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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 6 of 6 Research Studies Displayed
Selden TM, Berdahl TA
AHRQ Author: Selden TM, Berdahl TA
COVID-19 and racial/ethnic disparities in health risk, employment, and household composition.
In this study, the investigators used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to explore potential explanations for racial-ethnic disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and mortality. The authors found that black adults in every age group were more likely than whites to have health risks associated with severe COVID-19 illness. However, whites were older on average than blacks.
Citation: Selden TM, Berdahl TA . COVID-19 and racial/ethnic disparities in health risk, employment, and household composition. Health Aff 2020 Sep;39(9):1624-32. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00897..
Keywords: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), COVID-19, Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Risk
Koller KR, Day GE, Hiratsuka VY
Increase in diabetes among urban Alaska Native people in the Alaska EARTH follow-up study: a call for prediabetes screening, diagnosis, and referral for intervention.
This study estimated incidence of diabetes (DM) and pre-DM relative to DM risk factors among relatively healthy Alaska Native and American Indian (AN) adults living in urban south-central Alaska. Results showed that, controlling for age and sex, obesity, abdominal adiposity, pre-DM, and metabolic syndrome independently increased DM risk. Recommendations included advising health care providers of AN populations to seize the opportunity to screen, refer, and treat individuals with pre-DM and other modifiable DM risk factors prior to DM diagnosis in order to alter the epidemiologic course of disease progression in this urban AN population.
Citation: Koller KR, Day GE, Hiratsuka VY . Increase in diabetes among urban Alaska Native people in the Alaska EARTH follow-up study: a call for prediabetes screening, diagnosis, and referral for intervention. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Sep;167:108357. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108357..
Keywords: Diabetes, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Urban Health, Risk, Prevention, Screening, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Chronic Conditions
Chen DW, Reyes-Gastelum D, Wallner LP
Disparities in risk perception of thyroid cancer recurrence and death.
The authors studied risk perception among survivors of thyroid cancer. Patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries were surveyed and an analytic cohort defined by a 5% or greater risk of disease recurrence and mortality. The authors found that less educated patients and Hispanic patients were more likely to report inaccurate risk perceptions, which were associated with worry and a decreased quality of life.
Citation: Chen DW, Reyes-Gastelum D, Wallner LP . Disparities in risk perception of thyroid cancer recurrence and death. Cancer 2020 Apr 1;126(7):1512-21. doi: 10.1002/cncr.32670..
Keywords: Disparities, Cancer, Risk, Quality of Life, Social Determinants of Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Muzaale AD, Massie AB, Al Ammary F
Donor-recipient relationship and risk of ESKD in live kidney donors of varied racial groups.
Risk factors for kidney failure are the basis of live kidney donor candidate evaluation. In this retrospective cohort study, the investigators quantified risk for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) by the biological relationship of the donor to the recipient, a risk factor that is not addressed by current clinical practice guidelines. The investigators found that marked differences in risk for ESKD across types of donor-recipient relationship were observed for Asian, black, and white donors.
Citation: Muzaale AD, Massie AB, Al Ammary F . Donor-recipient relationship and risk of ESKD in live kidney donors of varied racial groups. Am J Kidney Dis 2020 Mar;75(3):333-41. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.08.020..
Keywords: Transplantation, Kidney Disease and Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Risk, Registries
Glazer KB, Danilack VA, Werner EF
Elucidating the role of overweight and obesity in racial and ethnic disparities in cesarean delivery risk.
This study’s goal was to quantify the extent to which overweight and obesity explain cesarean delivery rates among women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Administrative records were used from New York City for 216,481 singleton, nulliparous births from 2008 to 2013. Risk ratios, risk differences, and population attributable fractions for associations between body mass index and cesarean, stratified by race and ethnicity was calculated. Black and Hispanic women had the highest cesarean rates attributable to obesity and overweight (17.4% and 14.6%) respectively.
Citation: Glazer KB, Danilack VA, Werner EF . Elucidating the role of overweight and obesity in racial and ethnic disparities in cesarean delivery risk. Ann Epidemiol 2020 Feb;42:4-11.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2019.12.012.
Keywords: Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, Risk, Obesity, Women
Patel M, Phillips-Caesar E, Boutin-Foster C
Attitudes and beliefs regarding cardiovascular risk factors among Bangladeshi immigrants in the US.
The researchers conducted a qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews to explore attitudes towards and difficulties with modifying cardiovascular disease related behaviors among a Bangladeshi cohort. Bangladeshi individuals in this study cited a combination of internal and external factors as barriers to lifestyle modification. The authors recommended interventions to address these barriers that simultaneously address self-efficacy and work-life balance.
Citation: Patel M, Phillips-Caesar E, Boutin-Foster C . Attitudes and beliefs regarding cardiovascular risk factors among Bangladeshi immigrants in the US. J Immigr Minor Health 2014 Oct;16(5):994-1000. doi: 10.1007/s10903-013-9868-7.
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Lifestyle Changes, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Risk