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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 45 Research Studies Displayed
Bunting AM, Frank D, Arshonsky J
Socially-supportive norms and mutual aid of people who use opioids: an analysis of Reddit during the initial COVID-19 pandemic.
This study looked at the effect big events like the COVID-19 pandemic can have on transforming social structures, social interactions, and social norms. The social media site Reddit.com was used to collect data on the impact of COVID-19 and opioid use. Posts from March to May 2020 were collected from the two most popular opioid subreddits. Out of 2000 posts, 300 were found to be relevant to the study. The pandemic led to robust social support and mutual aid on Reddit including advice on coping with social isolation, withdrawal, managing cravings, and accessing recovery resources.
Citation: Bunting AM, Frank D, Arshonsky J . Socially-supportive norms and mutual aid of people who use opioids: an analysis of Reddit during the initial COVID-19 pandemic. Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 May 1;222:108672. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108672..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Substance Abuse, COVID-19, Infectious Diseases, Social Media
Mogul DB, Bowring MG, Lau J
Role for social media in pediatric liver disease: caregiver and provider perspectives.
This study examined the role of social media for caregivers of children with liver disease. A survey of caregivers was conducted as well as a survey of healthcare providers to understand the perceived benefits and harms of participation. Among 138 caregivers of children with liver disease, 97.8% agreed social media was a good place to learn and share patient experiences, and 88% agreed it was a good source of general information. Only 3% indicated they would use the information to change care without telling their provider. Among 217 healthcare providers, 55% believed social media may lead caregivers to change care management without telling their healthcare team.
Citation: Mogul DB, Bowring MG, Lau J . Role for social media in pediatric liver disease: caregiver and provider perspectives. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2020 Nov;23(6):548-57. doi: 10.5223/pghn.2020.23.6.548..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Social Media, Caregiving
Alruwaily A, Mangold C, Greene T
Child social media influencers and unhealthy food product placement.
The goal of this study was to determine the frequency with which kid influencers promote branded and unbranded food and drinks during their YouTube videos and assess the nutritional quality of food and drinks shown. The researchers found that most food and/or drinks were unhealthy branded items, followed by unhealthy unbranded items, healthy unbranded items, and healthy branded items. They concluded that kid influencers generate millions of impressions for unhealthy food and drink brands through product placement and recommended that the Federal Trade Commission strengthen regulations regarding product placement on YouTube videos featuring young children.
Citation: Alruwaily A, Mangold C, Greene T . Child social media influencers and unhealthy food product placement. Pediatrics 2020 Nov;146(5). doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-4057..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Social Media, Nutrition
Rummo PE, Cassidy O, Wells I
Examining the relationship between youth-targeted food marketing expenditures and the demographics of social media followers.
The purpose of this study was to determine how many adolescents follow food/beverage brands on Instagram and Twitter, and examine associations between brands' youth-targeted marketing practices and percentages of adolescent followers. The investigators purchased data from Demographics Pro to characterize the demographics of Twitter and Instagram users who followed 27 of the most highly advertised fast food, snack, and drink brands in 2019. They found that food and sugary drink brands maintain millions of adolescent followers on social media.
Citation: Rummo PE, Cassidy O, Wells I . Examining the relationship between youth-targeted food marketing expenditures and the demographics of social media followers. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Mar 3;17(5). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051631.
Keywords: Social Media, Children/Adolescents, Nutrition
O'Leary ST, Narwaney KJ, Wagner NM
Efficacy of a web-based intervention to increase uptake of maternal vaccines: an RCT.
Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) and influenza vaccines are recommended for pregnant women in each pregnancy, yet uptake is suboptimal. This study tested the efficacy of an online vaccine resource in increasing uptake of Tdap and influenza vaccines among pregnant women. The investigators concluded that Web-based vaccination information sent to pregnant women can positively influence maternal influenza vaccine uptake.
Citation: O'Leary ST, Narwaney KJ, Wagner NM . Efficacy of a web-based intervention to increase uptake of maternal vaccines: an RCT. Am J Prev Med 2019 Oct;57(4):e125-e33. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2019.05.018..
Keywords: Vaccination, Pregnancy, Women, Health Information Technology (HIT), Social Media, Influenza
Lyson HC, Le GM, Zhang J
Social media as a tool to promote health awareness: results from an online cervical cancer prevention study.
In this study, the authors investigated whether participation in an online social media platform and receipt of brief, tailored messages was effective at increasing knowledge, awareness, and prevention behaviors related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. The investigators found that although most study participants had substantial knowledge, awareness, and engagement in positive behaviors related to cervical cancer prevention at the start of the study, HPV awareness could be increased through brief participation in an online social media platform and receipt of tailored health messages.
Citation: Lyson HC, Le GM, Zhang J . Social media as a tool to promote health awareness: results from an online cervical cancer prevention study. J Cancer Educ 2019 Aug;34(4):819-22. doi: 10.1007/s13187-018-1379-8..
Keywords: Social Media, Cancer: Cervical Cancer, Cancer, Health Promotion, Prevention
Chu KH, Colditz J, Malik M
Identifying key target audiences for public health campaigns: leveraging machine learning in the case of hookah tobacco smoking.
Current social media platforms provide researchers with opportunities to better identify and target specific audiences and even individuals. However, the investigators were not aware of systematic research attempting to identify audiences with mixed or ambivalent views toward hookah tobacco smoking (HTS). The objective of their study was to (1) confirm previous research showing positively skewed HTS sentiment on Twitter using a larger dataset by leveraging machine learning techniques and (2) systematically identify individuals who exhibit mixed opinions about HTS via the Twitter platform and therefore represent key audiences for intervention.
Citation: Chu KH, Colditz J, Malik M . Identifying key target audiences for public health campaigns: leveraging machine learning in the case of hookah tobacco smoking. J Med Internet Res 2019 Jul 8;21(7):e12443. doi: 10.2196/12443..
Keywords: Health Promotion, Public Health, Social Media, Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation
Blumenthal KG, Topaz M, Zhou L
Mining social media data to assess the risk of skin and soft tissue infections from allergen immunotherapy.
This study examined large social media databases including Facebook, Twitter, and Reddit to identify postings of rare incidents of contamination or infection from extracts for allergen immunotherapy (AIT). They used natural language processing (NLP) related to AIT from 2012 to 2016. They compared posts on adverse events for AIT compared to influenza vaccinations. The results showed that both types of posts are rare events.
Citation: Blumenthal KG, Topaz M, Zhou L . Mining social media data to assess the risk of skin and soft tissue infections from allergen immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Jul;144(1):129-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.01.029..
Keywords: Social Media, Skin Conditions, Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Vaccination, Risk
Rolbiecki AJ, Teti M, Crenshaw B
Exploring lived experiences of chronic pain through photo-elicitation and social networking.
The purpose of this study was to understand how patients' use of photo-elicitation and online social networks (Facebook) enhances their understanding of what it means to live with pain. The investigators concluded that photo-elicitation is an innovative way to shed light on patients' lived experience with chronic pain. Despite some technical challenges, Facebook support groups utilizing photo-elicitation can provide a readily available platform that can facilitate interchange of patient experiences and might help patients communicate with their providers.
Citation: Rolbiecki AJ, Teti M, Crenshaw B . Exploring lived experiences of chronic pain through photo-elicitation and social networking. Pain Med 2019 Jun;20(6):1202-11. doi: 10.1093/pm/pny175..
Keywords: Pain, Chronic Conditions, Social Media, Communication
Dorst MT, Anders SH, Chennupati S
Health information technologies in the support systems of pregnant women and their caregivers: mixed-methods study.
This study’s objective was to determine the number and nature of the components of the support systems of pregnant women and their caregivers (family members) and the role of health information technologies (HIT) in these support systems. Pregnant women and their caregivers were enrolled from advanced maternal-fetal and group prenatal care clinics. Participants filled out surveys which addressed stress levels, socioeconomic status, health literacy, and they drew a diagram of their support systems. Pregnant women overall had a larger support system than their caregivers. Their source of medical information was more likely to be specific medical information websites, while caregivers used more general internet search engines. No association was found between stress, support system size, and support system components.
Citation: Dorst MT, Anders SH, Chennupati S . Health information technologies in the support systems of pregnant women and their caregivers: mixed-methods study. J Med Internet Res 2019 May 9;21(5):e10865. doi: 10.2196/10865..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Pregnancy, Caregiving, Women, Social Media
Wisk LE, Nelson EB, Magane KM
Clinical trial recruitment and retention of college students with type 1 diabetes via social media: an implementation case study.
The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficiency and acceptability of Internet-based recruitment for engaging college-students with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to describe the approach used for implementing a health-related trial entirely online using off-the-shelf Internet tools. Young people aged 17-25 years with T1D were recruited through social media platforms and other outreach channels; Facebook was the highest yield recruitment source. Demographics differed by platform. Response rate and participant characteristics were quantified and engagement metrics tracked via Google Analytics and participant survey data. The researchers conclude that recruitment of college students with T1D for a trial via social media is feasible, efficient, acceptable, and yields a sample that represents the user-base from which they were drawn.
Citation: Wisk LE, Nelson EB, Magane KM . Clinical trial recruitment and retention of college students with type 1 diabetes via social media: an implementation case study. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2019 May;13(3):445-56. doi: 10.1177/1932296819839503..
Keywords: Diabetes, Health Services Research (HSR), Research Methodologies, Social Media, Young Adults
Li Y, Cai X, Wang M
Social media ratings of nursing homes associated with experience of care and "Nursing Home Compare" quality measures.
This study compared the ratings of nursing homes on social media sites as compared to a quality-measure based rating system. Four popular social media sites (Facebook, Yelp, Google Consumer Reviews, and caring.com) were compared to ratings on the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) site at 196 nursing homes in Maryland. There was a positive correlation between ratings for the same nursing home for social media and NHC.
Citation: Li Y, Cai X, Wang M . Social media ratings of nursing homes associated with experience of care and "Nursing Home Compare" quality measures. BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Apr 27;19(1):260. doi: 10.1186/s12913-019-4100-7..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Quality of Care, Quality Measures, Social Media
Henderson ML, Adler JT, Van Pilsum Rasmussen SE
How should social media be used in transplantation? A survey of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
The authors investigated how social media-driven communication is perceived by providers in the field of transplantation. 299 members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons were surveyed regarding their use of, attitudes toward, and perceptions of social media; the authors analyzed relationships between their responses and participant characteristics. The authors found that individual characteristics influence opinions about the role and clinical usefulness of social media. They concluded that increasing use of social media among transplant professionals may provide an opportunity to deliver high-quality information to patients.
Citation: Henderson ML, Adler JT, Van Pilsum Rasmussen SE . How should social media be used in transplantation? A survey of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Transplantation 2019 Mar;103(3):573-80. doi: 10.1097/tp.0000000000002243..
Keywords: Transplantation, Social Media, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Provider: Physician
Adrian M, Moreno M, Nicodimos S
Research strategy for health sciences: Facebook friend request is non-differentially accepted in a diverse, young adult population.
The aim of this study was to report on overall success of recruiting young adults in diverse settings, with respect to education and employment, into a study using Facebook (FB). The investigators assert that friending through FB is a feasible way to reach young adults involved in health and behavioral research, and could be a way to expand the populations that are studied in health science research to maximize generalizability of the conclusions drawn.
Citation: Adrian M, Moreno M, Nicodimos S . Research strategy for health sciences: Facebook friend request is non-differentially accepted in a diverse, young adult population. Nurs Health Sci 2019 Mar;21(1):71-77. doi: 10.1111/nhs.12557..
Keywords: Health Services Research (HSR), Research Methodologies, Social Media, Young Adults
Margolis MA, Brewer NT, Shah PD
Stories about HPV vaccine in social media, traditional media, and conversations.
To understand how stories from media and social interactions shape parents' HPV vaccination decisions, the authors sought to characterize parents' exposure to these stories, as well as associations between story exposure and vaccination behavior. They found that stories of HPV vaccine harms may be associated more strongly with vaccination behavior than stories of HPV vaccine preventable diseases. They recommended that communication campaigns consider strategies to elevate stories of preventable diseases in social and traditional media.
Citation: Margolis MA, Brewer NT, Shah PD . Stories about HPV vaccine in social media, traditional media, and conversations. Prev Med 2019 Jan;118:251-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.11.005..
Keywords: Caregiving, Children/Adolescents, Communication, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Health Promotion, Infectious Diseases, Prevention, Sexual Health, Social Media, Vaccination
Ruck JM, Henderson ML, Eno AK
Use of Twitter in communicating living solid organ donation information to the public: an exploratory study of living donors and transplant professionals.
As transplant centers start leveraging Twitter for information dissemination and public engagement, it is important to understand current living solid organ donation-related Twitter use. This paper investigated use of Twitter in communicating living solid organ donation information to the public. It provides insight into how the social media platform may be used to communicate about and disseminate information about living donation.
Citation: Ruck JM, Henderson ML, Eno AK . Use of Twitter in communicating living solid organ donation information to the public: an exploratory study of living donors and transplant professionals. Clin Transplant 2019 Jan;33(1):e13447. doi: 10.1111/ctr.13447..
Keywords: Transplantation, Social Media, Communication, Education: Patient and Caregiver
Daley MF, Narwaney KJ, Shoup JA
Addressing parents' vaccine concerns: a randomized trial of a social media intervention.
Successful strategies are needed to address parental vaccine hesitancy, a significant public health issue. The study objective was to assess whether an Internet-based platform with vaccine information and interactive social media components improved parents' vaccine-related attitudes. The authors concluded that among vaccine-hesitant parents, an Internet-based intervention improved parents' attitudes about vaccines.
Citation: Daley MF, Narwaney KJ, Shoup JA . Addressing parents' vaccine concerns: a randomized trial of a social media intervention. Am J Prev Med 2018 Jul;55(1):44-54. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.010..
Keywords: Caregiving, Patient Safety, Social Media, Vaccination, Web-Based
Burrell TD, Mistry KB
AHRQ Author: AHRQ author Mistry, KB
Safety: texting while driving.
This paper addresses an important issue that has emerged over the past few years with the increase in use of social media. The scope of the problem of texting while driving may be underestimated because many of the studies have obtained the data by reliance on adolescent self-report. Although more research needs to be conducted to evaluate effectiveness of interventions, it seems that a multipronged preventive approach may be beneficial.
Citation: Burrell TD, Mistry KB . Safety: texting while driving. Pediatr Rev 2018 Jul;39(7):372-74. doi: 10.1542/pir.2017-0176..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Risk, Social Media
Shoup JA, Narwaney KJ, Wagner NM
Social media vaccine websites: a comparative analysis of public and moderated websites.
This study examined vaccine social media (VSM) websites and compared expert moderated VSM websites to nonmoderated websites. Accuracy of information, vaccine stance, and tone was coded for 79 public blogs and discussion boards and 61 expert moderated VSM websites. The public VSM websites had a lot of inaccurate information and tended to have a negative stance towards vaccines. Expert moderated websites had a more civil tone, little to no inaccurate information and very little participant-to-participant interaction.
Citation: Shoup JA, Narwaney KJ, Wagner NM . Social media vaccine websites: a comparative analysis of public and moderated websites. Health Educ Behav 2018 Jun;46(3):454-62. doi: 10.1177/1090198118818253..
Keywords: Education: Patient and Caregiver, Social Media, Vaccination
Radovic A, DeMand AL, Gmelin T
SOVA: design of a stakeholder informed social media website for depressed adolescents and their parents.
This paper describes iterative stakeholder interviews conducted with adolescents, young adults, parents, advocates, and clinicians and use of human computer interaction techniques to inform major design changes for two social media website for depressed adolescents and for parents.
Citation: Radovic A, DeMand AL, Gmelin T . SOVA: design of a stakeholder informed social media website for depressed adolescents and their parents. J Technol Hum Serv 2018;35(3):169-82. doi: 10.1080/15228835.2017.1347552..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Depression, Patient and Family Engagement, Social Media
Mogul DB, Henderson ML, Bridges JFP
Expanding the Facebook platform to engage and educate online communities.
This article discusses the development and use of a mobile application (app) called Liver Space that was developed through Facebook’s platform. This app is for the pediatric liver community including patients and caregivers. Unlike most Facebook health groups, this one is vetted by healthcare providers who are specialists. The app provides up-to-date information and includes emerging news, summaries from important scholarly journals and human interest stories. There is an “ask an expert” function incorporated into Liver Space. Also included in the app is the ability for users to track their labs and weight and to graph the data.
Citation: Mogul DB, Henderson ML, Bridges JFP . Expanding the Facebook platform to engage and educate online communities. Am J Gastroenterol 2018 Apr;113(4):457-58. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2017.450..
Keywords: Social Media, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient and Family Engagement, Patient Self-Management
Myers CG, Kudsi OY, Ghaferi AA
Social media as a platform for surgical learning: use and engagement patterns among robotic surgeons.
This study analyzed data from a closed-membership Facebook group for robotic surgeons to better understand surgeons' engagement with social media platforms. This analysis observed that surgeons responded to text posts with more comments, but "liked" posts containing links, photos, or video images in greater numbers.
Citation: Myers CG, Kudsi OY, Ghaferi AA . Social media as a platform for surgical learning: use and engagement patterns among robotic surgeons. Ann Surg 2018 Feb;267(2):233-35. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000002479..
Keywords: Education: Continuing Medical Education, Provider, Practice Patterns, Social Media, Surgery, Training
Mogul DB, Nagy PG, Bridges JFP
Building stronger online communities through the creation of Facebook-integrated health applications.
Social media, such as Facebook, provides a powerful mechanism to connect individuals with similar diseases, but current platforms do not achieve their full potential to help patients communicate with one another or with the medical community. The authors of this viewpoint article believe that an opportunity exists for health care professionals to strengthen online communities by creating apps that use the Facebook platform or a programming interface. Development of such apps are discussed, with an eye toward the needs of the patient, parent, or caregiver as end-users and involving their input.
Citation: Mogul DB, Nagy PG, Bridges JFP . Building stronger online communities through the creation of Facebook-integrated health applications. JAMA Pediatr 2017 Oct;171(10):933-34. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2300..
Keywords: Clinician-Patient Communication, Communication, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Health Information Technology (HIT), Social Media, Web-Based
Primack BA, Shensa A, Sidani JE
Social media use and perceived social isolation among young adults in the U.S.
Perceived social isolation (PSI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Social media platforms, commonly used by young adults, may offer an opportunity to ameliorate social isolation. This study assessed associations between social media use (SMU) and PSI among U.S. young adults. It concluded that young adults with high SMU seem to feel more socially isolated than their counterparts with lower SMU.
Citation: Primack BA, Shensa A, Sidani JE . Social media use and perceived social isolation among young adults in the U.S. Am J Prev Med 2017 Jul;53(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.010.
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Social Media, Young Adults
Sterling M, Leung P, Wright D
The use of social media in graduate medical education: a systematic review.
The authors conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to understand the effect of social media on resident (1) education, (2) recruitment, and (3) professionalism. Their review of 29 studies concluded that the effect of social media platforms on residency education, recruitment, and professionalism is mixed, and the quality of existing studies is modest at best.
Citation: Sterling M, Leung P, Wright D . The use of social media in graduate medical education: a systematic review. Acad Med 2017 Jul;92(7):1043-56. doi: 10.1097/acm.0000000000001617.
Keywords: Education: Continuing Medical Education, Education: Curriculum, Provider, Social Media