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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 5 of 5 Research Studies Displayed
Cai L, Wu Y, Cheskin LI
Effect of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
This study, the first systematic, quantitative study of childhood obesity prevention programs on blood lipids in high-income countries found that most interventions (70 percent) showed similar significant or no effects on adiposity- and lipid outcomes; 15 percent of interventions improved both adiposity- and lipids outcomes; 55 percent had no significant effects on either. These programs had a significant desirable effect on LDL-C and HDL-C.
Citation: Cai L, Wu Y, Cheskin LI . Effect of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2014 Dec;15(12):933-44. doi: 10.1111/obr.12227..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Obesity, Prevention, Outcomes, Social Determinants of Health
Shah RK, Stey AM, Jantana KR
Identification of opportunities for quality improvement and outcome measurement in pediatric otolaryngology.
This study evaluated perioperative outcomes in pediatric otolaryngology through analysis of records residing in the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database. It found that although the overall rate of major postoperative morbidity in pediatric otolaryngology is low, the following areas may be targeted for targeted quality-improvement interventions: tracheostomy, airway reconstruction, mastoidectomy, and abscess drainage.
Citation: Shah RK, Stey AM, Jantana KR . Identification of opportunities for quality improvement and outcome measurement in pediatric otolaryngology. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Nov;140(11):1019-26. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2014.2067..
Keywords: Surgery, Children/Adolescents, Quality Improvement, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Boyer DL, Nishisaki A
Evaluating patient outcomes in medical education research: mission impossible?*.
This editorial examines evaluation of the impact of pediatric supplemental crisis resource management (CRM) training among first- and second-year residents. The author suggests that increasing CRM training and using debriefing for skill retention may link this training to patient outcomes.
Citation: Boyer DL, Nishisaki A . Evaluating patient outcomes in medical education research: mission impossible?*. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014 May;15(4):382-4. doi: 10.1097/pcc.0000000000000116..
Keywords: Education: Continuing Medical Education, Outcomes, Children/Adolescents, Training
Schwenk H, Ramirez-Avila L, Sheu SH
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in pediatric patients: case report and literature review.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by JC virus. Fewer than 30 cases have been reported in HIV- and non-infected children. The researchers report the case of a 15-year-old girl with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and AIDS who presented with nystagmus, dysarthria and ataxia. They also include a literature review.
Citation: Schwenk H, Ramirez-Avila L, Sheu SH . Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in pediatric patients: case report and literature review. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014 Apr;33(4):e99-105. doi: 10.1097/inf.0000000000000237..
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Children/Adolescents, Case Study, Outcomes
Li L, Vollmer WM, Butler MG
A comparison of confounding adjustment methods for assessment of asthma controller medication effectiveness.
Using three confounding adjustment procedures—covariate-adjusted regression, propensity score regression, and high-dimemsional propensity score regression—on a population of 24,680 children with asthma, researchers found that patients treated with leukotriene antagonists were no more likely than those treated with inhaled corticosteroids to experience adverse outcomes.
Citation: Li L, Vollmer WM, Butler MG . A comparison of confounding adjustment methods for assessment of asthma controller medication effectiveness. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Mar 1;179(5):648-59. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt323..
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Outcomes, Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Medication