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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 12 of 12 Research Studies Displayed
Smieliauskas F, MacMahon H, Salgia R
Geographic variation in radiologist capacity and widespread implementation of lung cancer CT screening.
The researchers estimated the prevalence of capacity constraints in the radiologist workforce and resulting potential disparities in access to lung cancer screening. They found that scaling up lung cancer screening would increase imaging procedures by an average of 4% across Health Service Areas (HSAs). HSAs that were rural, with many eligible smokers, and disproportionately Hispanic or low-income smokers had significantly higher odds of facing capacity constraints.
Citation: Smieliauskas F, MacMahon H, Salgia R . Geographic variation in radiologist capacity and widespread implementation of lung cancer CT screening. J Med Screen 2014 Dec;21(4):207-15. doi: 10.1177/0969141314548055..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Cancer, Cancer: Lung Cancer, Screening, Imaging
Kruger JF, Chen AH, Rybkin A
Clinician perspectives on considering radiation exposure to patients when ordering imaging tests: a qualitative study.
The authors examined outpatient clinician attitudes towards considering radiation exposure when ordering CT scans and clinician reactions to displaying radiation exposure information for CT scans at clinician electronic order entry. They found that displaying clinically relevant radiation exposure information at order entry may improve clinician knowledge and inform patient-clinician discussions regarding risks and benefits of imaging.
Citation: Kruger JF, Chen AH, Rybkin A . Clinician perspectives on considering radiation exposure to patients when ordering imaging tests: a qualitative study. BMJ Qual Saf 2014 Nov;23(11):893-901. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2013-002773.
Keywords: Decision Making, Provider: Health Personnel, Imaging, Patient Safety, Practice Patterns
Lacson R, Prevedello LM, Andriole KP
Four-year impact of an alert notification system on closed-loop communication of critical test results.
The authors evaluated the impact of an alert notification system on policy adherence for communicating critical imaging test results to referring providers and assessed system adoption over the first 4 years after implementation. They concluded that an automated alert notification system for communicating critical imaging results was successfully adopted and was associated with increased adherence to institutional policy for communicating critical test results and with reduced workflow interruptions.
Citation: Lacson R, Prevedello LM, Andriole KP . Four-year impact of an alert notification system on closed-loop communication of critical test results. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014 Nov;203(5):933-8. doi: 10.2214/ajr.14.13064.
Keywords: Communication, Decision Making, Guidelines, Health Information Technology (HIT), Imaging
Merdan S, Womble PR, Miller DC
Toward better use of bone scans among men with early-stage prostate cancer.
This study evaluated the performance of published guidelines compared with that of current practice for radiographic staging of men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. It found that, based on current practice patterns, more uniform application of existing guidelines would ensure that bone scans are performed for almost all men with bone metastases, while avoiding many negative imaging studies.
Citation: Merdan S, Womble PR, Miller DC . Toward better use of bone scans among men with early-stage prostate cancer. Urology. 2014 Oct;84(4):793-8. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2014.06.010..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Guidelines, Imaging
Deppen SA, Blume JD, Kensinger CD
Accuracy of FDG-PET to diagnose lung cancer in areas with infectious lung disease: a meta-analysis.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) combined with fludeoxyglucose F18 (FDG) for pulmonary modules suspicious for lung cancer in regions where infectious lung disease is endemic and compare the accuracy in regions where such disease is rare. It found that the accuracy of FDG-PET was extremely heterogeneous.
Citation: Deppen SA, Blume JD, Kensinger CD . Accuracy of FDG-PET to diagnose lung cancer in areas with infectious lung disease: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2014 Sep 24;312(12):1227-36. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.11488..
Keywords: Cancer, Cancer: Lung Cancer, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Respiratory Conditions, Imaging
Hollingsworth JM, Sakshaug JW, Zhang Y
In-office imaging capabilities among procedure-based specialty practices.
The authors sought to determine whether arrangements tailored to fit Stark law spur utilization. They found that the availability of in-office advanced imaging is associated with increased imaging use.
AHRQ-funded; HS020927; HS018726.
Citation: Hollingsworth JM, Sakshaug JW, Zhang Y . In-office imaging capabilities among procedure-based specialty practices. Surg Innov 2014 Aug;21(4):403-8. doi: 10.1177/1553350613505715.
Keywords: Ambulatory Care and Surgery, Quality of Care, Imaging, Practice Patterns
Johnson EK, Graham DA, Chow JS
Nationwide emergency department imaging practices for pediatric urolithiasis: room for improvement.
The researchers describe the national use of computed tomography (CT) versus ultrasound imaging for pediatric patients seen at emergency departments (EDs) for suspected urolithiasis (SU) during the period 2006-2010. Use of CT was much higher than use of ultrasound, although it dropped off after 2007. Lowest CT use was seen at EDs that care for more children.
Citation: Johnson EK, Graham DA, Chow JS . Nationwide emergency department imaging practices for pediatric urolithiasis: room for improvement. J Urol. 2014 Jul;192(1):200-6. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2014.01.028..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Imaging, Children/Adolescents, Practice Patterns
Lyerly MJ, Houston JT, Boehme AK
Safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator administration with computed tomography evidence of prior infarction.
The researchers sought to determine if the presence of a previous stroke on pretreatment computed tomography (CT) is a predictor of hemorrhagic complications and functional outcomes after the administration of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Their data suggest that a prior stroke on CT should not be viewed as a reason to withhold this treatment unless it occurred within the last 3 months.
Citation: Lyerly MJ, Houston JT, Boehme AK . Safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator administration with computed tomography evidence of prior infarction. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2014 Jul;23(6):1657-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.01.011..
Keywords: Stroke, Risk, Outcomes, Imaging
Suri P, Boyko EJ, Goldberg J
Longitudinal associations between incident lumbar spine MRI findings and chronic low back pain or radicular symptoms: retrospective analysis of data from the longitudinal assessment of imaging and disability of the back (LAIDBACK).
The researchers examined the association of incident lumbar MRI findings with two specific spine-related symptom outcomes: 1) incident chronic bothersome lower back pain, and 2) incident radicular symptoms such as pain, weakness, or sensation alterations in the lower extremity. They found that even when applying more specific definitions for spine-related symptom outcomes, few MRI findings show strong associations with symptom outcomes.
Citation: Suri P, Boyko EJ, Goldberg J . Longitudinal associations between incident lumbar spine MRI findings and chronic low back pain or radicular symptoms: retrospective analysis of data from the longitudinal assessment of imaging and disability of the back (LAIDBACK). BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014 May 13;15:152. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-152..
Keywords: Back Health and Pain, Chronic Conditions, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Imaging, Pain
Valencia V, Moghadassi M, Kriesel DR
Study of Tomography Of Nephrolithiasis Evaluation (STONE): methodology, approach and rationale.
This paper describes the rationale and methods of STONE (Study of Tomography Of Nephrolithiasis Evaluation), a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial comparing different imaging strategies for patients with suspected urolithiasis. It concluded that the detailed methodology of STONE will provide a roadmap for comparative effectiveness studies of diagnostic imaging conducted in an ED setting.
Citation: Valencia V, Moghadassi M, Kriesel DR . Study of Tomography Of Nephrolithiasis Evaluation (STONE): methodology, approach and rationale. Contemp Clin Trials 2014 May;38(1):92-101. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2014.03.006..
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Imaging, Kidney Disease and Health, Research Methodologies
D'Agostino MA, Boers M, Kirwan J
Updating the OMERACT filter: implications for imaging and soluble biomarkers.
The Outcomes Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. This article reports on the Imaging and Soluble Biomarker Session at OMERACT II that aimed to provide a guide for the iterative development of an imaging or biochemical measurement instrument so it can be used in therapeutic assessment.
Citation: D'Agostino MA, Boers M, Kirwan J . Updating the OMERACT filter: implications for imaging and soluble biomarkers. J Rheumatol. 2014 May;41(5):1016-24. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.131313..
Keywords: Imaging, Outcomes, Innovations and Emerging Issues
Wernli KJ, DeMartini WB, Ichikawa L
Patterns of breast magnetic resonance imaging use in community practice.
The researchers described patterns of breast MRI use in US community practice during the period 2005 through 2009. They found that the overall rate of breast MRI from 2005 through 2009 nearly tripled from 4.2 to 11.5 examinations per 1000 women, with the most rapid increase from 2005 to 2007.
Citation: Wernli KJ, DeMartini WB, Ichikawa L . Patterns of breast magnetic resonance imaging use in community practice. JAMA Intern Med 2014 Jan;174(1):125-32. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.11963..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Data, Healthcare Utilization, Imaging, Registries