Search All Research Studies
AHRQ Research Studies Date
AHRQ Research Studies
Sign up: AHRQ Research Studies Email updates
Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 4 of 4 Research Studies Displayed
Beltran Ale G, Benscoter D, Hossain MM
Impact of respiratory viral polymerase chain reaction testing on de-escalation of antibiotic therapy in children who require chronic positive pressure ventilation.
This study examined whether positive viral infection results stops antibiotic use in children who require chronic positive pressure ventilation (CPPV) who are frequently hospitalized with acute respiratory infections. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 118 children on CPPV who had respiratory viral polymerase chain reaction (RVP) testing on admission. A viral pathogen was identified in 46.5% of the cases, with rhinovirus the most frequently identified. Antibiotic de-escalation occurred in only 33% of admissions and did not seem to impact antibiotic prescribing for hospitalized children on CPPV.
Citation: Beltran Ale G, Benscoter D, Hossain MM . Impact of respiratory viral polymerase chain reaction testing on de-escalation of antibiotic therapy in children who require chronic positive pressure ventilation. Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Aug;55(8):2150-55. doi: 10.1002/ppul.24884..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Antibiotics, Medication, Chronic Conditions
Thomson J, Hall M, Ambroggio L
Antibiotics for aspiration pneumonia in neurologically impaired children.
The objective of the study was to compare hospital outcomes associated with commonly used antibiotic therapies for aspiration pneumonia in children with neurologic impairment (NI). The investigators concluded that anaerobic therapy appeared to be important in the treatment of aspiration pneumonia in children with NI. They suggested that while Gram-negative coverage alone was associated with worse outcomes, its addition to anaerobic therapy may not yield improved outcomes.
Citation: Thomson J, Hall M, Ambroggio L . Antibiotics for aspiration pneumonia in neurologically impaired children. J Hosp Med 2020 Jul;15(7):395-402. doi: 10.12788/jhm.3338..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Pneumonia, Respiratory Conditions, Neurological Disorders, Antibiotics, Medication, Outcomes
Donovan BM, Abreo A, Ding T
Dose, timing, and type of infant antibiotic use and the risk of childhood asthma.
This study examined the association between dose, timing and type of infant antibiotic use and the risk of childhood asthma. The study examined a cohort of 152,622 children enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid Program. At least 79% had at least one antibiotic prescription fill during infancy. There was a 20% increase in odds of childhood asthma for each additional antibiotic filled. There was no significant association between timing, formulation, anaerobic coverage and class of antibiotics and childhood asthma. However, broad spectrum antibiotic fills increased the odds of development of childhood asthma compared to narrow spectrum only fills.
Citation: Donovan BM, Abreo A, Ding T . Dose, timing, and type of infant antibiotic use and the risk of childhood asthma. Clin Infect Dis 2020 Apr 10;70(8):1658-65. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz448..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Children/Adolescents, Antibiotics, Medication, Asthma, Respiratory Conditions, Risk, Chronic Conditions
Downes KJ, Rao MB, Kahill L
Daily serum creatinine monitoring promotes earlier detection of acute kidney injury in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of daily serum creatinine (SCr) measurement on amino-glycoside (AG)-associated acute kidney injury detection among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The study included 87 patients at a children’s hospital who received a total of 227 AG courses of 3 days or more.
Citation: Downes KJ, Rao MB, Kahill L . Daily serum creatinine monitoring promotes earlier detection of acute kidney injury in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2014 Jul;13(4):435-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2014.03.005..
Keywords: Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Antibiotics, Children/Adolescents, Medication, Respiratory Conditions