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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 984 Research Studies Displayed
Austin EJ, LeRouge C, Lee JR
A learning health systems approach to integrating electronic patient-reported outcomes across the health care organization.
The authors reported on their effort to develop generalizable learnings that can support the integration of electronic patient-reported outcome measures into clinical practice within a learning health system (LHS) framework. They concluded that the guidelines produced from this work highlighted the complex, multidisciplinary nature of implementing change within LHS contexts, as well as the value of action research approaches to enable rapid, iterative learning that leverages the knowledge and experience of communities of practice.
Citation: Austin EJ, LeRouge C, Lee JR . A learning health systems approach to integrating electronic patient-reported outcomes across the health care organization. Learn Health Syst 2021 Oct;5(4):e10263. doi: 10.1002/lrh2.10263..
Keywords: Learning Health Systems, Health Information Technology (HIT), Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Cardell CF, Knapp L, Cohen ME
Successful implementation of enhanced recovery in elective colorectal surgery is variable and dependent on the local environment.
This study looked at the results of a national colorectal enhanced recovery program (ERP) to improve patient outcomes. A total of 207 hospitals participated between 2017 and 2020. Quantitative (patient-level process and outcome) and qualitative (survey and structured interviews with hospital teams) data were collected and analyzed. Results shows that 62 hospitals were characterized as High Performance, and 52 as High Improvement. High Performance hospitals were larger with more annual colorectal surgeries. Fewer barriers to staff-buy-in and competing priorities, and more experience with standardized perioperative care were also characteristics of High Performance hospitals. High Improvement hospitals had lower baseline process measure (PM) adherence and less experience with perioperative care but had positive trends in annual patient outcomes such as annual morbidity, readmission, and prolonged length of stay compared to Low Improvement Hospitals.
Citation: Cardell CF, Knapp L, Cohen ME . Successful implementation of enhanced recovery in elective colorectal surgery is variable and dependent on the local environment. Ann Surg 2021 Oct 1;274(4):605-12. doi: 10.1097/sla.0000000000005069..
Keywords: Surgery, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Provider Performance
Garsa A, Jang JK, Baxi S
Radiation therapy for brain metastases: a systematic review.
This systematic review synthesizes the available evidence on radiation therapy for brain metastases. A literature search was conducted using the major medical databases and included randomized controlled trials and large observational studies which evaluated whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone or in combination as initial or postoperative treatment, with or without systemic therapy for adults with brain metastases due to lung cancer, breast cancer, or melanoma. No statistically significant difference in overall survival was found with a combination of SRS plus WBRT compared with SRS alone or WBRT alone. Radiation therapy after surgery did not improve overall survival compared with surgery alone. WBRT plus systemic therapy was associated with increased risks for vomiting compared with WBRT alone. There was not enough data on patient-relevant outcomes such as quality of life, functional status, and cognitive effects.
Citation: Garsa A, Jang JK, Baxi S . Radiation therapy for brain metastases: a systematic review. Pract Radiat Oncol 2021 Sep-Oct;11(5):354-65. doi: 10.1016/j.prro.2021.04.002..
Keywords: Cancer, Surgery, Treatments, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Howard R, Johnson E, Berlin NL
Hospital and surgeon variation in 30-day complication rates after ventral hernia repair.
Researchers analyzed variability in 30-day complication rates and identified specific complications that contributed to this variability after ventral hernia repair. They found that, after adjusting for a number of patient-specific clinical variables, there was significant variation in 30-day complication rates after ventral hernia repair, representing a significant opportunity to improve patient outcomes.
Citation: Howard R, Johnson E, Berlin NL . Hospital and surgeon variation in 30-day complication rates after ventral hernia repair. Am J Surg 2021 Aug;222(2):417-23. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.12.021..
Keywords: Surgery, Adverse Events, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Murad MH, Chang SM, Fiordalisi CV
AHRQ Author: Chang SM
Improving the utility of evidence synthesis for decision makers in the face of insufficient evidence.
The authors identified and suggested strategies to make insufficient evidence ratings in systematic reviews more actionable. A workgroup comprising members from AHRQ’s Evidence-Based Practice Program convened throughout 2020. They identified five strategies for supplementing systematic review findings when evidence on benefits or harms is expected to be, or found to be, insufficient: 1) reconsider eligible study designs, 2) summarize indirect evidence, 3) summarize contextual and implementation evidence, 4) consider modelling, and 5) incorporate unpublished health system data in the evidence synthesis. While these strategies may not increase the strength of evidence, they may improve the utility of reports for decision makers.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201700003C; 290201500013I; 290201500008I; 290201500007I; 290201500011I; 290201500010I; 290201500002I; 290201500005I; 290201500012I; 290201500006I.
Citation: Murad MH, Chang SM, Fiordalisi CV . Improving the utility of evidence synthesis for decision makers in the face of insufficient evidence. J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Jul;135:170-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2021.02.028..
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Decision Making, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Bishop JR, Huang RS, Brown JT
Pharmacogenomics education, research and clinical implementation in the state of Minnesota.
This article looks at the development and implementation of formal pharmacogenomic (PGx) clinical programs at several healthcare organizations across Minnesota. These programs increase drug safety and effectiveness. The article reviews the state of PGx activities in the state of Minnesota including educational programs, research, national consortia involvement, technology, clinical implementation and utilization and reimbursement, and outlines the challenges and opportunities in equitable implementation of these activities.
Citation: Bishop JR, Huang RS, Brown JT . Pharmacogenomics education, research and clinical implementation in the state of Minnesota. Pharmacogenomics 2021 Jul;22(11):681-91. doi: 10.2217/pgs-2021-0058..
Keywords: Medication, Implementation, Learning Health Systems, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Richardson DR, Oakes AH, Crossnohere NL
Prioritizing the worries of AML patients: Quantifying patient experience using best-worst scaling.
Although patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experience significant toxicities and poor outcomes, few studies have quantified patients' experience. In this study, a community-centered approach was used to develop an AML-specific best-worst scaling (BWS) instrument involving 13 items in four domains (psychological, physical, decision-making, treatment delivery) to quantify patient worry. A survey of patients and caregivers was conducted using the instrument. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression.
Citation: Richardson DR, Oakes AH, Crossnohere NL . Prioritizing the worries of AML patients: Quantifying patient experience using best-worst scaling. Psychooncology 2021 Jul;30(7):1104-11. doi: 10.1002/pon.5652..
Keywords: Cancer, Patient Experience, Caregiving, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Pasalic D, Barocas DA, Huang LC
Five-year outcomes from a prospective comparative effectiveness study evaluating external-beam radiotherapy with or without low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for localized prostate cancer.
This retrospective cohort study’s objective was to determine if there were differences in treatment-related regret or survival between prostate cancer patients who received external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without a brachytherapy boost (EBRT-LDR), over a 5-year period. The cohort included 695 men who met inclusion criteria and received either EBRT (n=583) or EBRT-LDR (n=112). Men who received either treatment reported clinically worse urinary irritation and bowel function through 3 years but resolved after 5 years. Men who received EBRT-LDR continued to report moderate- to-big problems with urinary function bother and frequent urination at 5 years. There was no difference in treatment-related regret or survival between patients who received either treatment.
AHRQ-funded; HS019356; HS022640.
Citation: Pasalic D, Barocas DA, Huang LC . Five-year outcomes from a prospective comparative effectiveness study evaluating external-beam radiotherapy with or without low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for localized prostate cancer. Cancer 2021 Jun 1;127(11):1912-25. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33388..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Comparative Effectiveness, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Treatments
Aiyegbusi OL, Nair D, Peipert JD
A narrative review of current evidence supporting the implementation of electronic patient-reported outcome measures in the management of chronic diseases.
This review discusses and summarizes evidence of the impact of electronic patient-reported outcomes measures (ePROMs) on clinical parameters and outcomes relevant to chronic diseases. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of ePROMs in routine clinical practice with patients increasing expressing a preference for an electronic mode of administration. These ePROMs could have significant impacts on outcomes valued by patients, healthcare providers, and researchers. Recently published literature.
Citation: Aiyegbusi OL, Nair D, Peipert JD . A narrative review of current evidence supporting the implementation of electronic patient-reported outcome measures in the management of chronic diseases. Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2021 May 24;12:20406223211015958. doi: 10.1177/20406223211015958..
Keywords: Chronic Conditions, Patient Experience, Health Information Technology (HIT), Outcomes, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Silverberg JI, Lei D, Yousaf M
What are the best endpoints for eczema area and severity index and scoring atopic dermatitis in clinical practice? A prospective observational study.
This prospective observational study’s objective was to determine the minimal important changes (MICs) of the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) across all severities of atopic dermatitis (AD). Questionnaires and evaluation by a dermatologist (n =826) were used to determine the MIC of percentage and absolute improvement of EASI and SCORAD scores in adults and children. Absolute MICs for EASI, SCORAD, and O-SCORAD varied by baseline severity and EASI 50, SCORAD 35 and O-SCORAD 35 were meaningful percentage MICs regardless of baseline AD severity.
Citation: Silverberg JI, Lei D, Yousaf M . What are the best endpoints for eczema area and severity index and scoring atopic dermatitis in clinical practice? A prospective observational study. Br J Dermatol 2021 May;184(5):888-95. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19457..
Keywords: Skin Conditions, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Cohen DJ, Sweeney SM, Miller WL
Improving smoking and blood pressure outcomes: the interplay between operational changes and local context.
This study identified conditions and operational changes linked to improvements in smoking and blood pressure (BP) outcomes in primary care using samples and interviews from a subset of 104 practices participating in EvidenceNOW, a multisite cardiovascular disease prevention initiative. The authors calculated Clinical Quality Measure improvements, with targets of 10-point or greater absolute improvements in the proportion of patients with smoking screening, and if relevant, counseling and the proportion of hypertensive patients with adequately controlled BP. Primary care staff were surveyed and interviewed. In clinician-owned practices, implementing a workflow to routinely screen and counsel patients on smoking cessation resources, or implementing a documentation change or a referral to a resource alone led to an improvement of at least 10 points in the smoking outcome. These improvements did not occur though in health- or hospital system-owned practices or in Federally Qualified Health Centers. BP outcome improved by at least 10 points among solo practices after medical assistants learned how to take an accurate BP. Among larger, clinician-owned practices, BP outcomes improvement took place when staff took a second BP measurement after the first measurement was elevated and when staff learned where to document this information in the electronic health record. For larger and health- and hospital system-owned practices, 50 or more hours of facilitation was needed to improve BP outcomes.
Citation: Cohen DJ, Sweeney SM, Miller WL . Improving smoking and blood pressure outcomes: the interplay between operational changes and local context. Ann Fam Med 2021 May-Jun;19(3):240-48. doi: 10.1370/afm.2668..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Blood Pressure, Hypertension, Primary Care, Cardiovascular Conditions, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes
Paul R, Niedner M, Brilli R
Metric development for the multicenter Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes (IPSO) Collaborative.
A 56 US hospital collaborative, Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes (IPSO), has developed variables, metrics and a data analysis plan to track quality improvement (QI)-based patient outcomes over time. Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes expands on previous pediatric sepsis QI efforts by improving electronic data capture and uniformity across sites. This paper describes the metric development for the multicenter IPSO Collaborative.
Citation: Paul R, Niedner M, Brilli R . Metric development for the multicenter Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes (IPSO) Collaborative. Pediatrics 2021 May;147(5):e2020017889. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-017889..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sepsis, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Chan H, Zhang L, Choti MA
Recurrence patterns after surgical resection of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: analysis from the national comprehensive cancer network oncology outcomes database.
Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) recommend complete (R0) surgical resection of the primary tumor and metastases, if feasible. This study conducted large multicenter studies of recurrence patterns of GEPNETs after resection. Findings showed that R0 resection was associated with variable risk of recurrence across subtypes. Recommendations included further research to inform refinement of guidelines for the appropriate duration of surveillance after R0 resection.
Citation: Chan H, Zhang L, Choti MA . Recurrence patterns after surgical resection of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: analysis from the national comprehensive cancer network oncology outcomes database. Pancreas 2021 Apr;50(4):506-12. doi: 10.1097/mpa.0000000000001791..
Keywords: Cancer, Surgery, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes
Wilt TJ, Ullman KE, Linskens EJ
Therapies for clinically localized prostate cancer: a comparative effectiveness review.
In this study, the investigators sought to identify new information evaluating clinically localized prostate cancer therapies. The investigators concluded that radical prostatectomy reduced mortality vs watchful waiting in clinically detected localized prostate cancer but caused more harms. Effectiveness may be limited to younger men and those with intermediate risk disease. Active monitoring resulted in little to no mortality difference vs radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation plus androgen deprivation.
Citation: Wilt TJ, Ullman KE, Linskens EJ . Therapies for clinically localized prostate cancer: a comparative effectiveness review. J Urol 2021 Apr;205(4):967-76. doi: 10.1097/ju.0000000000001578..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Comparative Effectiveness, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Men's Health
Pennington KM, Dykhoff HJ, Yao X
The impact of antifungal prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients.
This study evaluated the effect of antifungal prophylaxis on all-cause mortality and invasive fungal infections (IFI) on lung transplant recipients. Administrative claims data was used to identify adult patients who underwent lung transplantation between 2005 and 2018. The authors identified 662 lung transplant recipients. All-cause mortality was found to be significantly lower in those receiving antifungal prophylaxis compared to those who did not. Patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis also had a lower rate of IFI, but it was not statistically significant.
AHRQ-funded; HS025164; HS025402; HS025517; HS024075.
Citation: Pennington KM, Dykhoff HJ, Yao X . The impact of antifungal prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Mar;18(3):468-76. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202003-267OC..
Keywords: Transplantation, Surgery, Medication, Prevention, Respiratory Conditions, Mortality, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Brown CS, Osborne NH, Kim GY
Effect of concomitant deep venous reflux on truncal endovenous ablation outcomes in the Vascular Quality Initiative.
This study looked at outcomes for patients with varicose veins (C2 disease) undergoing truncal endovenous ablation with and without deep venous reflux. Data from the Vascular Quality Initiative was analyzed from 2015 to 2019. A total of 4881 patients were included, with 46.2% having combined deep and superficial reflux. Follow-up around a year later (median 336.5 days) was conducted after. Patients with deep reflux were less likely to be female, more likely to be Caucasian, and had no difference in BMI. Additionally, there were no differences in rates of prior varicose vein treatments, number of pregnancies, or history of deep venous thrombosis. However, patients without deep reflux were more likely to use anticoagulants at the time of the procedure. Patients without deep reflux had slightly higher median preprocedural Venous Clinician Severity Score (VCSS) scores as well as postprocedural VCSS scores. Total symptom score was higher for patients without deep reflux before and after the procedure, but there was no change in symptom score after the procedure. Patients with deep reflux had substantially higher rates of complications with a particular increase in proximal thrombus extension.
Citation: Brown CS, Osborne NH, Kim GY . Effect of concomitant deep venous reflux on truncal endovenous ablation outcomes in the Vascular Quality Initiative. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 Mar;9(2):361-68.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.04.031..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Surgery, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Brown CS, Obi AT, Cronenwett JL
Outcomes after truncal ablation with or without concomitant phlebectomy for isolated symptomatic varicose veins (C2 disease).
This study looked outcomes of patients with varicose veins (C2 disease) who were treated with venous ablation alone or ablation plus phlebectomy using the Vascular Quality Initiative Varicose Vein Registry. Data between January 2015 and March 2015 was used to investigate postoperative as well as long-term clinical and patient-reported outcomes among patients with documented symptomatic C2 disease undergoing truncal endovenous ablations alone and combined ablation and phlebectomy. Out of 3375 patients, 40.1% underwent isolated truncal ablation and the rest had the combined procedure of ablation and phlebectomy. Complications were low for both procedures (8.4% and 8.7%). Overall, improvement in symptoms was experienced by 94.4% of patients with more increases in patients undergoing ablation and phlebectomy than ablation alone. Both procedures are recommended by the authors to be covered by insurance.
Citation: Brown CS, Obi AT, Cronenwett JL . Outcomes after truncal ablation with or without concomitant phlebectomy for isolated symptomatic varicose veins (C2 disease). J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 Mar;9(2):369-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.05.016..
Keywords: Cardiovascular Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Surgery, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Comparative Effectiveness, Evidence-Based Practice
Bayliss WS, Bushnell CD, Halladay JR
The cost of implementing and sustaining the COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services model.
This study compares the outcomes of using the COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) model, a transitional care intervention for stroke patients discharged to home against status quo postacute stroke care in a cluster-randomized trial in 40 hospitals in North Carolina. Hospital-level costs associated with implementing and sustaining COMPASS were examined during a 1-year period. Out of 40 hospitals, 22 hospitals were actively engaged in COMPASS. A 10% higher stroke patient volume was associated with 5.1% lower COMPASS costs per patient. About half of hospitals (N = 10) reported postacute clinic visits as their highest cost activity, while 7 hospitals reported case ascertainment as their highest cost activity. The authors estimated that based on average costs of COMPASS and readmissions, COMPASS could lower net costs if the model can prevent about 6 readmissions per year.
Citation: Bayliss WS, Bushnell CD, Halladay JR . The cost of implementing and sustaining the COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services model. Med Care 2021 Feb;59(2):163-68. doi: 10.1097/mlr.0000000000001462..
Keywords: Stroke, Cardiovascular Conditions, Healthcare Costs, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Thompson MP, Yaser JM, Hou H
Determinants of hospital variation in cardiac rehabilitation enrollment during coronary artery disease episodes of care.
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is associated with improved outcomes for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, CR enrollment remains low and there is a dearth of real-world data on hospital-level variation in CR enrollment. In this study, the investigators sought to explore determinants of hospital variability in CR enrollment during CAD episodes of care: medical management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI-MM), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Citation: Thompson MP, Yaser JM, Hou H . Determinants of hospital variation in cardiac rehabilitation enrollment during coronary artery disease episodes of care. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 Feb;14(2):e007144. doi: 10.1161/circoutcomes.120.007144..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Rehabilitation, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Hospitals
McKinney WT, Schaffhausen CR, Schladt D
Designing a patient-specific search of transplant program performance and outcomes: feedback from heart transplant candidates and recipients.
The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients provides transplant program-specific information, but it is unclear what patients and stakeholders need to know. Acceptance criteria for the candidate waitlist and donor organs vary by program and region, but there is no means to search for programs by the clinical profiles of recipients and donors. The authors examined variability in program-specific characteristics that could influence access to transplantation.
AHRQ-funded; HS026379; HS024527.
Citation: McKinney WT, Schaffhausen CR, Schladt D . Designing a patient-specific search of transplant program performance and outcomes: feedback from heart transplant candidates and recipients. Clin Transplant 2021 Feb;35(2):e14183. doi: 10.1111/ctr.14183..
Keywords: Transplantation, Surgery, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Registries, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Decision Making
Gupta A, Sedhom R, Sharma R
Nonpharmacological interventions for managing breathlessness in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review.
The purpose of this review was to evaluate the advantages and harms of nonpharmacological interventions for managing breathlessness in adults with advanced cancer. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for English-language studies about randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials, controlled trials, and observational studies. Findings included the safety and association with improved breathlessness of several nonpharmacological interventions for adults with advanced cancer. Recommendations included incorporating nonpharmacological interventions as first-line treatment for adults with advanced cancer and breathlessness.
Citation: Gupta A, Sedhom R, Sharma R . Nonpharmacological interventions for managing breathlessness in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review. JAMA Oncol 2021 Feb;7(2):290-98. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.5184..
Keywords: Cancer, Respiratory Conditions, Treatments, Evidence-Based Practice, Comparative Effectiveness, Quality of Life, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Fournier AK, Wasserman MR, Jones CF
AHRQ Author: Fournier AK, Nourjah P, Bierman AS
Developing AHRQ's feasibility assessment criteria for wide-scale implementation of patient-centered outcomes research findings.
This study’s objective was to develop criteria to assess the feasibility of widely implementing nominated findings from the AHRQ Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) Dissemination and Implementation (D&I) Initiative. A literature review was conducted, and thirteen D&I experts were interviewed to identify factors affecting feasibility of implementing PCOR findings. Fourteen technical expert panel (TEP) members discussed the face-validity and relative merits of the themes and additional factors. Seven D&I experts pilot-tested the criteria using sample nominations of findings. Three essential criteria sets were developed for AHRQ to assess feasibility of PCOR findings implementation including 1) acceptability to the implementers; 2) generalizability, adaptability, and ease of implementing with fidelity; and 3) alignment with external policies and incentives. Two supplemental criteria: presence of a plan or toolkit supporting implementation and evidence supporting implementation outside the research setting were also developed.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 233201500021I.
Citation: Fournier AK, Wasserman MR, Jones CF . Developing AHRQ's feasibility assessment criteria for wide-scale implementation of patient-centered outcomes research findings. J Gen Intern Med 2021 Feb;36(2):374-82. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06247-6..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation
Fischer CP, Knapp L, Cohen ME
Feasibility of enhanced recovery in emergency colorectal operation.
This study examines the feasibility of using enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) in emergency colorectal operations. It has been successfully used with elective surgical care but has not been examined for emergency procedures. A total of 31,511 patients who underwent colorectal operations at 235 hospitals were identified from a national ERP collaborative. Most were elective surgeries (28,425), with 3,086 emergencies. For emergency cases, rates of early Foley removal and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis were highest. Rates of multimodal pain control, early mobilization, and early liquid intake were modest. Patients younger than age 65 years, those with independent functional status, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification 1 to 3, and without physiologic derangement had the most nonadherence. Lack of mobilization or liquid intake was independently associated with increased odds of ileus and prolonged length of stay.
Citation: Fischer CP, Knapp L, Cohen ME . Feasibility of enhanced recovery in emergency colorectal operation. J Am Coll Surg 2021 Feb;232(2):178-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.10.004..
Keywords: Surgery, Digestive Disease and Health, Emergency Department, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes
Kohn R, Harhay MO, Bayes B
Influence of bedspacing on outcomes of hospitalised medicine service patients: a retrospective cohort study.
The objective of this cohort study was to assess the association of bedspacing with patient-centered outcomes among United States patients admitted to general medicine services. The study compared internal medicine, family medicine and geriatric service patients who were bedspaced versus cohorted for the entirety of their hospital stay within three large, urban hospitals. Findings showed that bedspacing was associated with adverse patient-centered outcomes. Recommendations for future work included a need to confirm these findings, to understand mechanisms contributing to adverse outcomes, and to identify factors that mitigate these adverse effects in order to provide high-value, patient-centered care to hospitalized patients.
Citation: Kohn R, Harhay MO, Bayes B . Influence of bedspacing on outcomes of hospitalised medicine service patients: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Qual Saf 2021 Feb;30(2):116-22. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2019-010675..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Outcomes, Inpatient Care, Hospitals, Healthcare Delivery, Care Management, Adverse Events
Feliciano JL, Waldfogel JM, Sharma R
Pharmacologic interventions for breathlessness in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the use of pharmacological interventions for breathlessness in patients with advanced cancer. Studies were identified from database inception to May 2020 using predefined eligibility criteria. Pharmacologic intervention benefits and harms were compared, focusing on breathlessness, anxiety, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life. Out of 7729 unique citations, 19 studies with a total of 1424 patients were included. Opioids were not associated with more effectiveness than placebo for improving breathlessness or exercise capacity. Anxiolytics were also not associated with more effectiveness than placebo for breathlessness or anxiety. There was limited evidence for other pharmacologic interventions. There was some harm, but it was minimal in those short-term studies.
Citation: Feliciano JL, Waldfogel JM, Sharma R . Pharmacologic interventions for breathlessness in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Feb;4(2):e2037632. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37632..
Keywords: Cancer: Lung Cancer, Cancer, Respiratory Conditions, Medication, Treatments, Opioids, Evidence-Based Practice, Comparative Effectiveness, Quality of Life, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research