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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 50 Research Studies Displayed
Horner-Johnson W, Klein KA, Campbell J
Experiences of women with disabilities in accessing and receiving contraceptive care.
This study explored the experiences of women with different types of disability when they attempted to obtain contraceptive care. Four semistructured focus groups were created to sample 17 women with different types of disabilities: physical, intellectual and developmental, blind or low vision, and deaf or hard of hearing. Three main themes were identified in challenges to obtaining high-quality contraceptive care: Accessibility and Accommodations, Clinician Attitudes, and Health Insurance. Different challenges occurred with different types of disabilities such as inaccessible clinic rooms and examination tables, and inaccessible clinic forms and information. Processes and infrastructure of contraceptive care are based on an assumption of an able-bodied norm.
Citation: Horner-Johnson W, Klein KA, Campbell J . Experiences of women with disabilities in accessing and receiving contraceptive care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2021 Nov;50(6):732-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2021.07.005..
Keywords: Access to Care, Disabilities, Vulnerable Populations, Women, Sexual Health
Lipton BJ, Finlayson TL
AHRQ Author: Decker SL
The association between Medicaid adult dental coverage and children's oral health.
This study examined the association of Medicaid adult dental coverage and children’s oral health as Medicaid-eligible children are more likely to experience tooth decay than children in higher-income families. Data from the 1996-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the 2003, 2007, and 2011-12 waves of the National Survey of Children’s Health was used. Adult dental coverage was associated with a 5-percentage-point reduction in the prevalence of untreated caries among children after Medicaid-enrolled adults had access to dental coverage for at least one year. Children under twelve years of age were the most affected.
Citation: Lipton BJ, Finlayson TL . The association between Medicaid adult dental coverage and children's oral health. Health Aff 2021 Nov;40(11):1731-39. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01135..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Dental and Oral Health, Medicaid, Health Insurance, Access to Care
Henke RM, Fingar KR, Jiang HJ
AHRQ Author: Jiang HJ, Liang L
Access to obstetric, behavioral health, and surgical inpatient services after hospital mergers in rural areas.
This study examined the influence of rural hospital mergers on changes to inpatient service lines at hospitals and within their catchment areas. The authors used hospital discharge data from 32 HCUP Inpatient Databases from 2007 to 2018. They found that merged hospitals were more likely than independent hospitals to eliminate maternal/neonatal and surgical care. They also found that while the number of mental/substance use disorder-related stays decreased or remained stable at merged hospitals and their catchment areas, it increased for unaffiliated hospitals and their catchment areas. This indicates a potential unmet need in the communities of rural hospitals postmerger.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201800001C.
Citation: Henke RM, Fingar KR, Jiang HJ . Access to obstetric, behavioral health, and surgical inpatient services after hospital mergers in rural areas. Health Aff 2021 Oct;40(10):1627-36. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.00160..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Hospitals, Access to Care, Rural Health
Taylor K, Compton S, Kolenic GE
Financial hardship among pregnant and postpartum women in the United States, 2013 to 2018.
Financial hardship affects health care access and health outcomes among peripartum women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of financial hardship among peripartum women over time and by insurance type and income. The investigators concluded that financial hardship among peripartum women in the United States was common from 2013 to 2018, including 24% of pregnant and postpartum women reporting unmet health care need and 60% reporting health care unaffordability.
AHRQ-funded; HS023784; HS025465.
Citation: Taylor K, Compton S, Kolenic GE . Financial hardship among pregnant and postpartum women in the United States, 2013 to 2018. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Oct;4(10):e2132103. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32103..
Keywords: Pregnancy, Healthcare Costs, Women, Access to Care
Lewis VA, Spivack S, Murray GF
FQHC designation and safety net patient revenue associated with primary care practice capabilities for access and quality.
Researchers assessed capabilities around access to and quality of care among primary care practices serving a high share of Medicaid and uninsured patients compared to practices serving a low share of these patients. Data from the National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems was analyzed. They found that federally qualified health centers were more likely than other types of primary care practices (both safety net practices and other practices) to possess capabilities related to access and quality. However, safety net practices were less likely than non-safety net practices to possess health information technology capabilities.
Citation: Lewis VA, Spivack S, Murray GF . FQHC designation and safety net patient revenue associated with primary care practice capabilities for access and quality. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Oct;36(10):2922-28. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06746-0..
Keywords: Safety Net, Vulnerable Populations, Primary Care, Access to Care, Uninsured, Medicaid, Quality of Care
Enzinger AC, Ghosh K, Keating NL
US trends in opioid access among patients with poor prognosis cancer near the end-of-life.
This study looked at trends in opioid prescriptions for cancer patients near the end-of-life (EOL) defined as the 30 days before death or hospice enrollment. The authors looked at Medicare part D data from 2007 to 2017 for 270,632 Medicare fee-for-service decedents with poor prognosis cancers. During that time, the proportion of decedents with poor prognosis cancers receiving 1 or greater opioid prescriptions near EOL declined 15.5% and the proportion receiving 1 or greater long-acting opioid prescriptions declined 36.5% to 18.1%. The mean daily dose fell from 24.5%, from 85.6 morphine milligram equivalents per day (MMED) to 64.6. The total amount of opioids prescribed fell from 1,075 morphine milligram equivalents per decedent to 666 morphine milligram equivalents per decedents. At the same time, the proportion of patients with pain-related ED visits increase 50.8% from 13.2% to 19.9%.
Citation: Enzinger AC, Ghosh K, Keating NL . US trends in opioid access among patients with poor prognosis cancer near the end-of-life. J Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 10;39(26):2948-58. doi: 10.1200/jco.21.00476..
Keywords: Cancer, Opioids, Palliative Care, Pain, Access to Care, Medication, Practice Patterns
Bonilla AG, Pourat N, Chuang E
Mental health staffing at HRSA-funded health centers may improve access to care.
This study examines the association between mental health staffing at health centers funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and patients' receipt of mental health treatment. Data from the 2014 HRSA-funded Health Center Patient Survey and the 2013 Uniform Data System were used. Findings showed that co-locating mental health staff at health centers increased the probability of patients' access to such treatment on site as well as from off-site providers.
Citation: Bonilla AG, Pourat N, Chuang E . Mental health staffing at HRSA-funded health centers may improve access to care. Psychiatr Serv 2021 Sep;72(9):1018-25. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.202000337..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Access to Care
Freno DR, Shipe ME, Levack MM
Modeling the impact of delaying transcatheter aortic valve replacement for the treatment of aortic stenosis in the era of COVID-19.
The objective of this study was to model the short term and 2-year overall survival for intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing timely or delayed transcatheter aortic valve replacement during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Findings showed that prompt transcatheter aortic valve replacement for both intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with severe symptomatic AS resulted in improved 2-year survival when local healthcare system resources were not significantly constrained by COVID-19.
Citation: Freno DR, Shipe ME, Levack MM . Modeling the impact of delaying transcatheter aortic valve replacement for the treatment of aortic stenosis in the era of COVID-19. JTCVS Open 2021 Sep;7:63-71. doi: 10.1016/j.xjon.2021.06.006..
Keywords: COVID-19, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Access to Care
Misra-Hebert AD, Hu B, Pantalone KM
Primary care health care use for patients with type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This study sought to examine factors associated with total and virtual primary care use for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used electronic medical records in the Cleveland Clinic Health System comparing prepandemic use from August 2019 to March 2020 (baseline period 0) to two pandemic periods: March to June 2020 (period 1) when in-person visits were converted to virtual; and July to November 2020 when in-person visits resumed (period 2). Demographic characteristics were obtained including age, sex, race, insurance type, median income estimated by zip code and baseline HbA1C. The study included 76,015 patients with T2D who completed a primary care visit in baseline period 0. Cohort median age was 66.2 years, 50.7% women, 21.7% Black, 71.0% White and 7.4 Other. Insurance distribution was 43.2% private, 46.5% Medicare, and 9.5% Medicaid. Median income was estimated at $59,000 and baseline HbA1C was ≤ 7% for 59.6% of patients. There were higher odds of Black patients, those with uncontrolled T2D, and those with Medicare and Medicare using virtual visits during the 2 postpandemic periods suggesting that virtual visits may be a preference for those groups. Older and male patients had lower odds of visit completion.
Citation: Misra-Hebert AD, Hu B, Pantalone KM . Primary care health care use for patients with type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes Care 2021 Sep;44(9):e173-e74. doi: 10.2337/dc21-0853..
Keywords: COVID-19, Diabetes, Primary Care, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Healthcare Delivery, Access to Care, Chronic Conditions
Johnson CL, Schwartz H, Greenberg A
Patient perceptions on barriers and facilitators to accessing low-acuity surgery during COVID-19 pandemic.
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic led to the postponement of low-acuity surgical procedures in an effort to conserve resources and ensure patient safety. This study aimed to characterize patient-reported concerns about undergoing surgical procedures during the pandemic. The investigators concluded that eliciting patients' perspectives, adapting processes to address potential barriers, and effectively educating patients about institutional measures to minimize in-hospital transmission of COVID-19 should be integrated into surgical care.
Citation: Johnson CL, Schwartz H, Greenberg A . Patient perceptions on barriers and facilitators to accessing low-acuity surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. J Surg Res 2021 Aug;264:30-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2021.01.028..
Keywords: COVID-19, Surgery, Access to Care, Patient Experience, Public Health
Allen L, Cummings JR, Hockenberry JM
The impact of urgent care centers on nonemergent emergency department visits.
This study looked at the impact of urgent care centers on nonemergency emergency department (ED) use. Secondary data from a novel urgent care center database, linked to the HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) from six states was used. Data from ZIP codes with no urgent care centers served as a control group compared to areas with local urgent care centers. Having an open urgent care center in a ZIP code reduced the total number of ED visits by residents by 17.2% largely due to visits for less urgent conditions. The effect was concentrated in areas with hospitals with the longest ED wait times. The total number of uninsured visits to the ED were reduced by 21% and for Medicaid visits by 29.1%.
Citation: Allen L, Cummings JR, Hockenberry JM . The impact of urgent care centers on nonemergent emergency department visits. Health Serv Res 2021 Aug;56(4):721-30. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13631..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Emergency Department, Healthcare Utilization, Access to Care
Purnell TS, Simpson DC, Callender CO
Dismantling structural racism as a root cause of racial disparities in COVID-19 and transplantation.
As the United States faces unparalleled challenges due to COVID-19, racial disparities in health and healthcare have once again taken center stage. If effective interventions to address racial disparities in transplantation, including those magnified by COVID-19, are to be designed and implemented at the national level, it is first critical to understand the complex mechanisms by which structural, institutional, interpersonal, and internalized racism influence the presence of racial disparities in healthcare and transplantation. IN this article the authors discuss their viewpoint.
Citation: Purnell TS, Simpson DC, Callender CO . Dismantling structural racism as a root cause of racial disparities in COVID-19 and transplantation. Am J Transplant 2021 Jul;21(7):2327-32. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16543..
Keywords: COVID-19, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Transplantation, Surgery, Access to Care
Chao GF, Li KY, Zhu Z
Use of telehealth by surgical specialties during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This study’s objective was to determine telehealth use by surgical specialty before and during the pandemic period starting in March 2020. Insurance claims from a Michigan statewide commercial payer for new patient visits with a surgeon from 1 of 9 surgical specialties during one of the following periods: prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (period 1: January 5 to March 7, 2020), early pandemic (period 2: March 8 to June 6, 2020), and late pandemic (period 3: June 7 to September 5, 2020) were analyzed. For new patient visits, 1182 surgeons (26.8%) in any patient context used telehealth. Telehealth use peaked in April 2020 and facilitated 34.6% of all new patient visits during that week. Urology was the specialty with the highest telehealth conversion rate (14.3%).
Citation: Chao GF, Li KY, Zhu Z . Use of telehealth by surgical specialties during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Surg 2021 Jul;156(7):620-26. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2021.0979..
Keywords: COVID-19, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Access to Care, Practice Patterns, Surgery
Clair K, Ijadi-Maghsoodi R, Nazinyan M
Veteran perspectives on adaptations to a VA residential rehabilitation program for substance use disorders during the novel coronavirus pandemic.
This paper looks at veterans’ perspectives on adaptations made to a VA residential rehabilitation program for substance use disorders during the novel coronavirus pandemic. Adaptations to services are described within a large residential rehabilitation program for under-resourced veterans; reports veterans’ experiences; and outlines successes and challenges encountered. Data was collected from two focus groups with nine veterans in the program. The groups highlighted experiences of inconsistent communication about residential policies, interruptions to medical and addiction services, and feelings of confinement and social isolation.
Citation: Clair K, Ijadi-Maghsoodi R, Nazinyan M . Veteran perspectives on adaptations to a VA residential rehabilitation program for substance use disorders during the novel coronavirus pandemic. Community Ment Health J 2021 Jul;57(5):801-07. doi: 10.1007/s10597-021-00810-z..
Keywords: Veterans, Substance Abuse, Rehabilitation, COVID-19, Healthcare Delivery, Access to Care, Patient Experience
Roberts ET, Desai SM
Does Medicaid coverage of Medicare cost sharing affect physician care for dual-eligible Medicare beneficiaries?
The objective of this paper was to assess changes in physicians' provision of care to duals (low-income individuals with Medicare and Medicaid) in response to a policy that required Medicaid to fully pay Medicare's cost sharing for office visits with these patients. This policy-a provision of the Affordable Care Act-effectively increased payments for office visits with duals by 0%-20%, depending on the state, in 2013 and 2014.
AHRQ-funded; HS026727; HS026980.
Citation: Roberts ET, Desai SM . Does Medicaid coverage of Medicare cost sharing affect physician care for dual-eligible Medicare beneficiaries? Health Serv Res 2021 Jun;56(3):528-39. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13650..
Keywords: Medicare, Medicaid, Health Insurance, Access to Care, Healthcare Costs, Low-Income
Chow JY, Nijhawan AE, Mathews WC
Hospitalization rates among persons with HIV who gained Medicaid or private insurance after the Affordable Care Act in 2014.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether gaining inpatient healthcare coverage had an effect on hospitalization rates among persons with HIV following implementation of the Affordable Care Act in 2014. Hospitalization data from 2015 were obtained on adults receiving longitudinal care at HIV clinics; all patients were previously uninsured and supported by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) in 2013. Findings showed that acquiring inpatient coverage was not associated with a change in hospitalization rates.
Citation: Chow JY, Nijhawan AE, Mathews WC . Hospitalization rates among persons with HIV who gained Medicaid or private insurance after the Affordable Care Act in 2014. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jun 1;87(2):776-80. doi: 10.1097/qai.0000000000002645..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hospitalization, Medicaid, Health Insurance, Access to Care, Policy
Fung V, McCarthy S, Price M
Payment discrepancies and access to primary care physicians for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries.
This study examined whether the Affordable Care Act (ACA) primary care fee bump for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries impacted primary care physicians (PCP) acceptance of duals. The authors assessed differences in the likelihood that PCPs had dual caseloads of ≥10% or 20% in states with lower versus full dual reimbursement using linear probability models adjusted for physician and area-level traits. The proportion of PCPs with dual caseloads of ≥10% or 20% decreased significantly between 2012 and 2017. The fee bump was not consistently associated with increases in dual caseloads.
Citation: Fung V, McCarthy S, Price M . Payment discrepancies and access to primary care physicians for dual-eligible Medicare-Medicaid beneficiaries. Med Care 2021 Jun;59(6):487-94. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001525..
Keywords: Primary Care, Medicaid, Medicare, Health Insurance, Payment, Access to Care
Kemp MT, Williams AM, Brown CS
Practical guidance for early identification of barriers in surgical telehealth clinics.
The authors provide advice on early identification of and response to barriers in telehealth settings in order to help patients receive optimal care. Their focus is on standardizing expectations, assessing technological knowledge and resource access, evaluating understanding and comfort with telehealth, and assessing social support.
Citation: Kemp MT, Williams AM, Brown CS . Practical guidance for early identification of barriers in surgical telehealth clinics. Ann Surg 2021 Jun;273(6):e268-e70. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000004633..
Keywords: Surgery, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Healthcare Delivery, Access to Care
Küng SA, Saavedra-Avendano B, Vélez EA
Factors associated with support for adolescent access to contraception among Mexican Catholic parents.
Researchers used a nationally representative survey of 2186 Mexican Catholic parents to assess two outcomes: support for adolescent access to modern contraception and whether adolescents unaccompanied by an adult should have access to contraceptive methods. They found that Mexican Catholic parents support adolescent access to modern contraception, but support for unaccompanied access to contraception is lower. This may reflect an interest in being involved, and not necessarily opposition to contraceptive use.
AHRQ-funded; HS025155; HS022981.
Citation: Küng SA, Saavedra-Avendano B, Vélez EA . Factors associated with support for adolescent access to contraception among Mexican Catholic parents. J Relig Health 2021 Jun;60(3):1600-12. doi: 10.1007/s10943-021-01186-w..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Access to Care, Sexual Health, Women
Reistetter TA, Eschbach K K, Prochaska J
Understanding variation in postacute care: developing rehabilitation service areas through geographic mapping.
This study’s goal was to demonstrate a method for developing rehabilitation service areas for post-acute care. A secondary analysis of 2013-2014 Medicare records for older patients in Texas (n = 469,172) was conducted. The analysis included admission records for inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and long-term care hospitals. The authors used Ward’s algorithm to cluster patient ZIP code tabulation areas based on which facilities patients were admitted to for rehabilitation. They set the number of rehabilitation clusters to 22 to allow for comparison to the 22 hospital referral regions. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and variance in the number of rehabilitation beds across areas were the methods used to evaluate rehabilitation service areas. The service areas had a higher ICC and variance in beds than the hospital referral regions.
Citation: Reistetter TA, Eschbach K K, Prochaska J . Understanding variation in postacute care: developing rehabilitation service areas through geographic mapping. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 May;100(5):465-72. doi: 10.1097/phm.0000000000001577..
Keywords: Elderly, Rehabilitation, Medicare, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Home Healthcare, Access to Care
Anderson KE, Shugarman LR, Davenport K
Regulation of provider networks in response to COVID-19.
The authors anticipate that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic will have 3 main effects on provider networks and their regulation: enrollment changes, changes to the provider landscape, and changes to care delivery. They suggested that telehealth will have a larger role in care delivery than in the pre-pandemic period, and that regulators will need to adapt network standards to accommodate in-person and virtual care delivery.
Citation: Anderson KE, Shugarman LR, Davenport K . Regulation of provider networks in response to COVID-19. Am J Manag Care 2021 Apr;27(4):e101-e04. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2021.88614..
Keywords: Health Insurance, Policy, Access to Care, Healthcare Delivery, COVID-19
Davis K, Wilbur K, Metzger S
Symptom and needs assessment screening in oncology patients: alternate outreach methods during COVID-19.
This initiative’s goal was to develop alternate outreach methods to cancer patients without access to an electronic portal during COVID-19. The authors implemented a standardized telephone outreach process targeting patients without active electronic portal accounts to improve remote symptom monitoring. A total of 172 screens were completed, identifying 110 needs for 63 individuals. Twenty-eight patients completed patient enrollment, with outreach calls capturing a higher percentage of Black patients (34%) and older adults age 61-80 years old (69%) compared to portal users.
Citation: Davis K, Wilbur K, Metzger S . Symptom and needs assessment screening in oncology patients: alternate outreach methods during COVID-19. J Psychosoc Oncol 2021;39(3):452-60. doi: 10.1080/07347332.2021.1890663..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer, Access to Care, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Ellison J, Griffith K, Thursby M
The impact of driving time to family planning facilities on preventive service use in Ohio.
This study examined the impact of driving time to family planning facilities for preventive service use in Ohio due to newly enacted restrictions in public funding for organizations that provide or refer patients to abortion care, often resulting in clinic closures. Data from the 2010 to 2015 Ohio Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was assessed for female respondents aged 18-45 years with household incomes <$50,000. Clinic locations were combined with restricted-access survey ZIP codes to compute driving times to the nearest family planning clinic. Each additional 10 minutes of driving time was associated with an 8.9 percentage point increase in the likelihood of avoided care owing to cost, a 10.4 percentage point decrease in the likelihood of a mammogram during the past 12 months, and a 12.5 percentage point decrease in the likelihood of ever receiving a clinical breast examination. Results were similar for driving distance increases.
Citation: Ellison J, Griffith K, Thursby M . The impact of driving time to family planning facilities on preventive service use in Ohio. Am J Prev Med 2021 Apr;60(4):542-45. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2020.11.009..
Keywords: Access to Care, Women, Prevention, Screening, Mammogram
Smith JM, Jarrín OF, Lin H
Racial disparities in post-acute home health care referral and utilization among older adults with diabetes.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity and hospital discharge to home health care and subsequent utilization of home health care among a cohort of adults (age 50 and older) who experienced a diabetes-related hospitalization. The investigators found that among those discharged to home health care, all non-white racial/ethnic minority patients were less likely to receive services within 14-days.
Citation: Smith JM, Jarrín OF, Lin H . Racial disparities in post-acute home health care referral and utilization among older adults with diabetes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 19;18(6):3196. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18063196..
Keywords: Elderly, Home Healthcare, Diabetes, Chronic Conditions, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Access to Care, Healthcare Utilization
Dy CJ, Salter A, Barker A
Increased utilization of total joint arthroplasty after Medicaid expansion.
This study examined prior analyses that greater utilization of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was to be expected after Medicaid expansion in 2014. Using 2012-2015 data from the HCUP Database, 9 expansion states (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Massachusetts, Maryland, Nevada, New York, and Vermont) were compared to 2 states that did not expand Medicaid (Florida and Missouri). After adjusting for community characteristics, THA and TKA increased 15% in 2014 and 23% in 2015 within expansion states compared to 2013. In non-expansion states, compared to 2013, there were significant decreases of 18% in 2014 and 11% in 2015.
Citation: Dy CJ, Salter A, Barker A . Increased utilization of total joint arthroplasty after Medicaid expansion. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Mar 17;103(6):524-31. doi: 10.2106/jbjs.20.00303..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Medicaid, Orthopedics, Surgery, Healthcare Utilization, Access to Care