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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 823 Research Studies Displayed
Bender M, Williams M, Cruz MF
A study protocol to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the Clinical Nurse Leader care model in improving quality and safety outcomes.
The authors discuss the Clinical Nurse Leader care model, a Hybrid Type II Implementation-Effectiveness study to evaluate the effect of the care model on standardized quality and safety outcomes and to identify implementation characteristics that are sufficient and necessary to achieve outcomes. Findings are expected to elucidate Registered Nurse's mechanisms of action as organized into frontline models of care and link actions to improved care quality and safety.
Citation: Bender M, Williams M, Cruz MF . A study protocol to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the Clinical Nurse Leader care model in improving quality and safety outcomes. Nurs Open 2021 Nov;8(6):3688-96. doi: 10.1002/nop2.910..
Keywords: Implementation, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Patient Safety, Nursing, Evidence-Based Practice
Shintani Smith S, Cheng BT, Kern RC
Publicly reported patient satisfaction scores in academic otolaryngology departments.
Despite controversy regarding their impact and validity, there is a rising national focus on patient satisfaction scores (PSS). In this retrospective cross-sectional study the investigators described the landscape of online PSS as posted by academic otolaryngology practices. The investigators concluded that patient satisfaction with otolaryngology providers at academic institutions was consistently high, as demonstrated by high online PSS with little variability.
Citation: Shintani Smith S, Cheng BT, Kern RC . Publicly reported patient satisfaction scores in academic otolaryngology departments. Laryngoscope 2021 Oct;131(10):2204-10. doi: 10.1002/lary.29557..
Keywords: Patient Experience, Quality of Care, Provider Performance
Lewis VA, Spivack S, Murray GF
FQHC designation and safety net patient revenue associated with primary care practice capabilities for access and quality.
Researchers assessed capabilities around access to and quality of care among primary care practices serving a high share of Medicaid and uninsured patients compared to practices serving a low share of these patients. Data from the National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems was analyzed. They found that federally qualified health centers were more likely than other types of primary care practices (both safety net practices and other practices) to possess capabilities related to access and quality. However, safety net practices were less likely than non-safety net practices to possess health information technology capabilities.
Citation: Lewis VA, Spivack S, Murray GF . FQHC designation and safety net patient revenue associated with primary care practice capabilities for access and quality. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Oct;36(10):2922-28. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06746-0..
Keywords: Safety Net, Vulnerable Populations, Primary Care, Access to Care, Uninsured, Medicaid, Quality of Care
Cardell CF, Knapp L, Cohen ME
Successful implementation of enhanced recovery in elective colorectal surgery is variable and dependent on the local environment.
This study looked at the results of a national colorectal enhanced recovery program (ERP) to improve patient outcomes. A total of 207 hospitals participated between 2017 and 2020. Quantitative (patient-level process and outcome) and qualitative (survey and structured interviews with hospital teams) data were collected and analyzed. Results shows that 62 hospitals were characterized as High Performance, and 52 as High Improvement. High Performance hospitals were larger with more annual colorectal surgeries. Fewer barriers to staff-buy-in and competing priorities, and more experience with standardized perioperative care were also characteristics of High Performance hospitals. High Improvement hospitals had lower baseline process measure (PM) adherence and less experience with perioperative care but had positive trends in annual patient outcomes such as annual morbidity, readmission, and prolonged length of stay compared to Low Improvement Hospitals.
Citation: Cardell CF, Knapp L, Cohen ME . Successful implementation of enhanced recovery in elective colorectal surgery is variable and dependent on the local environment. Ann Surg 2021 Oct 1;274(4):605-12. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000005069..
Keywords: Surgery, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Provider Performance
Bierman AS, Wang J, O'Malley PG
AHRQ Author: Bierman AS, Wang J, O'Malley PG, Moss DK
Transforming care for people with multiple chronic conditions: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's research agenda.
This article describes issues addressing the needs of those with multiple chronic conditions and discusses the AHRQ research agenda.
Citation: Bierman AS, Wang J, O'Malley PG . Transforming care for people with multiple chronic conditions: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's research agenda. Health Serv Res 2021 Oct;56(Suppl 1):973-79. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13863..
Keywords: Chronic Conditions, Health Services Research (HSR), Healthcare Delivery, Quality of Care, Primary Care, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Holmgren AJ, Kuznetsova M, Classen D
Assessing hospital electronic health record vendor performance across publicly reported quality measures.
The authors measured hospital performance, stratified by electronic health record (EHR) vendor, across 4 quality metrics. They found that no EHR vendor was associated with higher quality across all measures, and the 2 largest vendors were not associated with the highest scores. Only a small fraction of quality variation was explained by EHR vendor choice. They concluded that top performance on quality measures can be achieved with any EHR vendor, as much of quality performance is driven by the hospital and how it uses the EHR.
Citation: Holmgren AJ, Kuznetsova M, Classen D . Assessing hospital electronic health record vendor performance across publicly reported quality measures. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Sep 18;28(10):2101-07. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocab120..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Hospitals, Quality of Care, Provider Performance
Markovitz AA, Ayanian JZ, Warrier A
Medicare Advantage plan double bonuses drive racial disparity in payments, yield no quality or enrollment improvements.
Using national data for 2008-18, investigators found that double bonuses were not associated with either improvements in plan quality or increased Medicare Advantage enrollment. Additionally, double bonuses increased payments to plans to care for Black beneficiaries by $60 per year, compared with $91 for White beneficiaries. These findings suggest that double bonuses not only fail to improve quality and enrollment but also foster a racially inequitable distribution of Medicare funds that disfavors Black beneficiaries. This study supports eliminating double bonuses, thereby saving Medicare an estimated $1.8 billion per year.
Citation: Markovitz AA, Ayanian JZ, Warrier A . Medicare Advantage plan double bonuses drive racial disparity in payments, yield no quality or enrollment improvements. Health Aff 2021 Sep;40(9):1411-19. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.00349..
Keywords: Medicare, Health Insurance, Payment, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Disparities, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Ye J, Zhang R, Bannon JE
Identifying practice facilitation delays and barriers in primary care quality improvement.
Practice facilitation is an effective approach to implementing quality improvement (QI) interventions in practice-based research networks (PBRNs). Regular facilitator-practice interactions are necessary for successful facilitation and missed engagements may hinder the process of practice improvement. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to characterize the dynamics of practice facilitation and examine facilitation delays and barriers, as well as their association with the achievement of QI program goals in a PBRN initiative.
Citation: Ye J, Zhang R, Bannon JE . Identifying practice facilitation delays and barriers in primary care quality improvement. J Am Board Fam Med 2020 Sep-Oct;33(5):655-64. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.05.200058..
Keywords: Practice Improvement, Primary Care, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Jiang HJ, Fingar KR, Liang L
AHRQ Author: Jiang HJ, Liang L
Quality of care before and after mergers and acquisitions of rural hospitals.
Researchers sought to examine changes in quality of care for patients at rural hospitals that merged compared with those that remained independent. Using HCUP data, they found that rural hospital mergers were associated with better mortality outcomes for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hip fracture, and pneumonia. They concluded that their finding is important to enhancing rural health care and reducing urban-rural disparities in quality of care.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201800001C.
Citation: Jiang HJ, Fingar KR, Liang L . Quality of care before and after mergers and acquisitions of rural hospitals. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep;4(9):e2124662. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24662..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Hospitals, Rural Health, Quality of Care
Quigley DD, Slaughter M, Qureshi N
Practices and changes associated with patient-centered medical home transformation.
Knowing which patient-centered medical home (PCMH) care delivery changes and quality improvement (QI) practices further PCMH implementation is essential. In this study, the investigators used the 2008-2017 National Committee of Quality Assurance (NCQA) PCMH directory of 15,188 primary care practices that received Level 1, 2, or 3 NCQA PCMH recognition to: 1.) construct a stratified national sample of 105 practices engaged in PCMH transformation and 2.) examine their QI practices and PCMH changes associated with PCMH transformation.
AHRQ-funded; HS016980; HS025920.
Citation: Quigley DD, Slaughter M, Qureshi N . Practices and changes associated with patient-centered medical home transformation. Am J Manag Care 2021 Sep;27(9):386-93. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2021.88740..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Primary Care, Practice Improvement, Healthcare Delivery, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Quigley DD, Qureshi N, AlMasarweh L
Using CAHPS patient experience data for patient-centered medical home transformation.
The purpose of this study was to examine how primary care practices used the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey and its patient-centered medical home (PCMH) items during their PCMH transition. The investigators concluded that CAHPS surveys were considered actionable for PCMH transformation and used in standardizing and coordinating care. The CAHPS PCMH items were considered integral to the continuous QI needed for moving beyond formal PCMH recognition and maximizing transformation.
AHRQ-funded; HS016980; HS025920.
Citation: Quigley DD, Qureshi N, AlMasarweh L . Using CAHPS patient experience data for patient-centered medical home transformation. Am J Manag Care 2021 Sep;27(9):e322-e29. doi: 10.37765/ajmc.2021.88745..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Patient Experience, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Primary Care, Practice Improvement, Healthcare Delivery, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Trent SA, George N, Havranek EP
Established evidence-based treatment guidelines help mitigate disparities in quality of emergency care.
Evidence-based guidelines are often cited as a means of ensuring high-quality care for all patients. The objective of this study was to assess whether emergency department (ED) adherence to core evidence-based guidelines differed by patient sex and race/ethnicity and to assess the effect of ED guideline adherence on patient outcomes by sex and race/ethnicity. The investigators concluded that longstanding, nationally reported evidence-based guidelines can help eliminate sex and race/ethnicity disparities in quality of care.
Citation: Trent SA, George N, Havranek EP . Established evidence-based treatment guidelines help mitigate disparities in quality of emergency care. Acad Emerg Med 2021 Sep;28(9):1051-60. doi: 10.1111/acem.14235..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Emergency Department, Disparities, Quality of Care
Chilakamarri P, Finn EB, Sather J
Failure mode and effect analysis: engineering safer neurocritical care transitions.
Investigators presented failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) as a systems-engineering methodology to be applied to neurocritical care transitions to reduce failures in communication and improve patient safety. They described their local implementation of FMEA to improve the safety of inter-hospital transfer for patients with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage as evidence of success. They found that application of the FMEA approach yielded meaningful and sustained process change for patients with neurocritical care needs.
Citation: Chilakamarri P, Finn EB, Sather J . Failure mode and effect analysis: engineering safer neurocritical care transitions. Neurocrit Care 2021 Aug;35(1):232-40. doi: 10.1007/s12028-020-01160-6..
Keywords: Patient Safety, Transitions of Care, Critical Care, Communications, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Schechter SB, Pantell MS, Parikh K
Impact of a national quality collaborative on pediatric asthma care quality by insurance status.
The objective of this study was to assess whether disparities in asthma care and outcomes based on insurance type existed before a national quality improvement (QI) collaborative, and to determine the effects of the collaborative on these disparities. The investigators concluded that at baseline, children with public insurance had higher asthma health care utilization than those with private insurance, despite receiving more evidence-based care.
AHRQ-funded; HS026383; HS024554; HS024592.
Citation: Schechter SB, Pantell MS, Parikh K . Impact of a national quality collaborative on pediatric asthma care quality by insurance status. Acad Pediatr 2021 Aug;21(6):1018-24. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.02.009..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Asthma, Chronic Conditions, Disparities, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Health Insurance
Abraham CM, Zheng K, Norful AA
Primary care nurse practitioner burnout and perceptions of quality of care.
Researchers investigated the relationship between primary care nurse practitioner (NP) burnout on perceptions of care quality and if the practice environment moderated the relationship between burnout and care quality. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 396 NPs; the practice environment was measured using the Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Organizational Climate Questionnaire. The researchers found that burnout was related to lower perceptions of care quality but favorable environments were related to higher perceptions of quality.
Citation: Abraham CM, Zheng K, Norful AA . Primary care nurse practitioner burnout and perceptions of quality of care. Nurs Forum 2021 Jul;56(3):550-59. doi: 10.1111/nuf.12579..
Keywords: Burnout, Provider: Nurse, Primary Care, Quality of Care
Pham-Singer H, Onakomaiya M, Cuthel A
Using a customer relationship management system to manage a quality improvement intervention.
HealthyHearts New York City (HHNYC), one of 7 cooperatives funded through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's EvidenceNOW initiative, evaluated the impact of practice facilitation on implementation of the Million Hearts guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. Tracking the intervention required a system to facilitate process data collection that was also user-friendly and flexible. Coupled with protocols and training, a strategically planned and customizable customer relationship management system (CRMS) was implemented to support the quality improvement intervention with 257 small independent practices.
Citation: Pham-Singer H, Onakomaiya M, Cuthel A . Using a customer relationship management system to manage a quality improvement intervention. Am J Med Qual 2021 Jul-Aug;36(4):247-54. doi: 10.1177/1062860620953214..
Keywords: Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Implementation, Evidence-Based Practice, Cardiovascular Conditions, Heart Disease and Health, Primary Care
Cifra CL, Sittig DF, Singh H
Bridging the feedback gap: a sociotechnical approach to informing clinicians of patients' subsequent clinical course and outcomes.
This paper discusses challenges to the development of systems for effective patient outcome feedback to improve diagnosis and proposes the application of a sociotechnical approach using health information technology (HIT) to support the implementation of such systems. It discusses current barriers to effective clinician feedback, reasons for them, and features of potential IT solutions. Evaluation and implementation of the feedback process within a sociotechnical health system are then discussed. The authors use an eight-dimension sociotechnical model for studying health IT by authors Sittig and Singh. The eight dimensions are hardware and software; clinical content; human–computer interface; people; workflow and communication; organisational policies and procedures; external rules, regulations and pressures; and system measurement and monitoring. A table is included that shows the potential considerations for each dimension.
AHRQ-funded; 33201500022I; HS027363.
Citation: Cifra CL, Sittig DF, Singh H . Bridging the feedback gap: a sociotechnical approach to informing clinicians of patients' subsequent clinical course and outcomes. BMJ Qual Saf 2021 Jul;30(7):591-97. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2020-012464..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Diagnosis, Patient Safety, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Boyle WA
Competence in decision making: setting performance standards for critical care.
Health care professionals must be able to make frequent and timely decisions that can alter the illness trajectory of intensive care patients. A competence standard for this ability is difficult to establish yet assuring practitioners can make appropriate judgments is an important step in advancing patient safety. In this study, the investigators hypothesized that simulation could be used effectively to assess decision-making competence.
Citation: Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Boyle WA . Competence in decision making: setting performance standards for critical care. Anesth Analg 2021 Jul 1;133(1):142-50. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000005053..
Keywords: Critical Care, Decision Making, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Simulation, Provider Performance, Patient Safety, Quality of Care
Barbash IJ, Davis BS, Yabes JG
Treatment patterns and clinical outcomes after the introduction of the Medicare Sepsis Performance Measure (SEP-1).
This study evaluated the effect of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Early Management Bundle (SEP-1) on treatment patterns and patient outcomes. Findings showed that, two years after its implementation, SEP-1 was associated with variable changes in process measures, with the greatest effect being an increase in lactate measurement within 3 hours of sepsis onset. There were small increases in antibiotic administration and fluid administration, a small increase in ICU admissions, and no changes in mortality or discharge to home.
Citation: Barbash IJ, Davis BS, Yabes JG . Treatment patterns and clinical outcomes after the introduction of the Medicare Sepsis Performance Measure (SEP-1). Ann Intern Med 2021 Jul;174(7):927-35. doi: 10.7326/m20-5043..
Keywords: Sepsis, Medicare, Outcomes, Quality Measures, Quality of Care
Sherer MV, Lin D, Elguindi S
Metrics to evaluate the performance of auto-segmentation for radiation treatment planning: a critical review.
Metrics to evaluate the performance of auto-segmentation for radiation treatment planning: a critical review.
Citation: Sherer MV, Lin D, Elguindi S . Metrics to evaluate the performance of auto-segmentation for radiation treatment planning: a critical review. Radiother Oncol 2021 Jul;160:185-91. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2021.05.003..
Keywords: Quality Measures, Quality of Care
Tedesco D, Moghavem N, Weng Y
Improvement in patient safety may precede policy changes: trends in patient safety indicators in the United States, 2000-2013.
This study’s aim was to assess changes in national patient safety trends that corresponded to U.S. pay-for-performance reforms. The study analyzed 13 patient safety indicators (PSIs) that were developed by AHRQ. PSI trends, Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services payment policy changes, and Inpatient Prospective Payment System regulations and notices between 2000 and 2013 were analyzed. Twelve of the thirteen PSIs had decreasing or stable trends in the last 5 years of the study. Central-line bloodstream infections had the greatest annual decrease (-31.1 annual percent change between 2006 and 2013) whereas postoperative respiratory failure had the smallest annual percent change (-3.5 between 2005 and 2013). Significant decreases in trends preceded federal payment reform initiatives in all but postoperative hip fracture. These findings suggest that intense public discourses targeting patient safety may drive national policy reforms.
Citation: Tedesco D, Moghavem N, Weng Y . Improvement in patient safety may precede policy changes: trends in patient safety indicators in the United States, 2000-2013. J Patient Saf 2021 Jun 1;17(4):e327-e34. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000615..
Keywords: Patient Safety, Quality Improvement, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Quality of Care, Policy
Hung DY, Mujal G, Jin A
Patient experiences after implementing lean primary care redesigns.
The authors examined the effect of Lean primary care redesigns on patient satisfaction with care and timeliness of care received. After implementation of Lean redesigns, they found that patients reported a 44.8 percent increase in satisfaction with the adequacy of time spent with care providers during office visits. They also reported 71.6 percent higher satisfaction with their care provider's ability to listen to their concerns and a 55.4 percent increase in perceived staff helpfulness at the visit. The amount of time elapsed between a patient request for a routine appointment and the scheduled visit day decreased. On the day of the visit, patient wait times to be seen also decreased gradually.
Citation: Hung DY, Mujal G, Jin A . Patient experiences after implementing lean primary care redesigns. Health Serv Res 2021 Jun;56(3):363-70. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13605..
Keywords: Patient Experience, Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Workflow, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Chatterjee P, Qi M, Werner RM
Association of Medicaid expansion with quality in safety-net hospitals.
The authors compared changes in quality from 2012 to 2018 between safety net hospitals (SNHs) in states that expanded Medicaid vs those in states that did not. They found that, despite reductions in uncompensated care and improvements in operating margins, there appeared to be little evidence of quality improvement among SNHs in states that expanded Medicaid compared with those in states that did not.
Citation: Chatterjee P, Qi M, Werner RM . Association of Medicaid expansion with quality in safety-net hospitals. JAMA Intern Med 2021 May;181(5):590-97. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.9142..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Safety Net, Hospitals, Medicaid, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Okado I, Pagano I, Cassel K
Perceptions of care coordination in cancer patient-family caregiver dyads.
The authors examined cancer patients and their family caregivers' perspectives of care coordination (CC) using a dyadic research design. They found that a subgroup of family caregivers reported poorer perception of CC than patients, suggesting that those family caregivers and providers may benefit from intervention. They concluded that further understanding of patient-family caregiver dyads' perspectives of CC can inform development of strategies to integrate family caregivers into the cancer care team, develop effective CC interventions for family caregivers, and contribute to improved quality and value of cancer care.
Citation: Okado I, Pagano I, Cassel K . Perceptions of care coordination in cancer patient-family caregiver dyads. Support Care Cancer 2021 May;29(5):2645-52. doi: 10.1007/s00520-020-05764-8..
Keywords: Cancer, Caregiving, Care Coordination, Quality of Care
Colman N, Newman JW, Nishisaki A
Translational simulation improves compliance with the NEAR4KIDS Airway Safety Bundle in a single-center PICU.
This single-center retrospective review discusses a translational simulation conducted to improve compliance with the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) Airway Safety Quality Improvement (QI) bundle to improve the safety of tracheal intubations. The simulation was implemented between March and December 2018. Bundle adherence was assessed 12 months before simulation and 9 months after. Primary outcomes measures were compliance with the bundle and utilization of apneic oxygenation and secondary outcomes was the occurrence of adverse tracheal intubation-associated events. Preintervention bundle compliance was 66%, which increased to 93.7% after the simulation intervention. Adherence to apneic oxygenation was 27.9% before the intervention and increased to 77.9% after. There was no difference in the occurrence of tracheal intubation events.
Citation: Colman N, Newman JW, Nishisaki A . Translational simulation improves compliance with the NEAR4KIDS Airway Safety Bundle in a single-center PICU. Pediatr Qual Saf 2021 May-Jun;6(3):e409. doi: 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000409..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Critical Care, Registries, Simulation, Patient Safety, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care