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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 135 Research Studies Displayed
Cykert S, Keyserling TC, Pignone M
A controlled trial of dissemination and implementation of a cardiovascular risk reduction strategy in small primary care practices.
Researchers assessed the effect of dissemination and implementation of an intervention consisting of practice facilitation and a risk-stratified, population management dashboard on cardiovascular risk reduction for patients at high risk in small, primary care practices. They found that a risk-stratified, population management dashboard combined with practice facilitation led to substantial reductions of 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk for patients at high risk. They recommended utilizing similar approaches to lead to effective dissemination and implementation of other new evidence, especially in rural and other under-resourced practices.
Citation: Cykert S, Keyserling TC, Pignone M . A controlled trial of dissemination and implementation of a cardiovascular risk reduction strategy in small primary care practices. Health Serv Res 2020 Dec;55(6):944-53. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13571..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Risk, Prevention, Primary Care, Implementation, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Temkin-Greener H, Guo W, Mao Y
COVID-19 pandemic in assisted living communities: results from seven states.
The purpose of this observational study was to describe variations in COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths among assisted living (AL) residents and examine their associations with key AL characteristics. The investigators concluded that ALs with a higher proportion of minorities had more COVID-19 cases. Many of the previously identified individual risk factors were also present in this vulnerable population.
AHRQ-funded; HS024923; HS026893; HS026893.
Citation: Temkin-Greener H, Guo W, Mao Y . COVID-19 pandemic in assisted living communities: results from seven states. J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Dec;68(12):2727-34. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16850..
Keywords: Elderly, Public Health, COVID-19, Nursing Homes, Vulnerable Populations, Risk
Marafino BJ, Schuler A, Liu VX
Predicting preventable hospital readmissions with causal machine learning.
This study’s goal was to assess the feasibility and potential impact of predicting preventable hospital readmissions using causal machine learning applied to data from the implementation of a readmissions prevention intervention called the Transitions Program, which used electronic health records from Kaiser Permanent Northern California (KPNC). A total of 1,539,285 index hospitalizations meeting the inclusion criteria and occurring between June 2010 and December 2010 at 21 KPNC hospitals were analyzed. There was substantial heterogeneity in patients’ response to the intervention, with patients at somewhat lower risk appearing to have the largest predicted effects. The estimates appeared to be well calibrated. The results did suggest a mismatch between risk and treatment effects.
Citation: Marafino BJ, Schuler A, Liu VX . Predicting preventable hospital readmissions with causal machine learning. Health Serv Res 2020 Dec;55(6):993-1002. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13586..
Keywords: Hospital Readmissions, Hospitals, Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Risk
Brajcich BC, Bentrem DJ, Yang AD
Short-term risk of performing concurrent procedures with hepatic artery infusion pump placement.
This study’s objective was to characterize the short-term outcomes of concurrent surgery with hepatic artery infusion pump (HAIP) placement using data from the 2005-2017 ACS NSQIP dataset. Findings showed that HAIP placement is not associated with additional morbidity when performed with hepatic and/or colorectal surgery. Decisions regarding HAIP placement should consider the risks of concurrent operations as well as patient- and disease-specific factors.
Citation: Brajcich BC, Bentrem DJ, Yang AD . Short-term risk of performing concurrent procedures with hepatic artery infusion pump placement. Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Dec;27(13):5098-106. doi: 10.1245/s10434-020-08938-0..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Surgery, Risk, Cancer, Outcomes
Brewster AL, Fraze TK, Gottlieb LM
The role of value-based payment in promoting innovation to address social risks: a cross-sectional study of social risk screening by US physicians.
The authors studied the conditions under which value-based payment will encourage health care providers to innovate to address upstream social risks. Their results indicated that implementation of social risk screening was not associated with overall exposure to value-based payment for physician practices. They recommended expanding social risk screening in order to reduce the level of innovative capacity required.
Citation: Brewster AL, Fraze TK, Gottlieb LM . The role of value-based payment in promoting innovation to address social risks: a cross-sectional study of social risk screening by US physicians. Milbank Q 2020 Dec;98(4):1114-33. doi: 10.1111/1468-0009.12480..
Keywords: Payment, Social Determinants of Health, Practice Patterns, Innovations and Emerging Issues, Screening, Risk, Value, Nutrition, Vulnerable Populations
O'Connor EA, Evans CV, Rushkin MC
Behavioral counseling to pomote a healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
Researchers reviewed the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions to improve diet and physical activity in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. They found that medium- and high-contact multisession behavioral counseling interventions to improve diet and increase physical activity for people with elevated blood pressure and lipid levels were effective in reducing cardiovascular events, blood pressure, low-density lipoproteins, and adiposity-related outcomes, with little to no risk of serious harm.
Citation: O'Connor EA, Evans CV, Rushkin MC . Behavioral counseling to pomote a healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2020 Nov 24;324(20):2076-94. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.17108..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Cardiovascular Conditions, Nutrition, Lifestyle Changes, Risk, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines
Selden TM, Berdahl TA, Fang Z
AHRQ Author: Selden TM, Berdahl TA, Fang Z
The risk of severe COVID-19 within households of school employees and school-age children.
Across the United States, school districts are grappling with questions of whether and how to reopen elementary and secondary schools in the 2020-21 academic year. Using pre-pandemic household data, the authors examined how often persons at risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were connected to schools, either as employees or by living in the same households as school employees or school-age children.
Citation: Selden TM, Berdahl TA, Fang Z . The risk of severe COVID-19 within households of school employees and school-age children. Health Aff 2020 Nov;39(11):2002-09. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01536..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), Children/Adolescents, COVID-19, Public Health, Risk, Infectious Diseases
Reeder B, Makic MBF, Morrow C
AHRQ Author: Rodrick D
Design and evaluation of low-fidelity visual display prototypes for multiple hospital-acquired conditions.
Hospital-acquired conditions such as catheter-associated urinary tract infection, stage 3 or 4 hospital-acquired pressure injury, and falls with injury are common, costly, and largely preventable. This study used participatory design methods to design and evaluate low-fidelity prototypes of clinical dashboards to inform high-fidelity prototype designs to visualize integrated risks based on patient profiles.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500025I; 23337003T.
Citation: Reeder B, Makic MBF, Morrow C . Design and evaluation of low-fidelity visual display prototypes for multiple hospital-acquired conditions. Comput Inform Nurs 2020 Nov;38(11):562-71. doi: 10.1097/cin.0000000000000668..
Keywords: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Adverse Events, Risk, Hospitals, Prevention
Guglielminotti J, Li G
Exposure to general anesthesia for cesarean delivery and odds of severe postpartum depression requiring hospitalization.
This retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of general anesthesia use in cesarean delivery versus neuraxial anesthesia on maternal mental health. Cesarean deliveries performed in New York State hospitals between 2006 and 2013 were included. Exclusion criteria included having more than 1 cesarean delivery during the study period, residing outside of New York State, and having a general anesthetic for other surgery or delivery in the year before or after the index case. The primary outcome looked at was severe postpartum depression (PPD), and secondary outcomes were suicidal ideation, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The majority of cesareans used neuraxial anesthesia and only 8% (34,356) had general anesthesia. Severe PPD requiring hospitalization occurred in 1158 women with 60% identified during readmission. General anesthesia was found to be associated with a 54% increased odds of PPD, and a 91% increased odds of suicidal ideation or self-inflicted injury. There was insufficient evidence for increased risk of anxiety orders.
Citation: Guglielminotti J, Li G . Exposure to general anesthesia for cesarean delivery and odds of severe postpartum depression requiring hospitalization. Anesth Analg 2020 Nov;131(5):1421-29. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000004663..
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Pregnancy, Women, Depression, Behavioral Health, Surgery, Risk, Hospitalization, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Topaz M, Woo K, Ryvicker M
Home healthcare clinical notes predict patient hospitalization and emergency department visits.
About 30% of home healthcare patients are hospitalized or visit an emergency department (ED) during a home healthcare (HHC) episode. Novel data science methods are increasingly used to improve identification of patients at risk for negative outcomes. The aim of the study was to identify patients at heightened risk hospitalization or ED visits using HHC narrative data (clinical notes).
Citation: Topaz M, Woo K, Ryvicker M . Home healthcare clinical notes predict patient hospitalization and emergency department visits. Nurs Res 2020 Nov/Dec;69(6):448-54. doi: 10.1097/nnr.0000000000000470..
Keywords: Elderly, Home Healthcare, Emergency Department, Hospitalization, Risk, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Misra-Hebert AD, Ji X, Nowacki AS
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers' risk of infection and outcomes in a large, integrated health system.
Researchers assessed healthcare workers (HCW) risk for COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Participants were individuals who had tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large academic healthcare system. The study found that, in a large healthcare system, HCW had similar odds for testing positive, but lower odds of hospitalization, compared to non-HCW. Patient-facing HCW had higher odds of a positive test.
Citation: Misra-Hebert AD, Ji X, Nowacki AS . Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers' risk of infection and outcomes in a large, integrated health system. J Gen Intern Med 2020 Nov;35(11):3293-301. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06171-9..
Keywords: COVID-19, Risk, Provider: Health Personnel, Public Health, Healthcare Delivery, Infectious Diseases
Mangrum R, Stewart MD, Gifford DR
Omissions of care in nursing homes: a uniform definition for research and quality improvement.
The goal of this study was to create a uniform definition of omission of care in US nursing homes. Lack of a uniform definition has made efforts to prevent them challenging. Subject matter experts and a broad range of nursing home stakeholders were brought together in iterative rounds of engagement to identify key concepts and aspects of omissions of care and develop a consensus-based definition. The concise definition decided on was: “Omissions of care in nursing homes encompass situations when care–either clinical or nonclinical–is not provided for a resident and results in additional monitoring or intervention or increases the risk of an undesirable or adverse physical, emotional, or psychosocial outcome for the resident."
Citation: Mangrum R, Stewart MD, Gifford DR . Omissions of care in nursing homes: a uniform definition for research and quality improvement. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 Nov;21(11):1587-91.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.08.016..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Medical Errors, Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Risk, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Bavishi A, Bruce M, Ning H
Predictive accuracy of heart failure-specific risk equations in an electronic health record-based cohort.
The objective of this study was to assess the predictive accuracy of the Pooled Cohort Equations to Prevent Heart Failure within a primary prevention cohort derived from the electronic health record. Findings showed that a novel sex- and race-specific risk score predicts incident heart failure (HF) in a real-world, electronic health record-based cohort. Recommendations included integration of HF risk into the electronic health record to allow for risk-based discussion, enhanced surveillance, and targeted preventive interventions in order to reduce the public health burden of HF.
Citation: Bavishi A, Bruce M, Ning H . Predictive accuracy of heart failure-specific risk equations in an electronic health record-based cohort. Circ Heart Fail 2020 Nov;13(11):e007462. doi: 10.1161/circheartfailure.120.007462..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Prevention, Risk
Kolak MA, Chen YT, Joyce S
Rural risk environments, opioid-related overdose, and infectious diseases: a multidimensional, spatial perspective.
The authors adapted a risk environment framework to characterize rural southern Illinois and to describe the relations of risk environments, opioid-related overdose, HIV, Hepatitis C, and sexually transmitted infection rates between 2015 and 2017. They identified pervasive risk hotspots in more populated locales with higher rates of overdose and HCV incidence, whereas emerging risk areas were isolated to more rural locales that had experienced an increase in analgesic opiate overdoses and generally lacked harm-reduction resources. They also found that at-risk areas were characterized with underlying socioeconomic vulnerability but in differing ways, reflecting a nuanced and shifting structural risk landscape.
Citation: Kolak MA, Chen YT, Joyce S . Rural risk environments, opioid-related overdose, and infectious diseases: a multidimensional, spatial perspective. Int J Drug Policy 2020 Nov;85:102727. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102727..
Keywords: Rural Health, Opioids, Substance Abuse, Medication, Hepatitis, Risk, Behavioral Health
Wu SS, Bellantoni m, Weiner JP
Geriatric syndrome risk factors among hospitalized postacute Medicare patients.
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of geriatric syndrome risk factors with postacute utilization among hospitalized Medicare patients (both Medicare Advantage [MA] and fee-for-service [FFS] cohorts) and to examine patterns of postacute care for MA and FFS cohorts with high geriatric syndrome risk. The investigators found that geriatric syndrome risk factors not only play a role in postacute care and inpatient utilization in MA and FFS cohorts but also explain different utilizations between MA and FFS cohorts.
Citation: Wu SS, Bellantoni m, Weiner JP . Geriatric syndrome risk factors among hospitalized postacute Medicare patients. Am J Manag Care 2020 Oct;26(10):e319-e26. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2020.88505..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Elderly, Medicare, Risk, Healthcare Utilization, Hospitalization
Sheinfil AZ, Giguere R, Dolezal C
Information and motivation predict HIV-serostatus among a population of high-risk men and transgender women who have sex with men.
In this study, two constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills model were used to predict HIV-serostatus among a sample of men and transgender women who have sex with men. Hypotheses were that lower levels of HIV knowledge and lower levels of motivation to remain HIV-negative would be associated with an increased likelihood of receiving a positive HIV test result at a study eligibility-screening session.
Citation: Sheinfil AZ, Giguere R, Dolezal C . Information and motivation predict HIV-serostatus among a population of high-risk men and transgender women who have sex with men. AIDS Behav 2020 Oct;24(10):2863-71. doi: 10.1007/s10461-020-02835-z..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases, Risk
Pollack LM, Wang M, Leung MYM
Obesity-related multimorbidity and risk of cardiovascular disease in the middle-aged population in the United States.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the prevalence of obesity-related multimorbidity (co-occurrence of ≥2 obesity-related chronic diseases, ORCDs) and the risk of cardiovascular disease in the presence of multimorbidity in middle-aged adults in the United States. The investigators found that hypertension was most commonly the first diagnosed ORCD for populations with 2-4 ORCDs, followed by diabetes for populations with 2-3 ORCDs.
Citation: Pollack LM, Wang M, Leung MYM . Obesity-related multimorbidity and risk of cardiovascular disease in the middle-aged population in the United States. Prev Med 2020 Oct;139:106225. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106225..
Keywords: Obesity, Cardiovascular Conditions, Risk, Chronic Conditions
Wehbe RM, Khan SS, Shah SJ
Predicting high-risk patients and high-risk outcomes in heart failure.
Identifying patients with heart failure at high risk for poor outcomes is important for patient care, resource allocation, and process improvement. Although numerous risk models exist to predict mortality, hospitalization, and patient-reported health status, they are infrequently used for several reasons, including modest performance, lack of evidence to support routine clinical use, and barriers to implementation. The authors discuss the potential of artificial to enhance the performance of risk prediction models.
Citation: Wehbe RM, Khan SS, Shah SJ . Predicting high-risk patients and high-risk outcomes in heart failure. Heart Fail Clin 2020 Oct;16(4):387-407. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2020.05.002..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Risk, Hospitalization
Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN
Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery.
This is a systematic review to quantify sleep wake disturbances (SWD) after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). These SWD can place children at risk for worse outcomes since sleep is needed for brain development and healing after injury. They also evaluated interventions for SWD and the association between SWD and other post-traumatic outcomes. Literature was searched from 1999-2019 evaluating sleep or fatigue in children hospitalized for TBI. Two independent reviewers assessed quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottowa Score for observational studies. Out of 966 identified articles, 126 full text articles were reviewed and 24 studies were included. Studies showed at least 20% of children with TBI had some degree of SWD including trouble falling or staying asleep, fatigue, daytime fatigue, and nightmares. SWD was negatively correlated with cognitive, behavioral, and quality of life outcomes. There was moderate-high risk of bias for all studies due to small sample size and lack of validated or objective SWD measures.
Citation: Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN . Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery. Sleep 2020 Oct;43(10):zsaa083. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsaa083..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sleep Problems, Brain Injury, Neurological Disorders, Trauma, Risk, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Quality of Life, Evidence-Based Practice
Khera R, Kondamudi N, Zhong L
Temporal trends in heart failure incidence among Medicare
This retrospective, national cohort study looked at temporal trends in heart failure (HF) incidence among Medicare beneficiaries from 2011 to 2016. There had been a decline in claims during that time period. Five percent of all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with no prior HF diagnosis were followed up from 2011-2016. Annual trends were examined in HF incidence among groups with and without primary HF risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, and obesity) and predisposing cardiovascular conditions (acute myocardial infarction (MI) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Of the approximately 1.8 million Medicare beneficiaries at risk for HF, 249,832 had a new diagnosis of HF. The prevalence of all 5 risk factors had increased during the 5-year study period. There was a relative decline in HF incidence among beneficiaries with primary HF risk factors, but incidence increased among individuals with acute MI and AF.
Citation: Khera R, Kondamudi N, Zhong L . Temporal trends in heart failure incidence among Medicare JAMA Netw Open 2020 Oct;3(10):e2022190. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.22190.
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Medicare, Risk, Elderly, Mortality
Saleh SN, Makam AN, Halm EA,
Can we predict early 7-day readmissions using a standard 30-day hospital readmission risk prediction model?
Despite focus on preventing 30-day readmissions, early readmissions (within 7 days of discharge) may be more preventable than later readmissions (8-30 days). In this study, the investigators assessed how well a previously validated 30-day EHR-based readmission model predicted 7-day readmissions and compared differences in strength of predictors. They suggested that improvements in predicting early 7-day readmissions will likely require new risk factors proximal to day of discharge.
Citation: Saleh SN, Makam AN, Halm EA, . Can we predict early 7-day readmissions using a standard 30-day hospital readmission risk prediction model? BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2020 Sep 15;20(1):227. doi: 10.1186/s12911-020-01248-1..
Keywords: Hospital Readmissions, Hospitals, Risk, Transitions of Care, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)
Shah SC, Itzkowitz SH
Reappraising risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia: implications for colonoscopic surveillance in IBD.
One of the most feared complications of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]-associated colitis is colorectal cancer. An opportunity for early detection is being missed in a group that is overlooked as high-risk, as a substantial proportion of colorectal cancers are being diagnosed in individuals with colonic IBD who have disease duration shorter than when guidelines recommend surveillance initiation. In this study, the investigators discuss a viewpoint that supports a paradigm shift that will ideally result in a more effective and higher-value colorectal cancer prevention approach in IBD.
Citation: Shah SC, Itzkowitz SH . Reappraising risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia: implications for colonoscopic surveillance in IBD. J Crohns Colitis 2020 Sep 7;14(8):1172-77. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa040..
Keywords: Digestive Disease and Health, Risk, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Colonoscopy, Prevention, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Screening
Selden TM, Berdahl TA
AHRQ Author: Selden TM, Berdahl TA
COVID-19 and racial/ethnic disparities in health risk, employment, and household composition.
In this study, the investigators used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to explore potential explanations for racial-ethnic disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and mortality. The authors found that black adults in every age group were more likely than whites to have health risks associated with severe COVID-19 illness. However, whites were older on average than blacks.
Citation: Selden TM, Berdahl TA . COVID-19 and racial/ethnic disparities in health risk, employment, and household composition. Health Aff 2020 Sep;39(9):1624-32. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00897..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), COVID-19, Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Risk
Daigle CH, Fiadjoe JE, Laverriere EK
Difficult bag-mask ventilation in critically ill children is independently associated with adverse events.
This study looked at the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical implications of difficult bag-mask ventilation among critically ill children. The prevalence and risk factors are described as well as its association with adverse tracheal intubation-associated events and oxygen desaturation in PICU patients. This retrospective review used observational data collected from a multicenter tracheal intubation database (National Emergency Airway Registry for Children) from January 2013 to December 2018 from 46 international PICUs. Difficult bag-mask ventilation was reported in 9.5% of 15,810 patients undergoing tracheal intubation with bag-mask ventilation. Difficult bag-mask ventilation was more commonly reported with increasing age, those with a primary respiratory diagnosis/indication for tracheal intubation, presence of difficulty airway features, more experienced provider level, and tracheal intubations without use of neuromuscular blockade. Specific intubation-associated or oxygen desaturation events occurred in 40.2% of patients with reported difficult bag-mask ventilation versus 19.8% in patients without difficult bag-mask ventilation.
AHRQ-funded; HS021583; HS022464; HS024511.
Citation: Daigle CH, Fiadjoe JE, Laverriere EK . Difficult bag-mask ventilation in critically ill children is independently associated with adverse events. Crit Care Med 2020 Sep;48(9):e744-e52. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000004425..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Adverse Events, Risk
Strobel RJ, Harrington SD, Hill C
Evaluating the impact of pneumonia prevention recommendations after cardiac surgery.
Pneumonia is the most prevalent healthcare-associated infection after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but the relative effectiveness of strategies to reduce its incidence remains unclear. In this study, the investigators evaluated the relationship between healthcare-associated infection recommendations and risk of pneumonia after CABG. These pneumonia prevention recommendations may serve as effective targets for avoiding postoperative healthcare-associated infections.
AHRQ-funded; HS022535; HS022909.
Citation: Strobel RJ, Harrington SD, Hill C . Evaluating the impact of pneumonia prevention recommendations after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Sep;110(3):903-10. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.12.053..
Keywords: Pneumonia, Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery, Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), Adverse Events, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Risk