jom.0000000000001441..
Keywords: Diabetes, Healthcare Costs, Value, Workforce
Brimhall KC, Mor Barak ME
The critical role of workplace inclusion in fostering innovation, job satisfaction, and quality of care in a diverse human service organization.
Using a sample of 213 participants within 21 departmental units in a diverse human service organization, the authors performed multilevel path analysis to examine the critical role of workplace inclusion in fostering innovation, job satisfaction, and quality of care in a diverse human service organization.
Citation: Brimhall KC, Mor Barak ME . The critical role of workplace inclusion in fostering innovation, job satisfaction, and quality of care in a diverse human service organization. Hum Serv Organ Manag Leadersh Gov 2018 Nov/Dec;42(5):474-92..
Keywords: Innovations and Emerging Issues, Provider, Workforce, Organizational Change, Quality of Care
Mor V, Wallace P
Funding the training of future health services researchers.
This article describes the trends in funding for training health service researches in the United States. The government funds some training through grants by NIH and AHRQ through the National Research Service Award (NRSA) mechanism. However, most of the AHRQ grant programs have reduced their funding levels from 2010 to 2015 by almost half, with only the dissertation grants program (R36) experiencing an increase. Other federal mechanisms to fund training come through postdoctoral or post-MD programs with HRSA or the Veterans Administration. Private funding is also available through the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Lastly, AcademyHealth started a Delivery System Science Fellowship (DSSF) program to provide a paid post-doctoral learning experience for early-career researchers. Out of 118 applicants, 25 fellows, six trained as physicians have been accepted. Twenty-one researchers have completed the fellowship, and four are current fellows. There has been a wide background in those fellows. The writers believe more stable funding sources need to be established with a close collaboration between HSR researchers and users.
Citation: Mor V, Wallace P . Funding the training of future health services researchers. Health Serv Res 2018 Oct;53 Suppl 2:3976-84. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12844..
Keywords: Health Services Research (HSR), Workforce
Meyers D, LeRoy L, Bailit M
AHRQ Author: Meyers D, Zhan C
Workforce configurations to provide high-quality, comprehensive primary care: a mixed-method exploration of staffing for four types of primary care practices.
The aim of this study was to explore the team configurations and associated costs required to deliver high-quality, comprehensive primary care. The study estimates provided health care decision-makers with needed guideposts for considering primary care staffing and financing and informed broader discussions on primary care innovations and the necessary resources to provide high-quality, comprehensive primary care in the USA.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201000004I; 29032009T.
Citation: Meyers D, LeRoy L, Bailit M . Workforce configurations to provide high-quality, comprehensive primary care: a mixed-method exploration of staffing for four types of primary care practices. J Gen Intern Med 2018 Oct;33(10):1774-79. doi: 10.1007/s11606-018-4530-7..
Keywords: Healthcare Delivery, Quality of Care, Primary Care, Workforce, Teams
Costa DK, Moss M
The cost of caring: emotion, burnout, and psychological distress in critical care clinicians.
This paper comments on emotion, burnout, and psychological distress in critical care clinicians. It stresses that the current management approaches for burnout and other forms of psychological distress are insufficient and discusses possibilities for improvement.
Citation: Costa DK, Moss M . The cost of caring: emotion, burnout, and psychological distress in critical care clinicians. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 Jul;15(7):787-90. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201804-269PS..
Keywords: Burnout, Critical Care, Provider, Workforce
Huber MT, Ham SA, Qayyum M
Association between job factors, burnout, and preference for a new job: a nationally representative physician survey.
Investigators used an experimental vignette to test associations between physician demographics, salary, and working with exemplary colleagues on the likelihood of preferring a new job among burned out and non-burned out physicians in various specialties. They found that, among burned out physicians, the opportunity for better salary and colleagues made them more likely to prefer a new job compared to non-burned out physicians, with change in salary associated with the greatest difference. They recommended focusing on improving physician-colleague relationships to improve job retention.
Citation: Huber MT, Ham SA, Qayyum M . Association between job factors, burnout, and preference for a new job: a nationally representative physician survey. J Gen Intern Med 2018 Jun;33(6):789-91. doi: 10.1007/s11606-018-4412-z..
Keywords: Burnout, Workforce, Provider: Physician, Provider
Berridge C, Tyler DA, Miller SC
Staff empowerment practices and CNA retention: findings from a nationally representative nursing home culture change survey.
This article examines whether staff empowerment practices common to nursing home culture change are associated with certified nursing assistant (CNA) retention. It concluded that after adjustment for covariates, a greater staff empowerment practice score was positively associated with greater retention. Compared with the low empowerment category, nursing homes with scores in the medium category had a 44 percent greater likelihood of having higher CNA retention.
Citation: Berridge C, Tyler DA, Miller SC . Staff empowerment practices and CNA retention: findings from a nationally representative nursing home culture change survey. J Appl Gerontol 2018 Apr;37(4):419-34. doi: 10.1177/0733464816665204.
Keywords: Long-Term Care, Nursing Homes, Provider, Provider: Health Personnel, Workforce
Snyder CR, Frogner BK, Skillman SM
Facilitating racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce.
This study explored changes in the racial and ethnic diversity of the health workforce in the United States over the last decade, and evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to promote racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S. health workforce. Findings suggested that although the health workforce overall is becoming more diverse, people of color are most often represented among the entry-level, lower-skilled health occupations.
Citation: Snyder CR, Frogner BK, Skillman SM . Facilitating racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce. J Allied Health 2018 Spring;47(1):58-65..
Keywords: Provider, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Workforce
Leyenaar JK, Frintner MP
Graduating pediatric residents entering the hospital medicine workforce, 2006-2015.
This study analyzed the population of graduating pediatric residents entering the new subspecialty – pediatric hospital medicine (PHM). Data was analyzed from the American Academic of Pediatrics Annual Survey of Graduating Residents, 2006-2015. A total of 5969 graduates completed the survey, and 10.3% reported that they were entering PHM and 33.9% were reporting subspecialty fellowships. A multivariable analysis was done of the demographics, and a higher rate of residents entering PHM were female, to have children, to report that family factors limited their job selection, and to have higher levels of student debt than residents entering fellowships.
Citation: Leyenaar JK, Frintner MP . Graduating pediatric residents entering the hospital medicine workforce, 2006-2015. Acad Pediatr 2018 Mar;18(2):200-07. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2017.05.001..
Keywords: Education: Continuing Medical Education, Provider, Provider: Clinician, Provider: Physician, Workforce
Kim LY, Rose DE, Soban LM
Primary care tasks associated with provider burnout: findings from a Veterans Health Administration survey.
The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the extent to which primary care providers (PCPs) share responsibility for 14 discrete primary care tasks with other team members, and (2) which, if any, of the primary care tasks performed by the PCPs (without reliance on team members) are associated with PCP burnout.
Citation: Kim LY, Rose DE, Soban LM . Primary care tasks associated with provider burnout: findings from a Veterans Health Administration survey. J Gen Intern Med 2018 Jan;33(1):50-56. doi: 10.1007/s11606-017-4188-6..
Keywords: Healthcare Delivery, Health Services Research (HSR), Patient-Centered Healthcare, Primary Care, Provider, Veterans, Workforce
Biener A, Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C
AHRQ Author: Biener A
The impact of obesity on medical care costs and labor market outcomes in the US.
The economic consequences of obesity are not well understood. Researchers analyzed data for 2001-2015 and estimated the percentage of healthcare costs that were associated with adult obesity. They found that a substantial and rising percentage of healthcare costs are associated with obesity. This is true for the US, for individual states, for each category of expenditure, and for each type of payer.
Citation: Biener A, Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C . The impact of obesity on medical care costs and labor market outcomes in the US. Clin Chem 2018 Jan;64(1):108-17. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2017.272450.
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Obesity, Workforce
Dill JS, Morgan JC, Weiner B
Frontline health care workers and perceived career mobility: do high-performance work practices make a difference?
This study examined how high-performance work practices (HPWPs) that focus on career development are related to an individuals' perceived mobility with their current employer, and also examined the relationships between perceived mobility, job satisfaction, and turnover intent. The findings suggest that tuition remission and educational release time positively predict perceived mobility, while measures of perceived organizational support in one's current position and perceived supervisor support for career development are also significant predictors of perceived mobility. Additionally, perceived mobility is a significant predictor of job satisfaction and intent to stay with current employer.
Citation: Dill JS, Morgan JC, Weiner B . Frontline health care workers and perceived career mobility: do high-performance work practices make a difference? Health Care Manage Rev 2014 Oct-Dec;39(4):318-28. doi: 10.1097/HMR.0b013e31829fcbfd.
Keywords: Provider: Health Personnel, Provider Performance, Workforce