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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 7 of 7 Research Studies Displayed
Raebel MA, Newcomer SR, Bayliss EA
Chronic opioid use emerging after bariatric surgery.
The purpose of this study was to determine opioid use the year after bariatric surgery among patients who did not use opioids chronically pre-surgery and to identify pre-surgery characteristics associated with chronic opioid use after surgery. It found that patients dispensed 60 to 119 days’ supply during the pre-surgery year were 13.23 to 14.29 times more likely to use opioids chronically post-surgery than patients without opioid use pre-surgery.
Citation: Raebel MA, Newcomer SR, Bayliss EA . Chronic opioid use emerging after bariatric surgery. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2014 Dec;23(12):1247-57. doi: 10.1002/pds.3625..
Keywords: Medication, Obesity, Opioids, Pain, Substance Abuse, Surgery
Kilaru AS, Gadsden SM, Perrone J
How do physicians adopt and apply opioid prescription guidelines in the emergency department? A qualitative study.
This qualitative study of emergency physicians attempted to gain insight into the adoption, use, and perceived relevance of opioid-prescribing guidelines. Most of the 61 participants interviewed in a convenience sample had a positive perspective on the intent and role of such guidelines and used them most commonly as communication tools with patients.
Citation: Kilaru AS, Gadsden SM, Perrone J . How do physicians adopt and apply opioid prescription guidelines in the emergency department? A qualitative study. Ann Emerg Med 2014 Nov;64(5):482-89.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2014.03.015.
Keywords: Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Opioids, Pain, Guidelines, Practice Patterns
Werth SR, Sachdeva N, Roberts AW
North Carolina Medicaid recipient management lock-in program: the pharmacist's perspective.
The objectives of this study were (a) evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of the implementation of the North Carolina (NC) recipient management lock-in program (MLIP) and (b) determine how the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists could promote or inhibit its success. It concluded that, although possible improvements were identified, the NC MLIP has strong potential for success as it utilizes pharmacists’ medication gate-keeping role, while minimizing the effort required for successful implementation.
Citation: Werth SR, Sachdeva N, Roberts AW . North Carolina Medicaid recipient management lock-in program: the pharmacist's perspective. J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2014 Nov;20(11):1122-9..
Keywords: Medicaid, Medication, Opioids, Provider: Pharmacist, Substance Abuse
Hartung DM, McCarty D, Fu R
Extended-release naltrexone for alcohol and opioid dependence: a meta-analysis of healthcare utilization studies.
The authors evaluated cost and utilization outcomes between extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) and other pharmacotherapies for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence. They found that alcohol dependent XR-NTX patients had longer medication refill persistence versus acamprosate and oral naltrexone, with healthcare utilization and costs being generally lower or as low for XR-NTX-treated patients relative to other alcohol dependence agents. Opioid dependent XR-NTX patients had lower inpatient substance abuse-related utilization versus other agents and $8170 lower total cost versus methadone.
Citation: Hartung DM, McCarty D, Fu R . Extended-release naltrexone for alcohol and opioid dependence: a meta-analysis of healthcare utilization studies. J Subst Abuse Treat 2014 Aug;47(2):113-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2014.03.007.
Keywords: Alcohol Use, Comparative Effectiveness, Medication, Opioids, Substance Abuse
Desai RJ, Hernandez-Diaz S, Bateman BT
Increase in prescription opioid use during pregnancy among Medicaid-enrolled women.
The researchers reported the prevalence of prescription opioid use and evaluated the trends in a large cohort of Medicaid-enrolled pregnant women. They observed high and increasing number of filled prescriptions for opioids during pregnancy among Medicaid-enrolled women and recommended further safety evaluations of these drugs and their effects on the developing fetus.
Citation: Desai RJ, Hernandez-Diaz S, Bateman BT . Increase in prescription opioid use during pregnancy among Medicaid-enrolled women. Obstet Gynecol 2014 May;123(5):997-1002. doi: 10.1097/aog.0000000000000208.
Keywords: Healthcare Utilization, Medicaid, Medication, Opioids, Pregnancy
Kim DH, Lin Y, Goytizolo EA
Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.
In a study of pain relief for patients recovering from a total knee arthroplasty, researchers found that adductor canal block (ACB) results in less motor impairment for quadriceps muscles after surgery than femoral nerve block (FNB) and it provides a comparable level of pain relief. The prospective, randomized, controlled study included 46 patients receiving ACB and 47 receiving FNB.
Citation: Kim DH, Lin Y, Goytizolo EA . Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Anesthesiology. 2014 Mar;120(3):540-50. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000119..
Keywords: Medication, Opioids, Outcomes, Pain, Surgery
Nuckols TK, Anderson L, Popescu I
Opioid prescribing: a systematic review and critical appraisal of guidelines for chronic pain.
This review evaluated the quality and content of guidelines on the use of opioids for chronic pain. Despite limited evidence and variable development methods, it concluded that recent guidelines on chronic pain agree on several opioid risk mitigation strategies, including upper dosing thresholds; cautions with certain medications; attention to drug–drug and drug–disease interactions; and use of risk assessment tools, treatment agreements, and urine drug testing.
Citation: Nuckols TK, Anderson L, Popescu I . Opioid prescribing: a systematic review and critical appraisal of guidelines for chronic pain. Ann Intern Med 2014 Jan 7;160(1):38-47. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-160-1-201401070-00732..
Keywords: Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Chronic Conditions, Guidelines, Opioids