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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 32 Research Studies Displayed
Frasier LL, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Wiegmann D
Evaluation of intraoperative hand-off frequency, duration, and context: a mixed methods analysis.
The authors sought a better understanding of the coordination and impact of intraoperative hand-offs. They found that intraoperative hand-offs were frequent and not well coordinated with intraoperative events including counts and other hand-offs. Anchoring and announced hand-offs occurred in a small proportion of cases. They recommended that future work focus on optimizing timing, content, and participation in intraoperative hand-offs.
Citation: Frasier LL, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Wiegmann D . Evaluation of intraoperative hand-off frequency, duration, and context: a mixed methods analysis. J Surg Res 2020 Dec;256:124-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.06.007..
Keywords: Surgery, Transitions of Care, Communication, Teams
Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Miller ME
Comparative effectiveness of long-term acute care hospital versus skilled nursing facility transfer.
This study compared the effectiveness of long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) use versus skilled nursing facility (SNF) transfer after hospitalization. Medicare claims linked to electronic health record (EHR) data from six Texas hospitals between 2009 and 2010 were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients transferred to either an LTACH or SNF and followed for one year. Out of 3505 patients, 18% were transferred to an LTACH and overall were younger, less likely to be female, and white, but sicker than transfers to an SNF. Patients transferred to an LTACH were less likely to survive (59 vs. 65%) or recover (62.5 vs 66%). Adjusting for demographic and clinical confounders found in Medicare claims and EHR data, transfer location was not significantly associated with differences in mortality but was associated with greater Medicare spending.
Citation: Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Miller ME . Comparative effectiveness of long-term acute care hospital versus skilled nursing facility transfer. BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Nov 11;20(1):1032. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05847-6..
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Evidence-Based Practice, Long-Term Care, Elderly, Medicare, Transitions of Care, Nursing Homes, Hospitals
Tremblay ES, Ruiz J, Buccigrosso T
Health care transition in youth with type 1 diabetes and an A1C >9%: qualitative analysis of pre-transition perspectives.
The purpose of this training was to explore expectations for transition to adult care and experiences with transition planning among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and an A1C >9% at a tertiary care U.S. pediatric center. The investigators concluded that a lack of transition preparation and anxiety about transition and adult care among youth with type 1 diabetes and elevated A1C.
Citation: Tremblay ES, Ruiz J, Buccigrosso T . Health care transition in youth with type 1 diabetes and an A1C >9%: qualitative analysis of pre-transition perspectives. Diabetes Spectr 2020 Nov;33(4):331-38. doi: 10.2337/ds20-0011..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Young Adults, Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Transitions of Care, Patient Experience
Nijhawan AE, Bhattatiry M, Chansard M
HIV care cascade before and after hospitalization: impact of a multidisciplinary inpatient team in the US South.
Hospitalization represents an opportunity to re-engage out-of-care individuals, improve HIV outcomes, and reduce health disparities. The authors reviewed electronic health records of HIV-positive individuals hospitalized at an urban, public hospital between September 2013 and December 2015. They found that hospitalized patients with HIV had low rates of engagement in care, retention in care, and virologic suppression, though all three outcomes improved after hospitalization. A multidisciplinary transitions team improved care engagement and virologic suppression in those who received the intervention.
Citation: Nijhawan AE, Bhattatiry M, Chansard M . HIV care cascade before and after hospitalization: impact of a multidisciplinary inpatient team in the US South. AIDS Care 2020 Nov;32(11):1343-52. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2019.1698704.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Transitions of Care, Inpatient Care, Teams, Hospitalization, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Shannon EM, Schnipper JL, Mueller SK
Identifying racial/ethnic disparities in interhospital transfer: an observational study.
Interhospital transfer (IHT) is often performed to provide patients with specialized care. Racial/ethnic disparities in IHT have been suggested but are not well-characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and IHT. The investigators found that Black and Hispanic patients had lower odds of IHT, largely explained by a higher likelihood of being hospitalized at urban teaching hospitals. Racial/ethnic disparities in transfer were demonstrated at community hospitals, in certain geographic regions and among patients with specific diseases.
Citation: Shannon EM, Schnipper JL, Mueller SK . Identifying racial/ethnic disparities in interhospital transfer: an observational study. J Gen Intern Med 2020 Oct;35(10):2939-46. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06046-z..
Keywords: Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Transitions of Care, Hospitals, Care Coordination
Ma AL, Cohen RS, Lee HC
Learning from wildfire disaster experience in California NICUs.
The authors’ objective was to learn how personnel working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of California hospitals handled issues of neonatal transfer during wildfire disasters in recent years; their ultimate goal was to share lessons learned with healthcare teams on disaster preparedness. They found that while describing disaster preparedness, equipment (such as bassinets and backpacks), ambulance access/transport and documentation/charting were noted as important and essential. They concluded that teamwork, willingness to do other tasks that are not part of typical job descriptions, and unconventional strategies contributed to the success of keeping NICU babies safe when California wildfire strikes.
Citation: Ma AL, Cohen RS, Lee HC . Learning from wildfire disaster experience in California NICUs. Children 2020 Oct;7(10):E155. doi: 10.3390/children7100155..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Transitions of Care, Emergency Preparedness, Teams, Healthcare Delivery
Saleh SN, Makam AN, Halm EA,
Can we predict early 7-day readmissions using a standard 30-day hospital readmission risk prediction model?
Despite focus on preventing 30-day readmissions, early readmissions (within 7 days of discharge) may be more preventable than later readmissions (8-30 days). In this study, the investigators assessed how well a previously validated 30-day EHR-based readmission model predicted 7-day readmissions and compared differences in strength of predictors. They suggested that improvements in predicting early 7-day readmissions will likely require new risk factors proximal to day of discharge.
Citation: Saleh SN, Makam AN, Halm EA, . Can we predict early 7-day readmissions using a standard 30-day hospital readmission risk prediction model? BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2020 Sep 15;20(1):227. doi: 10.1186/s12911-020-01248-1..
Keywords: Hospital Readmissions, Hospitals, Risk, Transitions of Care, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Terp S, Seabury SA, Axeen S
The association between hospital characteristics and Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act citation events.
The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) is a federal law enacted in 1986 prohibiting patient dumping (refusing or transferring patients with emergency medical conditions without appropriate stabilization), and discrimination based upon ability to pay. In this study, the investigators evaluated hospital-level features associated with citation for EMTALA violation. They concluded that for-profit ownership was associated with increased odds of EMTALA citations after adjusting for other characteristics.
Citation: Terp S, Seabury SA, Axeen S . The association between hospital characteristics and Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act citation events. Med Care 2020 Sep;58(9):793-99. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001360..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Hospitals, Policy, Transitions of Care
Physical therapy in the COVID-19 pandemic: forging a paradigm shift for rehabilitation in acute care.
This point-of-view article discusses the importance of physical therapy for COVID-19 survivors in home and community-based settings as well as in post-acute care facilities, concluding that it is necessary to react to new and difficult circumstances with growth and self-advocacy in order to forge a future characterized by intensive skilled rehabilitation services in the inpatient setting, simultaneously benefiting the health care systems and the patient populations.
Citation: Keeney T . Physical therapy in the COVID-19 pandemic: forging a paradigm shift for rehabilitation in acute care. Phys Ther 2020 Aug 12;100(8):1265-67. doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzaa097..
Keywords: Rehabilitation, COVID-19, Transitions of Care, Home Healthcare, Healthcare Delivery
Philip JL, Yang DY, Wang X
Effect of transfer status on outcomes of emergency general surgery patients.
This study looked at outcomes of transferred (TRAN) versus directly admitted (DA) emergency general surgery (EGS) patients. Patients with a diagnosis of EGS were identified from the 2008-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Outcomes included were in-hospital mortality and morbidity. They identified 274,145 TRAN and 10,456,100 DA encounters. Morbidity and mortality were both higher in TRAN patients than DA. TRAN patients were more likely to have greater comorbidity scores, have Medicare insurance, and reside in an area with a lesser median household income compared to DA patients. Morbidity among TRAN patients were primarily due urinary-, gastrointestinal-, and pulmonary-related complications. Median stay and median cost at the hospital were greater for TRAN patients.
AHRQ-funded; HS025224; HS022694.
Citation: Philip JL, Yang DY, Wang X . Effect of transfer status on outcomes of emergency general surgery patients. Surgery 2020 Aug;168(2):280-86. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2020.01.005..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Surgery, Transitions of Care, Mortality, Outcomes, Healthcare Costs, Hospitals
Sockolow PS, Bowles KH, Wojciechowicz C
Incorporating home healthcare nurses' admission information needs to inform data standards.
Patient transitions into home health care (HHC) often occur without the transfer of information needed for critical clinical decisions and the plan of care. Owing to a lack of universally implemented standards, there is wide variation in information transfer. In this study, the investigators sought to characterize missing information at HHC admission. They conducted a mixed methods study with 3 diverse HHC agencies.
Citation: Sockolow PS, Bowles KH, Wojciechowicz C . Incorporating home healthcare nurses' admission information needs to inform data standards. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2020 Aug;27(8):1278-86. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa087..
Keywords: Home Healthcare, Transitions of Care, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Abrahamson K, Hass Z, Arling G
Shall I stay or shall I go? The choice to remain in the nursing home among residents with high potential for discharge.
This study examines why private-pay nursing home (NH) residents who expressed a desire for discharge and had relatively low-care needs chose to remain in the NH. The Minnesota Return to Community Initiative (RTCI) is a program that assists those residents to return to the community. Those who remained were more likely to beolder, more cognitively impaired, unmarried, had behavior problems, or diagnosed with dementia. At a 90-day assessment, residents who remained in the facility had a small decline in cognitive status, their continence improved, and they become more independent in activities of daily living (ADLs). Seventy-four percent of those remaining reported a perception of health barriers to discharge.
Citation: Abrahamson K, Hass Z, Arling G . Shall I stay or shall I go? The choice to remain in the nursing home among residents with high potential for discharge. J Appl Gerontol 2020 Aug;39(8):863-70. doi: 10.1177/0733464818807818..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Transitions of Care, Decision Making
Amar-Dolan LG, Horn MH, O'Connell B B
"This is how hard it is". family experience of hospital-to-home transition with a tracheostomy.
This study explores the experience of family caregivers of children and young adults with a tracheostomy during the transition from hospital to home care. Researchers sought to identify the specific unmet needs of families to direct future interventions. Using semi-structured interviews, they found a need for family-centered discharge processes including coordination of care and teaching focused on emergency preparedness.
Citation: Amar-Dolan LG, Horn MH, O'Connell B B . "This is how hard it is". family experience of hospital-to-home transition with a tracheostomy. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020 Jul;17(7):860-68. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201910-780OC..
Keywords: Transitions of Care, Home Healthcare, Caregiving, Patient Experience, Care Coordination, Hospital Discharge, Hospitals, Children/Adolescents, Patient-Centered Healthcare
Zhu W, Patterson BW, Smith M
A Markov chain model for transient analysis of handoff process in emergency departments.
Transfer of care between multiple units or facilities is of significant importance for patient safety, care quality, and operation efficiency. Such transfers are often referred to as handoffs in hospitals, which need to be carried out timely, safely, and smoothly with accurate information. This paper introduced a Markov chain model to study the transients of handoff process in hospital emergency departments.
Citation: Zhu W, Patterson BW, Smith M . A Markov chain model for transient analysis of handoff process in emergency departments. IEEE Robot Autom Lett 2020 Jul;5(3):4360-67. doi: 10.1109/lra.2020.2996066..
Keywords: Emergency Department, Hospitals, Transitions of Care, Healthcare Delivery, Patient Safety
Musial A, Butts B, Loechtenfeldt A
Challenges following hospital discharge for children with medical complexity.
The transition from hospital to home is a period of risk, particularly for children with medical complexity. The aim of this prospective study was to identify and address discharge challenges through execution of postdischarge phone calls. The investigators found that discharge challenges were commonly identified by caregivers of children with medical complexity. The majority of postdischarge challenges were addressed, with some addressed by families themselves.
Citation: Musial A, Butts B, Loechtenfeldt A . Challenges following hospital discharge for children with medical complexity. Hosp Pediatr 2020 Jun;10(6):531-36. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2019-0306..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Hospital Discharge, Transitions of Care
De Roo AC, Morris AM, Vu JV
Characteristics of patients seeking second opinions at a multidisciplinary colorectal cancer clinic.
The purpose of this study was to describe the patient and treatment characteristics of patients seeking initial and second opinions in colorectal cancer care at a multidisciplinary colorectal cancer clinic. Findings showed that patients seeking a second opinion represent a unique subset of patients with colorectal cancer. In general, they are younger and more likely to have stage IV or recurrent disease than patients seeking an initial opinion. Although transfer of care to a multidisciplinary colorectal cancer clinic after second opinion is lower than for initial consultations, multidisciplinary colorectal cancer clinics provide an important role for patients with complex disease characteristics and treatment needs.
Citation: De Roo AC, Morris AM, Vu JV . Characteristics of patients seeking second opinions at a multidisciplinary colorectal cancer clinic. Dis Colon Rectum 2020 Jun;63(6):788-95. doi: 10.1097/dcr.0000000000001647..
Keywords: Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Transitions of Care
Campbell Britton M, Petersen-Pickett J, Hodshon B
Mapping the care transition from hospital to skilled nursing facility.
Researchers used process mapping to illustrate the sequence of events involved with hospital discharge and admission to a skilled nursing facility (SNF). These transitions are often associated with breakdowns in communication that may place patients at risk for adverse events. A quality improvement (QI) team worked with frontline staff at an academic medical center and two local SNFs in the northeastern United States. The final process map included care management, medicine, nursing, admissions and physical therapy service staff. The process map showed numerous activities that need to be coordinated between care teams, and highlighted specific opportunities for improving communication between different teams.
Citation: Campbell Britton M, Petersen-Pickett J, Hodshon B . Mapping the care transition from hospital to skilled nursing facility. J Eval Clin Pract 2020 Jun;26(3):786-90. doi: 10.1111/jep.13238..
Keywords: Transitions of Care, Care Coordination, Quality Improvement, Communication, Hospital Discharge, Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Quality of Care
Wooldridge AR, Carayon P, Hoonakker P
Work system barriers and facilitators in inpatient care transitions of pediatric trauma patients.
Hospital-based care of pediatric trauma patients includes transitions between units that are critical for quality of care and patient safety. Using a macroergonomics approach, the investigators identified work system barriers and facilitators in care transitions. They interviewed eighteen healthcare professionals involved in transitions from emergency department (ED) to operating room (OR), OR to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and ED to PICU.
Citation: Wooldridge AR, Carayon P, Hoonakker P . Work system barriers and facilitators in inpatient care transitions of pediatric trauma patients. Appl Ergon 2020 May;85:103059. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2020.103059..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Inpatient Care, Transitions of Care, Healthcare Delivery, Trauma, Hospitals
Fuller TE, Pong DD, Piniella N
Interactive digital health tools to engage patients and caregivers in discharge preparation: implementation study.
This clinical trial studied implementation of a suite of EHR-integrated digital health tools to engage patients, caregivers, and clinicians in discharge preparation during hospitalization. Patients who were enrolled agreed to watch a discharge video, complete a checklist assessing discharge readiness, and request postdischarge text messaging with a physician 24 to 48 hours before their expected discharge date. Out of 752 patient admissions, from December 2017 to July 2018, 510 participated, 416 watched the video and completed the checklist, and 94 completed only the checklist. Most patients endorsed the tools, but felt that the video and checklist would be more useful closer to the actual discharge date. Clinicians participating in focus groups perceived the value for patients but felt that there were a number of limitations including low awareness and variable workflow regarding the intervention. A number of strategies were offered by the authors to address implementation barriers and promote adoption of these tools.
Citation: Fuller TE, Pong DD, Piniella N . Interactive digital health tools to engage patients and caregivers in discharge preparation: implementation study. J Med Internet Res 2020 Apr 28;22(4):e15573. doi: 10.2196/15573..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient and Family Engagement, Caregiving, Hospital Discharge, Transitions of Care, Hospitals
Hass Z, Woodhouse M, Arling G
Do residents participating in Minnesota's Return to Community Initiative experience similar postdischarge outcomes to their peers?
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Minnesota's Return to Community Initiative (RTCI) on post-discharge outcomes for nursing home residents transitioned through the program. The study sample consisted of over 29 thousand Minnesota nursing home discharges in 2015. Secondary data from the Minimum Data Set and RTCI staff, state Medicaid eligibility files and death records were also used. Results showed that the RTCI-assisted residents fared well post-discharge in their time to mortality, nursing home readmission, and Medicaid conversion. Additionally, they lived longer than a propensity-matched sample of their peers.
Citation: Hass Z, Woodhouse M, Arling G . Do residents participating in Minnesota's Return to Community Initiative experience similar postdischarge outcomes to their peers? Med Care 2020 Apr;58(4):399-406. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001281..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Elderly, Transitions of Care
Arulraja MD, Swanson MB, NM
Double inter-hospital transfer in sepsis patients presenting to the ED does not worsen mortality compared to single inter-hospital transfer.
This study investigated whether double inter-hospital transfer in sepsis patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) worsens mortality compared to single inter-hospital transfer. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2005-2014 administrative claims data in Iowa. Hospital length-of-stay and cost data was also collected. Compared to non-transfers, single transfers did not have higher mortality rates than double transfers of Iowa sepsis patients.
Citation: Arulraja MD, Swanson MB, NM . Double inter-hospital transfer in sepsis patients presenting to the ED does not worsen mortality compared to single inter-hospital transfer. J Crit Care 2020 Apr;56:49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2019.11.018..
Keywords: Sepsis, Transitions of Care, Mortality, Hospitals, Emergency Department, Outcomes
Popejoy LL, Vogelsmeier AA, Wakefield BJ
Adapting Project RED to skilled nursing facilities.
This article described the investigator recommendations for adapting hospital-based RED (Reengineered Discharge) processes to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Using focus groups, the SNFs' discharge processes were assessed twice additionally, research staff then recorded field notes documenting discussions about facility discharge processes as they related to RED processes. Data were systematically analyzed using thematic analysis to identify recommendations for adapting RED to the SNF setting.
Citation: Popejoy LL, Vogelsmeier AA, Wakefield BJ . Adapting Project RED to skilled nursing facilities. Clin Nurs Res 2020 Mar;29(3):149-56. doi: 10.1177/1054773818819261..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Elderly, Transitions of Care, Patient-Centered Healthcare
Arbaje AI, Werner NE, Kasda EM
Learning from lawsuits: using malpractice claims data to develop care transitions planning tools.
This study used malpractice claims data to evaluate safety risks during care transitions from hospital to home and to help develop care transitions planning tools and pilot test them. The authors analyzed closed malpractice claims for 230 adult patients discharged from 4 hospital sites. Two structured focus groups were also conducted for stakeholders to review concerns. This led to the development of two care transitions planning tools – one for patients/caregivers and one for healthcare providers. Feasibility on 53 patient discharges were tested for both tools. A total of 33 risk factors corresponding to hospital work system elements, care transitions processes, and care outcomes were found using qualitative analysis. Providers found the tool easy to use and patients felt the length and response of the tool was acceptable.
AHRQ-funded; HS022916; HS019519.
Citation: Arbaje AI, Werner NE, Kasda EM . Learning from lawsuits: using malpractice claims data to develop care transitions planning tools. J Patient Saf 2020 Mar;16(1):52-57. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000238.
Keywords: Medical Liability, Transitions of Care, Risk, Hospital Discharge, Hospitals, Patient Safety
Desai AD, Zhou C, Simon TD
Validation of a parent-reported hospital-to-home transition experience measure.
This study examined the validity of the Pediatric Transition Experience Measure (P-TEM), which is an 8-item, parent-reported measure that globally assesses hospital-to-home transition quality from discharge through follow-up compared to other validation measures. The other measures it was compared to included the 1) Child Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Discharge Composite, 2) Center of Excellence on Quality of Care Measures for Children with Complex Needs parent-reported measures, 3) change in health-related quality of life from admission to postdischarge, and 4) 30-day emergency department revisits or readmissions. The P-TEM measure compared favorably with the Child Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Discharge Composite measure and the other measures as well.
Citation: Desai AD, Zhou C, Simon TD . Validation of a parent-reported hospital-to-home transition experience measure. Pediatrics 2020 Feb;145(2):pii: e20192150. doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-2150..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Children/Adolescents, Patient Experience, Transitions of Care, Hospital Discharge, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Quality Measures
Weerahandi H, Bao H, Herrin J
Home health care after skilled nursing facility discharge following heart failure hospitalization.
Heart failure (HF) readmission rates have plateaued despite scrutiny of hospital discharge practices. Many HF patients are discharged to skilled nursing facility (SNF) after hospitalization before returning home. Home healthcare (HHC) services received during the additional transition from SNF to home may affect readmission risk. In this study, the investigators examined whether receipt of HHC affects readmission risk during the transition from SNF to home following HF hospitalization.
Citation: Weerahandi H, Bao H, Herrin J . Home health care after skilled nursing facility discharge following heart failure hospitalization. J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Jan;68(1):96-102. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16179..
Keywords: Home Healthcare, Nursing Homes, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Hospitalization, Hospital Readmissions, Transitions of Care, Rehabilitation, Value