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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 55 Research Studies Displayed
Weekes AJ, Raper JD, Lupez K
Development and validation of a prognostic tool: pulmonary embolism short-term clinical outcomes risk estimation (PE-SCORE).
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic model for clinical deterioration or death within days of pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis using point-of-care criteria. In this study, the investigators used prospective registry data from six emergency departments. The primary composite outcome was death or deterioration (respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, new dysrhythmia, sustained hypotension, and rescue reperfusion intervention) within 5 days.
Citation: Weekes AJ, Raper JD, Lupez K . Development and validation of a prognostic tool: pulmonary embolism short-term clinical outcomes risk estimation (PE-SCORE). PLoS One 2021 Nov 18;16(11):e0260036. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0260036..
Keywords: Respiratory Conditions, Risk, Outcomes
Delaney LD, Howard R, Palazzolo K
Outcomes of a presurgical optimization program for elective hernia repairs among high-risk patients.
The authors evaluated the feasibility of evidence-based patient optimization before surgery by implementing a low-cost preoperative optimization clinic. They found that a hernia optimization clinic safely improved management of high-risk patients and increased operative yield for the institution. They concluded that their results represented an opportunity to create sustainable and scalable models that provide longitudinal care and optimize patients to improve outcomes of hernia repair.
Citation: Delaney LD, Howard R, Palazzolo K . Outcomes of a presurgical optimization program for elective hernia repairs among high-risk patients. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Nov;4(11):e2130016. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30016..
Keywords: Surgery, Risk, Evidence-Based Practice, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Outcomes
Czosek RJ, Anderson JB, Baskar S
Predictors and outcomes of heart block during surgical stage I palliation of patients with a single ventricle: a report from the NPC-QIC.
This study investigated patient and surgical risks of heart block and its effect on 12-month transplant-free survival in children with a single ventricle. In total, 1423 patients were identified from the National Pediatric Cardiology Improvement Collaborative with and without heart block. One-year outcomes were analyzed. A very small percentage (2%) developed heart block during their surgical admission. Associated risk factors for block included heterotaxy syndrome and atrial flutter/fibrillation. Patients with complete heart block had lower 12-month survival, which wasn’t true for patients with second degree block. At 12 months of age, 43% of patients with heart block died and were more likely to experience mortality than patients without heart block.
Citation: Czosek RJ, Anderson JB, Baskar S . Predictors and outcomes of heart block during surgical stage I palliation of patients with a single ventricle: a report from the NPC-QIC. Heart Rhythm 2021 Nov;18(11):1876-83. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.05.019..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery, Palliative Care, Risk, Outcomes
Klein IA, Rosenberg SM, Reynolds KL
Impact of cancer history on outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
Researchers investigated whether a current cancer diagnosis or cancer history is an independent risk factor for death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. They found that patients with a history of cancer hospitalized for COVID-19 had similar mortality to matched hospitalized patients with COVID-19 without cancer, and a lower risk of complications, while patients with active cancer or recent cancer treatment had a similar risk for adverse outcomes compared with survivors of cancer. They concluded that active cancer, systemic cancer therapy, and a cancer history are not independent risk factors for death from COVID-19 among hospitalized patients, and hospitalized patients without cancer are more likely to have severe COVID-19.
Citation: Klein IA, Rosenberg SM, Reynolds KL . Impact of cancer history on outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Oncologist 2021 Aug;26(8):685-93. doi: 10.1002/onco.13794..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer, Risk, Mortality, Hospitalization, Outcomes
Li K, Ferguson T, Embil J
Risk of kidney failure, death, and cardiovascular events after lower limb complications in patients with CKD.
Investigators sought to determine how interim lower limb complications modify the subsequent risk of progression to kidney failure, all-cause mortality before kidney failure, and cardiovascular events in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages G3 to G5. Patient-level data obtained from several administrative databases from Manitoba, Canada, were analyzed. They found that interim lower limb complications were associated with an increased risk of kidney failure, all-cause mortality before kidney failure, and cardiovascular-related hospitalization. They stated that clinical trials of screening and treatment strategies for patients with CKD at risk for lower limb complications may help determine optimal strategies to manage this risk.
Citation: Li K, Ferguson T, Embil J . Risk of kidney failure, death, and cardiovascular events after lower limb complications in patients with CKD. Kidney Int Rep 2021 Feb;6(2):381-88. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2020.11.010..
Keywords: Kidney Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Risk, Adverse Events, Mortality, Outcomes
Berger BO, Wolfson C, Reid LD
AHRQ Author: Reid LD
Adverse birth outcomes among women of advanced maternal age with and without health conditions in Maryland.
This study examined the association between advanced maternal age (AMA) and adverse birth outcomes among women with and without preexisting and pregnancy-related health conditions. Data for singleton births from the population-based Maryland Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2004-2015 were used to compare women aged 20-34 years and 35 years and older. Findings indicated that AMA is associated with adverse birth outcomes among women with and without health conditions compared with younger women with similar health status. Recommendations included improved screening and management of health conditions during pregnancy for older women, regardless of parity.
Citation: Berger BO, Wolfson C, Reid LD . Adverse birth outcomes among women of advanced maternal age with and without health conditions in Maryland. Womens Health Issues 2021 Jan-Feb;31(1):40-48. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2020.08.008..
Keywords: Pregnancy, Newborns/Infants, Outcomes, Women, Risk
Bath J, Smith JB, Woodard J
Complex relationship between low albumin level and poor outcome after lower extremity procedures for peripheral artery disease.
Researchers sought to examine the association of low albumin level with outcomes in patients undergoing open and endovascular lower extremity procedures for peripheral artery disease. Subjects were patients with peripheral artery disease undergoing lower extremity procedures, selected from Cerner Health Facts database using ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes. They found that low preoperative albumin levels were associated with in-hospital death, prolonged length of stay, and severe morbidity after open and endovascular lower extremity procedures. They recommended that elective procedures be deferred until albumin levels have been optimized.
Citation: Bath J, Smith JB, Woodard J . Complex relationship between low albumin level and poor outcome after lower extremity procedures for peripheral artery disease. J Vasc Surg 2021 Jan;73(1):200-09. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2020.04.524..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Surgery, Outcomes, Mortality, Risk
Brajcich BC, Bentrem DJ, Yang AD
Short-term risk of performing concurrent procedures with hepatic artery infusion pump placement.
This study’s objective was to characterize the short-term outcomes of concurrent surgery with hepatic artery infusion pump (HAIP) placement using data from the 2005-2017 ACS NSQIP dataset. Findings showed that HAIP placement is not associated with additional morbidity when performed with hepatic and/or colorectal surgery. Decisions regarding HAIP placement should consider the risks of concurrent operations as well as patient- and disease-specific factors.
Citation: Brajcich BC, Bentrem DJ, Yang AD . Short-term risk of performing concurrent procedures with hepatic artery infusion pump placement. Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Dec;27(13):5098-106. doi: 10.1245/s10434-020-08938-0..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Surgery, Risk, Cancer, Outcomes
Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN
Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery.
This is a systematic review to quantify sleep wake disturbances (SWD) after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). These SWD can place children at risk for worse outcomes since sleep is needed for brain development and healing after injury. They also evaluated interventions for SWD and the association between SWD and other post-traumatic outcomes. Literature was searched from 1999-2019 evaluating sleep or fatigue in children hospitalized for TBI. Two independent reviewers assessed quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottowa Score for observational studies. Out of 966 identified articles, 126 full text articles were reviewed and 24 studies were included. Studies showed at least 20% of children with TBI had some degree of SWD including trouble falling or staying asleep, fatigue, daytime fatigue, and nightmares. SWD was negatively correlated with cognitive, behavioral, and quality of life outcomes. There was moderate-high risk of bias for all studies due to small sample size and lack of validated or objective SWD measures.
Citation: Luther M, Poppert Cordts KM, Williams CN . Sleep disturbances after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and association with recovery. Sleep 2020 Oct;43(10):zsaa083. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsaa083..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sleep Problems, Brain Injury, Neurological Disorders, Trauma, Risk, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Quality of Life, Evidence-Based Practice
Villa Zapata L, Hansten PD, Panic J
Risk of bleeding with exposure to warfarin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Warfarin use can trigger the occurrence of bleeding independently or as a result of a drug-drug interaction when used in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This article examines the risk of bleeding in individuals exposed to concomitant warfarin and NSAID compared with those taking warfarin alone. The investigators concluded that risk of bleeding was significantly increased among persons taking warfarin and a NSAID or COX-2 inhibitor together as compared with taking warfarin alone.
Citation: Villa Zapata L, Hansten PD, Panic J . Risk of bleeding with exposure to warfarin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost 2020 Jul;120(7):1066-74. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1710592..
Keywords: Blood Thinners, Medication, Medication: Safety, Risk, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events, Patient Safety, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes
Yuce TK, Khorfan R, Soper NJ
Post-operative complications and readmissions associated with smoking following bariatric surgery.
The link between smoking and poor postoperative outcomes is well established. Despite this, current smokers are still offered bariatric surgery. In this study, the investigators describe the risk of postoperative 30-day complications and readmission following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-En-Y gastric bypass in smokers. The investigators concluded that smokers undergoing bariatric surgery experienced significantly worse 30-day outcomes when compared with non-smokers.
Citation: Yuce TK, Khorfan R, Soper NJ . Post-operative complications and readmissions associated with smoking following bariatric surgery. J Gastrointest Surg 2020 Mar;24(3):525-30. doi: 10.1007/s11605-019-04488-3..
Keywords: Surgery, Tobacco Use, Adverse Events, Hospital Readmissions, Obesity: Weight Management, Obesity, Risk, Outcomes
McIsaac DI, Taljaard M, Bryson GL
Frailty as a predictor of death or new disability after surgery: a prospective cohort study.
The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the modified Fried Index (mFI) and the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) to predict death or patient-reported new disability 90 days after major elective surgery. Results showed that older people with frailty are significantly more likely to die or experience a new patient-reported disability after surgery and that although accuracy was similar, the CFS, compared to the mFI, was easier to use and feasibility was higher.
Citation: McIsaac DI, Taljaard M, Bryson GL . Frailty as a predictor of death or new disability after surgery: a prospective cohort study. Ann Surg 2020 Feb;271(2):283-89. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000002967..
Keywords: Elderly, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Surgery, Mortality, Adverse Events, Risk, Outcomes
Dworsky JQ, Childers CP, Gornbein J
Hospital experience predicts outcomes after high-risk geriatric surgery.
This study examined if there an association between a hospital’s annual volume of high-risk geriatric surgery and their risk of inpatient mortality, postoperative length of stay, and discharge to nursing facility. Using the 2014 National Inpatient Sample, older adults were identified who had undergone high-risk geriatric surgery. There were an estimated 514,950 hospital encounters at 3,115 hospitals undergoing surgery. A higher proportion of high-risk geriatric surgery patients was associated with decreased mortality and shorter postoperative length of stay. Higher volume hospitals were not associated with mortality but was associated with longer length of stay and decreased discharge to nursing facilities.
AHRQ-funded; HS000046; HS025079.
Citation: Dworsky JQ, Childers CP, Gornbein J . Hospital experience predicts outcomes after high-risk geriatric surgery. Surgery 2020 Feb;167(2):468-74. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2019.07.026..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Elderly, Surgery, Risk, Hospitals, Outcomes, Mortality
Sheetz KH, Dimick JB, Nathan H
Centralization of high-risk cancer surgery within existing hospital systems.
Centralization is often proposed as a strategy to improve the quality of certain high-risk health care services. In this study, the investigators evaluated the extent to which existing hospital systems centralize high-risk cancer surgery and whether centralization is associated with short-term clinical outcomes. The investigators concluded that greater centralization of complex cancer surgery within existing hospital systems was associated with better outcomes.
Citation: Sheetz KH, Dimick JB, Nathan H . Centralization of high-risk cancer surgery within existing hospital systems. J Clin Oncol 2019 Dec 1;37(34):3234-42. doi: 10.1200/jco.18.02035..
Keywords: Surgery, Cancer, Risk, Hospitals, Health Systems, Quality Improvement, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality of Care, Outcomes
Paredes AZ, Malik AT, Cluse M
Discharge disposition to skilled nursing facility after emergent general surgery predicts a poor prognosis.
Emergency general surgery can have a profound impact on the functional status of even previously independent patients. In this study, the investigators examined the role and influence of discharging a patient to a skilled nursing facility. They concluded that after accounting for patient severity and perioperative course, discharge to a skilled nursing facility was an independent risk factor for death, readmission, and postdischarge complications.
Citation: Paredes AZ, Malik AT, Cluse M . Discharge disposition to skilled nursing facility after emergent general surgery predicts a poor prognosis. Surgery 2019 Oct;166(4):489-95. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2019.04.034..
Keywords: Nursing Homes, Hospital Discharge, Elderly, Ambulatory Care and Surgery, Emergency Department, Outcomes, Hospital Readmissions, Outcomes, Risk
Bath J, Smith JB, Kruse RL
Cohort study of risk factors for 30-day readmission after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
This retrospective cohort study examined 30-day readmission rates for patients who had abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair comparing two different procedures,. The cohort was selected from inpatients (2009-2016) who had undergone elective AAA repair using the multicenter Cerner Health Facts(R) database and were identified ICD-9 procedure codes. The two procedures compared were 3,101 endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVAR) and 1,622 open procedures. Patients who had EVAR were less likely to be readmitted. Risk factors for readmission included surgical site infection, age, receipt of bronchodilators or steroids, serum potassium > 5.2 mEq/L, and higher Charlson co-morbidity scores. The most common infections causing readmission were pneumonia and urinary tract infection after EVAR.
Citation: Bath J, Smith JB, Kruse RL . Cohort study of risk factors for 30-day readmission after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Vasa 2019 May;48(3):251-61. doi: 10.1024/0301-1526/a000767..
Keywords: Risk, Hospital Readmissions, Surgery, Outcomes, Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Brauer DG, Lyons SA, Keller MR
Simplified risk prediction indices do not accurately predict 30-day death or readmission after discharge following colorectal surgery.
This study examined the performance of widely used risk prediction indices to predict 30-day death or readmission after discharge following colorectal surgery. The study used a retrospective split-sample cohort of patients discharged after colorectal surgery from inpatient databases of HCUP for the states of New York, California, and Florida from 2006-2014. The commonly used risk prediction model LACE (length of stay, acute admissions, Charlson comorbidity index score, and emergency department visits) was compared with the real outcomes of death or readmission within 30 days after discharge with the cohort. Results showed a poor model fit with LACE and the researchers recommended a better model be developed.
Citation: Brauer DG, Lyons SA, Keller MR . Simplified risk prediction indices do not accurately predict 30-day death or readmission after discharge following colorectal surgery. Surgery 2019 May;165(5):882-88. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2018.12.007..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Hospital Readmissions, Surgery, Risk, Adverse Events, Outcomes
Hannan EL, Barrett SC, Samadashvili Z
Retooling of paper-based outcome measures to electronic format: comparison of the NY State public risk model and EHR-derived risk models for CABG mortality.
This study assessed the feasibility of retooling the paper-based New York State coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery statistical model for mortality and readmission into a model for electronic health records (EHRs). Researchers found that only 6 data elements could be extracted from the EHR, and outlier hospitals differed for readmission but was usable for mortality. They concluded that the EHR model was inferior to the NYS model, and that simplifying the EHR risk model couldn’t capture most of the risk factors in the NYS model.
Citation: Hannan EL, Barrett SC, Samadashvili Z . Retooling of paper-based outcome measures to electronic format: comparison of the NY State public risk model and EHR-derived risk models for CABG mortality. Med Care 2019 May;57(5):377-84. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001104..
Keywords: Surgery, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Mortality, Outcomes, Risk, Cardiovascular Conditions
Sharma A, Sun JL, Lokhnygina Y
Patient phenotypes, cardiovascular risk, and ezetimibe treatment in patients after acute coronary syndromes (from IMPROVE-IT).
The authors of this article performed a hierarchical cluster analysis to identify acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients at high risk for adverse clinical events. Post-ACS patients were randomized to ezetimibe+simvastatin or placebo+simvastatin. Ezetimibe's impact on outcomes across clusters; the ability of the cluster analysis to discriminate for outcomes was compared with the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score. Outcomes included cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization at least 30 days after randomization. Compared with GRACE, cluster analysis did not provide superior outcome discrimination. Consistent ezetimibe treatment effect was identified across clusters. The authors conclude that cluster analysis identified significant difference in risk of outcomes across cluster groups.
Citation: Sharma A, Sun JL, Lokhnygina Y . Patient phenotypes, cardiovascular risk, and ezetimibe treatment in patients after acute coronary syndromes (from IMPROVE-IT). Am J Cardiol 2019 Apr 15;123(8):1193-201. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.01.034..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Heart Disease and Health, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Risk
Leeds IL, Meyers PM, Enumah ZO
Psychosocial risks are independently associated with cancer surgery outcomes in medically comorbid patients.
The purpose of this prospective observational study was to assess the association of preoperative psychosocial risk factors and 30-day complications following cancer surgery. The investigators demonstrated a more than threefold odds of a complication in medically comorbid patients with multiple psychosocial risks. They suggest that their findings support the use of psychosocial risks in preoperative assessment and consideration for inclusion in preoperative optimization efforts.
Citation: Leeds IL, Meyers PM, Enumah ZO . Psychosocial risks are independently associated with cancer surgery outcomes in medically comorbid patients. Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Apr;26(4):936-44. doi: 10.1245/s10434-018-07136-3..
Keywords: Adverse Events, Cancer, Outcomes, Risk, Surgery
Marcolini EG, Albrecht JS, Sethuraman KN
Gender disparities in trauma care: how sex determines treatment, behavior, and outcome.
This study used US and European trauma database statistics, including the National Trauma Databank, to examine sex disparities in trauma care. Their findings indicate that sex differences in risk-taking behaviors that lead to traumatic injury have been associated with males, with female menstrual cycle timing, and with cortisol levels. Differences in access to services at trauma centers, including triage or transfer and level of medical attention are associated with sex as well race, rural or urban location, and insurance status. Outcomes, such as in-hospital mortality, multiple organ failure, pneumonia, and sepsis are associated with sex disparities in the general trauma patient; outcomes after general trauma and specifically traumatic brain injury show mixed results.
Citation: Marcolini EG, Albrecht JS, Sethuraman KN . Gender disparities in trauma care: how sex determines treatment, behavior, and outcome. Anesthesiol Clin 2019 Mar;37(1):107-17. doi: 10.1016/j.anclin.2018.09.007..
Keywords: Access to Care, Disparities, Injuries and Wounds, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Risk, Sex Factors, Trauma
Yuo TH, Wallace JR, Fish L
Editor's choice - comparison of outcomes after open surgical and endovascular lower extremity revascularisation among end stage renal disease patients on dialysis.
This study compared outcomes of different revascularization surgeries among end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). There is a high risk of complications for this surgery. Outcomes of endovascular revascularization (ER) and open surgical revascularisation (OSR) were compared. Outcomes measured included mortality and major amputation. There is a lower mortality risk for ER versus OSR. OSR has better 30-day limb salvage although there are similar long-term outcomes.
Citation: Yuo TH, Wallace JR, Fish L . Editor's choice - comparison of outcomes after open surgical and endovascular lower extremity revascularisation among end stage renal disease patients on dialysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2019 Feb;57(2):248-57. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2018.09.008..
Keywords: Adverse Events, Cardiovascular Conditions, Comparative Effectiveness, Dialysis, Evidence-Based Practice, Kidney Disease and Health, Mortality, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Risk, Surgery
Desai RJ, Wyss R, Jin Y
Extension of disease risk score-based confounding adjustments for multiple outcomes of interest: an empirical evaluation.
Use of disease risk score (DRS)-based confounding adjustment when estimating treatment effects on multiple outcomes is not well studied. In this empirical cohort study, the investigators compared dabigatran initiators and warfarin initiators with respect to risks of ischemic stroke and major bleeding in 12 sequential monitoring periods (90 days each), using data from the Truven Marketscan database (Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, Michigan).
Citation: Desai RJ, Wyss R, Jin Y . Extension of disease risk score-based confounding adjustments for multiple outcomes of interest: an empirical evaluation. Am J Epidemiol 2018 Nov;187(11):2439-48. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy130.
Keywords: Blood Thinners, Cardiovascular Conditions, Medication, Outcomes, Research Methodologies, Risk, Stroke
Dworsky JQ, Childers CP, Maggard-Gibbons M
High-risk colorectal surgery: what are the outcomes for geriatric patients?
This study examines the national burden and age-specific outcomes of previously defined high-risk colorectal procedures (HRCP) in geriatric patients using the 2014 National Inpatient Sample. The authors found that outcomes after HRCP are worse for older patients and for nonelective cases. They suggest that this information can inform preoperative counseling and targeted quality improvement projects.
Citation: Dworsky JQ, Childers CP, Maggard-Gibbons M . High-risk colorectal surgery: what are the outcomes for geriatric patients? Am Surg 2018 Oct;84(10):1650-54..
Keywords: Elderly, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Outcomes, Risk, Surgery
Wahl TS, Graham LA, Morris MS
Association between preoperative proteinuria and postoperative acute kidney injury and readmission.
This retrospective cohort study investigated whether preoperative proteinuria is associated with surgical outcomes including postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and readmission. The cohort used were undergoing elective inpatient surgery at 119 Veterans Affairs facilities from October 2007 to September 2014. The data collected was for a 7-month period in 2016. A higher probability of 30-day unplanned readmission was associated with preoperative proteinuria and postoperative AKI.
Citation: Wahl TS, Graham LA, Morris MS . Association between preoperative proteinuria and postoperative acute kidney injury and readmission. JAMA Surg 2018 Sep;153(9):e182009. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2018.2009..
Keywords: Kidney Disease and Health, Injuries and Wounds, Adverse Events, Surgery, Risk, Hospital Readmissions, Outcomes