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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 82 Research Studies Displayed
Anderson MC, Evans E, Zonfrillo MR
Rural/urban differences in discharge from rehabilitation in older adults with traumatic brain injury.
This study compared differences in outcomes for older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rural and urban settings by 1) comparing the rates of successful community discharge; and 2) reasons for not achieving successful discharge. This retrospective national cohort study looked at skilled nursing facility (SNF) patients aged 66 and older using Medicare inpatient claims with Minimum Data Set assessments. A total of 11,771 SNFs were identified with a total population of 61,021 Medicare beneficiaries discharged to a SNF following hospitalization for TBI between 2011 and 2015. Patients in rural settings had lower rates of successful discharge compared with patients in urban settings (52.1% vs 58.5%). Reasons for unsuccessful discharge differed between rural and urban settings with rural patients less likely to discharged from SNF within 100 days although they were less likely to be rehospitalized within 30 days of SNF discharge.
Citation: Anderson MC, Evans E, Zonfrillo MR . Rural/urban differences in discharge from rehabilitation in older adults with traumatic brain injury. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jun;69(6):1601-08. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17065..
Keywords: Elderly, Brain Injury, Trauma, Rural Health, Urban Health, Rehabilitation, Nursing Homes
Piantino JA, Lin A, Luther M
Simultaneous heart rate variability and electroencephalographic monitoring in children in the emergency department.
This study’s objective was to determine the clinical value of using changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalographic (EEG) background in children with acute trauma seen in the Emergency Department (ED) as early predictors of outcome. A novel wireless monitoring device was piloted in 17 patients with 15 patients having EEG data rated as appropriate for clinical interpretation. This was compared to EEG and HRV data successfully collected in 167 subjects. Results showed recording early HRV and EEG is feasible in children with acute injury. This new tool may offer an early, non-invasive marker for injury stratification and prognosis in children.
Citation: Piantino JA, Lin A, Luther M . Simultaneous heart rate variability and electroencephalographic monitoring in children in the emergency department. J Child Adolesc Trauma 2021 Jun;14(2):165-75. doi: 10.1007/s40653-020-00313-1..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Trauma, Outcomes
Bradbury KR, Williams C, Leonard S
Emotional aspects of pediatric post-intensive care syndrome following traumatic brain injury.
This study assessed parent-reported emotional functioning in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and identified risk factors for emotional sequelae in the acute recovery phase. Results from logistic regression indicated that only elevated parent PTSD symptoms were a significant predictor for child anxiety and depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were prevalent in the acute recovery phase of TBI. Consistent with previous research, elevations in anxiety and depressive symptoms were more related to psychosocial factors than to injury severity.
Citation: Bradbury KR, Williams C, Leonard S . Emotional aspects of pediatric post-intensive care syndrome following traumatic brain injury. J Child Adolesc Trauma 2021 Jun;14(2):177-87. doi: 10.1007/s40653-020-00332-y..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Brain Injury, Trauma, Neurological Disorders
Rosenman ED, Misisco A, Olenick J
Does team leader gender matter? A Bayesian reconciliation of leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations.
This study assessed and compared team leadership and patient care in trauma resuscitations led by male and female physicians. A secondary analysis of data from a larger randomized controlled trial using video recordings of resuscitations at a Level 1 trauma center from April 2016 to December 2017 was conducted. A total of 60 participants and 120 video observations were included in the analysis. There was a weak positive effect for female leaders for both patient care and team leadership. Gender-based advantages to team leadership and clinical care were not conclusive with the exception of rejecting a strong male advantage to team leadership.
Citation: Rosenman ED, Misisco A, Olenick J . Does team leader gender matter? A Bayesian reconciliation of leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Feb;2(1):e12348. doi: 10.1002/emp2.12348..
Keywords: Teams, Trauma, Critical Care, Provider: Physician, Provider
Azadani EN, Townsend J, Peng J
The association between traumatic dental and brain injuries in American children.
This study examined the association between dento-alveolar trauma (DAT) and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among children ages 0-18 years. The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), an HCUP dataset, was analyzed using ICD-9-CM codes for the 2010-2014 NEDS data. Out of 6,281,658 emergency department (ED) visits, DAT was recorded in 93,408 (1.5%) visits and TBI was recorded in 996,334 (15.9%) visits. Of the DAT-positive encounters, 7.5% had codes associated with TBI. Patients with DAT had 0.20 odds of having TBI compared with patients who did not DAT when all confounding variables were kept constant. Multiple injuries, being involved in motor vehicle crashes, and injuries due to assault were associated with higher odds of concomitant TBI in patients who sustained DAT.
Citation: Azadani EN, Townsend J, Peng J . The association between traumatic dental and brain injuries in American children. Dent Traumatol 2021 Feb;37(1):114-22. doi: 10.1111/edt.12611..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Children/Adolescents, Emergency Department, Trauma, Neurological Disorders, Dental Health
Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN
Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery.
This is a systematic review to quantify sleep wake disturbances (SWD) after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). These SWD can place children at risk for worse outcomes since sleep is needed for brain development and healing after injury. They also evaluated interventions for SWD and the association between SWD and other post-traumatic outcomes. Literature was searched from 1999-2019 evaluating sleep or fatigue in children hospitalized for TBI. Two independent reviewers assessed quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottowa Score for observational studies. Out of 966 identified articles, 126 full text articles were reviewed and 24 studies were included. Studies showed at least 20% of children with TBI had some degree of SWD including trouble falling or staying asleep, fatigue, daytime fatigue, and nightmares. SWD was negatively correlated with cognitive, behavioral, and quality of life outcomes. There was moderate-high risk of bias for all studies due to small sample size and lack of validated or objective SWD measures.
Citation: Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN . Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery. Sleep 2020 Oct;43(10):zsaa083. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsaa083..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sleep, Brain Injury, Neurological Disorders, Trauma, Risk, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Quality of Life, Evidence-Based Practice
Darling KE, Ranzenhofer LM, Hadley W
Negative childhood experiences and disordered eating in adolescents in a weight management program: the role of depressive symptoms.
This cross-sectional study examined the association between stressful life events and weight-related outcomes including weight status, disordered eating behaviors, and insulin sensitivity in treatment-seeking adolescents with overweight and obesity. The authors were also looking at the potential mediating role of depression. The study included 170 adolescents (mean age 14.8, 62% female) enrolled in an interdisciplinary weight management program. Findings were that stressful childhood experiences were significantly related to weight status and disordered eating but not insulin sensitivity. Depressive symptoms were related to stressful experiences and disordered eating patterns but not weight status or insulin sensitivity.
Citation: Darling KE, Ranzenhofer LM, Hadley W . Negative childhood experiences and disordered eating in adolescents in a weight management program: the role of depressive symptoms. Eat Behav 2020 Aug;38:101402. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2020.101402..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Obesity: Weight Management, Obesity, Stress, Depression, Behavioral Health, Trauma
Otto L, Wang A, Wheeler K
Comparison of manual and computer assigned injury severity scores.
The study objective was to compare the ISS manually assigned by hospital personnel and those generated by the ICDPIC software for value agreement and predictive power of length of stay (LOS) and mortality. The investigators found that the LOS and mortality predictive power were significantly higher for manually assigned ISS when compared with computer assigned ISS in both PTC and NTDB data sets. They indicated that hospitals should be cautious about transitioning to computer assigned ISS, specifically for patients who are critically injured.
Citation: Otto L, Wang A, Wheeler K . Comparison of manual and computer assigned injury severity scores. Inj Prev 2020 Aug;26(4):330-33. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043224..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Injuries and Wounds, Trauma, Hospitals
Johnson BN, Lumley MA, Cheavens JS
Exploring the links among borderline personality disorder symptoms, trauma, and pain in patients with chronic pain disorders.
The authors compared study participants high or low on borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms on patterns of pain experience and types of child and adult traumas. They found that BPD symptoms were associated with increased clinical severity among patients with chronic pain as well as a unique manifestation of pain experiencing. Childhood trauma of all types is associated with chronic pain and BPD co-occurrence. They recommended that researchers and clinicians assess for BPD in people with chronic pain to enhance conceptual models of the transaction between these disorders and to improve clinical care.
Citation: Johnson BN, Lumley MA, Cheavens JS . Exploring the links among borderline personality disorder symptoms, trauma, and pain in patients with chronic pain disorders. J Psychosom Res 2020 Aug;135:110164. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110164..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Trauma, Pain, Chronic Conditions
Porter A, Brown CC, Tilford JM
Association of insurance status with treatment and outcomes in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
This study’s objective was to determine if a health insurance disparity exists among pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury using data from the National Trauma Data Bank. The Bank contains data from more than 800 trauma centers in the United States. Isolated traumatic brain injury was defined as patients with a head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3+. Procedure codes were used to identify four primary treatment approaches combined into 2 classifications: craniotomy or craniectomy and external or intracranial ventricular draining. Condition at admission was defined including hypotension, Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanism and intent of injury, and Injury Severity Scale. Among the cohort of 12,449 patients, 91% had insurance and 9% were uninsured. Children without insurance had worse condition at admission with higher rates of hypotension and higher Injury Severity Score when compared with publicly and privately insured patients. Having insurance was associated with a 32% increase in the odds of cranial procedures, and 54% increase in the odds of monitor placement. Insurance coverage was associated 25% lower odds of inpatient mortality. Further study is needed to determine what factors lead to worse condition at admission.
Citation: Porter A, Brown CC, Tilford JM . Association of insurance status with treatment and outcomes in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2020 Jul;48(7):e584-e91. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000004398..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Brain Injury, Trauma, Health Insurance, Access to Care, Uninsured, Outcomes
Morris RS, Davis NJ, Koestner A
Redefining the trauma triage matrix: the role of emergent interventions.
In this retrospective study, researchers compared the effectiveness of the need for an emergent intervention within 6 h (NEI-6) with existing definitions. Using data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program, they found that NEI-6 performs better than trauma triage matrix, need for trauma intervention, and secondary triage assessment tool in terms of under-triage, mortality and need for resource utilization. Other methods resulted in significantly more full-tiered trauma team activations than NEI-6 without identifying patients at risk for early mortality. They concluded that NEI-6 represents a novel tool to determine trauma activation appropriateness.
Citation: Morris RS, Davis NJ, Koestner A . Redefining the trauma triage matrix: the role of emergent interventions. J Surg Res 2020 Jul;251:195-201. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2019.11.011..
Keywords: Trauma, Emergency Department, Healthcare Delivery
Wooldridge AR, Carayon P, Hoonakker P
Work system barriers and facilitators in inpatient care transitions of pediatric trauma patients.
Hospital-based care of pediatric trauma patients includes transitions between units that are critical for quality of care and patient safety. Using a macroergonomics approach, the investigators identified work system barriers and facilitators in care transitions. They interviewed eighteen healthcare professionals involved in transitions from emergency department (ED) to operating room (OR), OR to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and ED to PICU.
Citation: Wooldridge AR, Carayon P, Hoonakker P . Work system barriers and facilitators in inpatient care transitions of pediatric trauma patients. Appl Ergon 2020 May;85:103059. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2020.103059..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Inpatient Care, Transitions of Care, Healthcare Delivery, Trauma, Hospitals
Myers SR, DeSimone JD, Lorch SA
US hospital type and proximity to mass shooting events.
This study used data on mass shootings to examine the proximity of adult trauma centers, pediatric trauma centers (TCs), and non–trauma center hospitals to such events. The investigators concluded that based on the data, to ensure the success of trauma care everywhere, all hospitals regardless of TC status should expect and prepare for the eventuality of a mass-casualty event involving both adults and children. All hospitals must be ready to serve as the combat forward-field hospital.
Citation: Myers SR, DeSimone JD, Lorch SA . US hospital type and proximity to mass shooting events. JAMA Surg 2020 May;155(5):446-7. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.0095..
Keywords: Hospitals, Trauma, Emergency Department, Emergency Preparedness
Tignanelli CJ, Silverman GM, Lindemann EA
Natural language processing of prehospital emergency medical services trauma records allows for automated characterization of treatment appropriateness.
Incomplete prehospital trauma care is a significant contributor to preventable deaths. Current databases lack timelines easily constructible of clinical events. Temporal associations and procedural indications are critical to characterize treatment appropriateness. Natural language processing (NLP) methods present a novel approach to bridge this gap. In this study, the investigators sought to evaluate the efficacy of a novel and automated NLP pipeline to determine treatment appropriateness from a sample of prehospital EMS motor vehicle crash records.
Citation: Tignanelli CJ, Silverman GM, Lindemann EA . Natural language processing of prehospital emergency medical services trauma records allows for automated characterization of treatment appropriateness. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 May;88(5):607-14. doi: 10.1097/ta.0000000000002598.
Keywords: Trauma, Injuries and Wounds, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Morris RS, Milia D, Glover J
Predictors of elderly mortality after trauma: a novel outcome score.
Elderly trauma patients are at high risk for mortality, even when presenting with minor injuries. Previous prognostic models are poorly used because of their reliance on elements unavailable during the index hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive algorithm to accurately estimate in-hospital mortality using easily available metrics. A two-tiered scoring system to predict in-hospital mortality was developed: a quick elderly mortality after trauma (qEMAT) score for use at initial patient presentation and a full EMAT (fEMAT) score for use after radiologic evaluation.
Citation: Morris RS, Milia D, Glover J . Predictors of elderly mortality after trauma: a novel outcome score. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 Mar;88(3):416-24. doi: 10.1097/ta.0000000000002569..
Keywords: Elderly, Mortality, Trauma, Injuries and Wounds
Williams CN, Hartman ME, McEvoy CT
Sleep-wake disturbances after acquired brain injury in children surviving critical care.
Sleep-wake disturbances are underevaluated among children with acquired brain injury surviving critical care. In this prospective cohort study, the investigators aimed to quantify severity, phenotypes, and risk factors for sleep-wake disturbances. The investigators concluded that over half of children surviving critical care with acquired brain injury have sleep-wake disturbances. They indicated that many sleep-wake disturbances phenotypes were identified, but most children had disturbance in initiation and maintenance of sleep.
Citation: Williams CN, Hartman ME, McEvoy CT . Sleep-wake disturbances after acquired brain injury in children surviving critical care. Pediatr Neurol 2020 Feb;103:43-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.08.010..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Brain Injury, Critical Care, Sleep, Trauma, Injuries and Wounds, Neurological Disorders
Fernandez R, Rosenman ED, Olenick J
Simulation-based team leadership training improves team leadership during actual trauma resuscitations: a randomized controlled trial.
This study’s objective was to assess the clinical impact of simulation-based leadership training on team leadership and patient care during trauma resuscitations. A total of 79 second- and third-year residents at the Harborview Medical Center (a level 1 trauma center) were randomized and 360 resuscitations were analyzed. Participant-led actual trauma resuscitations were video recorded and then coded for leadership behaviors and patient care. Then the residents were randomized to a 4-hour simulation-based leadership training (intervention) or standard orientation (control) condition. The leadership behaviors were then scored pre- and post-training. There was a significant difference in post-training leadership behaviors between the intervention and control conditions.
Citation: Fernandez R, Rosenman ED, Olenick J . Simulation-based team leadership training improves team leadership during actual trauma resuscitations: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med 2020 Jan;48(1):73-82. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000004077..
Keywords: Teams, Trauma, Simulation, Training, Provider
Rudd BN, Last BS, Gregor C
Benchmarking treatment effectiveness of community-delivered trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy.
The objectives of the current study are to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered from 2013 to 2016 in 15 behavioral health agencies on youth PTSD as well as general mental health symptoms and functioning, and (b) benchmark these clinical outcomes against other published efficacy and effectiveness trials. This study is the first benchmarking study of TF-CBT and provides preliminary findings with regard to the effectiveness, and transportability, of TF-CBT to urban community settings that serve youth in poverty.
Citation: Rudd BN, Last BS, Gregor C . Benchmarking treatment effectiveness of community-delivered trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Am J Community Psychol 2019 Dec;64(3-4):438-50. doi: 10.1002/ajcp.12370..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Behavioral Health, Trauma, Community-Based Practice, Stress, Outcomes, Treatments
Kim J, Engelberg RA, Downey L
Predictors of advance care planning documentation in patients with underlying chronic illness who died of traumatic injury.
This study examined predictors of advance care planning (ACP) in patients with underlying chronic illness who died of traumatic injury. Death records and electronic health records were used to identify decedents with chronic life-limiting illness who died between 2010 and 2015. Only 22% of decedents at ACP documentation at the time of their traumatic injury. Patients who were older, had more chronic illnesses and more nonsurgical hospitalizations were more likely to have completed ACP documentation in the year before injury. After injury, only 4% completed ACP documentation who did not have it before.
Citation: Kim J, Engelberg RA, Downey L . Predictors of advance care planning documentation in patients with underlying chronic illness who died of traumatic injury. J Pain Symptom Manage 2019 Nov;58(5):857-63.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.07.015..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Trauma, Chronic Conditions
Vadlamani A, Perry JA, McCunn M
Racial differences in discharge location after a traumatic brain injury among older adults.
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to determine if there were racial differences in discharge location among older adults treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI) at a level 1 trauma center. The authors concluded that in this group of Medicare-eligible older adults, blacks were more likely to be discharged to inpatient rehabilitation compared to whites.
Citation: Vadlamani A, Perry JA, McCunn M . Racial differences in discharge location after a traumatic brain injury among older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2019 Sep;100(9):1622-28. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2019.03.008.
Keywords: Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Brain Injury, Trauma, Elderly, Hospital Discharge, Rehabilitation, Medicare
Newgard CD, Caughey A, McConnell KJ
Comparison of injured older adults included in vs excluded from trauma registries with 1-year follow-up.
The purpose of this cohort study was to compare injured older adults who were included in with those excluded from trauma registries, with a focus on patients with serious injuries, requiring major surgery, or dying after injury. Subjects included all injured adults 65 years and older who were transported by 44 emergency medical services agencies to 51 trauma and nontrauma centers in 7 counties in Oregon and Washington. Results showed that, in their current form, trauma registries were ineffective in capturing, tracking, and evaluating injured older adults, although mortality following injury is frequently due to noninjury causes. High-risk injured older adults were not included in registries because of care in nontrauma hospitals, restrictive registry inclusion criteria, and being missed by registries in trauma centers.
Citation: Newgard CD, Caughey A, McConnell KJ . Comparison of injured older adults included in vs excluded from trauma registries with 1-year follow-up. JAMA Surg 2019 Sep;154(9):811-18. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2019.2279..
Keywords: Elderly, Registries, Trauma
Cook JM, Newman E, Simiola V
Trauma training: competencies, initiatives, and resources.
Traumatic stress is currently not a required component of the standard curricula in graduate-level education in clinical and counseling psychology. However, due to the high prevalence of trauma and its potentially deleterious physical and mental health effects in the general and clinical populations, it is imperative that psychology graduate students and practitioners understand the relevance of trauma in their clients' lives and its impact in clinical research. This paper discusses competencies, initiatives and resources related to trauma training.
Citation: Cook JM, Newman E, Simiola V . Trauma training: competencies, initiatives, and resources. Psychotherapy 2019 Sep;56(3):409-21. doi: 10.1037/pst0000233..
Keywords: Education: Continuing Medical Education, Behavioral Health, Provider, Stress, Training, Trauma
Wooldridge A, Carayon P, Hoonakker P
Complexity of the pediatric trauma care process: implications for multi-level awareness.
Trauma is the leading cause of disability and death in children and young adults in the US. While much is known about the medical aspects of inpatient pediatric trauma care, not much is known about the processes and roles involved in in-hospital care. Using human factors engineering (HFE) methods, the investigators combined interview, archival document and trauma registry data to describe how intra-hospital care transitions affect process and team complexity.
Citation: Wooldridge A, Carayon P, Hoonakker P . Complexity of the pediatric trauma care process: implications for multi-level awareness. Cogn Technol Work 2019 Aug;21(3):397-416. doi: 10.1007/s10111-018-0520-0..
Keywords: Care Coordination, Children/Adolescents, Critical Care, Health Services Research (HSR), Healthcare Delivery, Inpatient Care, Patient Safety, Teams, Trauma, Young Adults
Hoonakker PLT, Wooldridge AR, Hose BZ
Information flow during pediatric trauma care transitions: things falling through the cracks.
In order to investigate information flow during pediatric trauma care transitions, researchers interviewed 18 clinicians about communication and coordination between the emergency department, operating room, and pediatric intensive care unit, then surveyed the clinicians about patient safety during these transitions. They found that, despite the fact that the many services and units involved in pediatric trauma cooperate well together during trauma cases, important patient care information is often lost when transitioning patients between units. To manage the transition of this fragile and complex population better, they recommend finding ways to manage the information flow during these transitions better by, for instance, providing technological support to ensure shared mental models.
Citation: Hoonakker PLT, Wooldridge AR, Hose BZ . Information flow during pediatric trauma care transitions: things falling through the cracks. Intern Emerg Med 2019 Aug;14(5):797-805. doi: 10.1007/s11739-019-02110-7..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Communications, Emergency Department, Healthcare Delivery, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Patient Safety, Provider, Provider: Clinician, Surgery, Transitions of Care, Trauma
Albrecht JS, Al Kibria GM, Greene CR
Post-discharge mortality of older adults with traumatic brain injury or other trauma.
This study examined post-discharge mortality of older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or non-TBI trauma compared with the general population. A retrospective cohort study of adults 65 years and older was conducted using data from an urban trauma center from 1997 to 2008. The data was then linked to the National Death Index through 2008 to obtain date and cause of death. A higher rate of death was associated with both cohorts after moderate to severe injury from accidents than for older adults without TBI or non-TBI trauma.
Citation: Albrecht JS, Al Kibria GM, Greene CR . Post-discharge mortality of older adults with traumatic brain injury or other trauma. J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Jul 25;67(11):2382-86. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16098..
Keywords: Elderly, Hospital Discharge, Injuries and Wounds, Mortality, Trauma