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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 776 Research Studies Displayed
Kowitt SD, Goldstein AO, Cykert S
A heart healthy intervention improved tobacco screening rates and cessation support in primary care practices.
This study investigated the outcomes of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease risk reduction tool called Heart Health Now to improve rates for tobacco cessation screening and counseling in small primary care practices in North Carolina. This tool was developed as part of AHRQ’s EvidenceNow initiative. This stepped wedge, stratified, cluster randomized trial looked at 28 practices that were staffed by 10 or fewer clinicians and had an electronic health record. Heart Health Now consisted of education tools, onsite practice facilitation for a year, and a practice-specific cardiovascular population management dashboard that included monthly, measure-specific run charts to help guide quality improvement. The practices included in their analyses consisted of 78,120 patients, and 17,687 smokers. From pre- to post-intervention, screening rates significantly increased from 82.7 to 96.2%. Cessation support rates also significantly increased from 44.3% to 50.1%. Some of the practices associated with improvement included being in an academic health center or faculty, having more clinicians, and having a lower percentage of White patients.
Citation: Kowitt SD, Goldstein AO, Cykert S . A heart healthy intervention improved tobacco screening rates and cessation support in primary care practices. J Prev 2022 Jun;43(3):375-86. doi: 10.1007/s10935-022-00672-5..
Keywords: Tobacco Use, Tobacco Use: Smoking Cessation, Screening, Primary Care, Evidence-Based Practice, Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions
Djulbegovic B, Ahmed MM, Hozo I
High quality (certainty) evidence changes less often than low-quality evidence, but the magnitude of effect size does not systematically differ between studies with low versus high-quality evidence.
The study researchers state that assumptions and general beliefs exist about certainty of evidence (CoE) and its impact on estimates of treatment effects, however empirical assessment of those assumptions and beliefs is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between low CoE (low-quality evidence) and high CoE (high-quality evidence) in precision of estimating treatment effects. The researchers reviewed the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2016 through May 2021 for pairs of original and updated reviews for change in CoE assessments based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. Differences in effect sizes between the original reviews and the updated reviews were assessed as a function of change in CoE. The researchers concluded that low CoE changes more frequently than high CoE, but the effect size in low CoE studies did not differ from the effect size in high CoE studies. The researchers state that the effect size finding is an indicator of the need to further assess and improve the critical appraisal methods currently utilized in evidence-based medicine.
Citation: Djulbegovic B, Ahmed MM, Hozo I . High quality (certainty) evidence changes less often than low-quality evidence, but the magnitude of effect size does not systematically differ between studies with low versus high-quality evidence. J Eval Clin Pract 2022 Jun;28(3):353-62. doi: 10.1111/jep.13657..
Keywords: Research Methodologies, Evidence-Based Practice
Loo S, Mullikin K, Robbins C
Patient navigator team perceptions on the implementation of a citywide breast cancer patient navigation protocol: a qualitative study.
This study’s goal was to assess the implementation of the 2018 Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP), an evidence-based patient navigation intervention aimed at addressing breast cancer care disparities, across six Boston hospitals. Patient navigator team member perspectives regarding implementation barriers and facilitators one-year post-study implementation were assessed. Seventeen interviews were conducted with patient navigators, patient navigator supervisors, and designated clinical champions. The following benefits were identified by participants: 1) increased networking and connections for navigators across clinical sites (Cosmopolitanism), 2) formalization of the patient navigation process (Goals and Purpose, Access to Knowledge and Information, and Relative Advantage), and 3) flexibility within the TRIP intervention that allowed for diversity in implementation and use of TRIP components across sites (Adaptability). Barriers included documentation requirements and the structured patient follow up guidelines that did not always align with the timeline of existing site navigation processes.
Citation: Loo S, Mullikin K, Robbins C . Patient navigator team perceptions on the implementation of a citywide breast cancer patient navigation protocol: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res 2022 May 21;22(1):683. doi: 10.1186/s12913-022-08090-3..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Cedillo G, George MC, Deshpande R
Toward safer opioid prescribing in HIV care (TOWER): a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial.
Healthcare and behavioral health providers are lacking a methodology to implement the 2016 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Opioid Prescribing Guideline (CDC Guideline), measure prescriber adherence to it, and systematically test its effect on patient and public health outcomes. The Guideline is currently being reviewed and revised due to concern that it may be harmful to people with chronic pain on long-term opioid therapy (CP-LTOT). The purpose of the study was to develop and test a CDC Guideline implementation strategy termed “TOWER,” focused on an outpatient HIV primary care setting with patients with CP-LTOT. The TOWER strategy included: 1) a patient-facing app for opioid management (OM-App); 2) a template for progress notes (OM-Note) intended to guide the patient’s office visit; and 3) a primary care provider (PCP) training. TOWER was developed in a multi-step, stakeholder-engaged process within a behavioral change framework. The researchers evaluated the TOWER strategy in a randomized-controlled trial of HIV-PCPs (N=11) and their patients with HIV and CP-LTOT (N=40). The main outcome was CDC Guideline adherence based on electronic health record (EHR) documentation and measured by the Safer Opioid Prescribing Tool (SOPTET). Qualitative data was also collected, including one-on-one PCP interviews. The study found that the PCPs randomized to utilize the TOWER strategy were 48% more CDC Guideline adherent. Qualitative data reflected high levels of intervention provider confidence in administering the TOWER processes, and that the OM-Note supported provider efforts, but experience with the patient-facing OM-App was mixed. The study concluded that adherence to the 2016 CDC Guidelines is not associated with worsening of outcomes for people with HIV with CP-LTOT, and adherence to the CDC Guidelines can be promoted and measured. The researchers recommend additional research into the scalability of these results and the impact of CDC Guideline adherence on public health.
Citation: Cedillo G, George MC, Deshpande R . Toward safer opioid prescribing in HIV care (TOWER): a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial. Addict Sci Clin Pract 2022 May 16;17(1):28. doi: 10.1186/s13722-022-00311-8..
Keywords: Opioids, Medication, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Perdue LA
Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
This evidence summary reviewed the benefits and harms of aspirin in primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention to accompany the final recommendation and evidence review of the US Preventive Services Task Force. A literature review was conducted of English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of low-dose aspirin compared with placebo or no intervention in primary prevention populations. Aspirin was found not to be significantly associated with reductions in CVD mortality or all-cause mortality. There was limited trial evidence on benefits for CRC, with the findings highly variable by length of follow-up and statistically significant only when considering long-term observational follow-up beyond randomized trial periods. Low-dose aspirin was associated with significant increases in total major bleeding and in site-specific bleeding.
Citation: Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Perdue LA . Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2022 Apr 26;327(16):1585-97. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.3337..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Dehmer SP, O'Keefe LR, Evans CV
Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated modeling study for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The purpose of the study was to develop, model, and report estimates of the harms from and benefits of the use of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC.) The researchers developed and used a simulation model to provide estimates for hypothetical United States cohorts of men and women between the ages of forty and seventy-nine years without a previous history of elevated bleeding risks or CVD, and up to a 20% 10-year risk for a CVD event. The model focused on the routine, lifetime use of low-dose aspirin with 5-year intervals of no use between 65 and 85 years of age. The study’s primary outcome was lifetime net benefit which was measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs.) Harms included an increase in nonfatal intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal bleeding, and benefits included a reduction in nonfatal ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. The study found that the estimated lifetime net quality-adjusted life-years was positive for men and women with 5% or more 10-year CVD risk when they started use between the ages of 40-59 years, and for men and women with 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk when starting between the ages of 60 and 69 years. The estimated lifetime net life-years were mostly negative for those starting low-dose aspirin use between 60 and 79 years of age. Five-year intervals of stopping use between 65 and 85 years of age did not provide a significant advantage to lifetime use. The researchers concluded that the routine, lifetime use of low-dose aspirin may benefit several population groups, with the largest estimated benefit in those with greater 10-year CVD risk who begin routine, low-dose aspirin dosage at younger ages.
Citation: Dehmer SP, O'Keefe LR, Evans CV . Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated modeling study for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2022 Apr 26;327(16):1598-607. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.3385..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Prevention, Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Mallouk M
Effects of a refined evidence-based toolkit and mentored implementation on medication reconciliation at 18 hospitals: results of the MARQUIS2 study.
This study was a follow-up of the first Multicenter Medication Reconciliation Quality Improvement Study (MARQUIS1) that demonstrated mentored implementation of a medication reconciliation best practices toolkit. The toolkit decreased total unintentional medication discrepancies in five hospitals, but results varied by site. The toolkit has been refined with lessons learned and retooled as MARQUIS2. The tool was implemented at 18 North American hospitals or hospital systems from 2016 to 2018, offering 17 system-level and 6-patient-level interventions. One of eight physicians coached each site remotely via monthly calls and one or two site visits. A total of 4947 patients were sampled, with 1229 preimplementation and 3718 postimplementation. A steady decline in medication discrepancy rates were experienced from 2.85 discrepancies per patient down to 0.98 discrepancies. An interrupted time series analysis of the 17 sites showed the intervention was associated with a 5% relative decrease in discrepancies per month.
AHRQ-funded; HS025486; HS023757.
Citation: Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Mallouk M . Effects of a refined evidence-based toolkit and mentored implementation on medication reconciliation at 18 hospitals: results of the MARQUIS2 study. BMJ Qual Saf 2022 Apr;31(4):278-86. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2020-012709..
Keywords: Medication, Evidence-Based Practice, Tools & Toolkits, Implementation, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Medication: Safety, Patient Safety
D'Orazio B, Ramachandran J, Khalida C
Stakeholder engagement in a comparative effectiveness/implementation study to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection recurrence: CA-MRSA Project (CAMP2).
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence and participation of a stakeholder committee would positively impact the effectiveness of the design and execution of a home-based Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection prevention intervention. The trial utilized community health workers to implement infection prevention protocols in participant’s homes, including home visits, sampling household surfaces at baseline and then three months, and obtaining surveillance cultures from index patients and household members. The study assembled and convened The Clinician and Patient Stakeholder Advisory Committee (CPSAC), comprised of New York-based federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and community health emergency departments, laboratory and clinical researchers, clinicians, and patient stakeholders. The CPSAC was tasked with trial oversight and shared decision-making and troubleshooting, and convened both in person and remotely. The researchers concluded that the inclusion and engagement of the CPSAC during the trial design and implementation was highly effective in addressing and resolving challenges in both participant recruitment and home visits.
Citation: D'Orazio B, Ramachandran J, Khalida C . Stakeholder engagement in a comparative effectiveness/implementation study to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection recurrence: CA-MRSA Project (CAMP2). Prog Community Health Partnersh 2022;16(1):45-60. doi: 10.1353/cpr.2022.0005..
Keywords: Comparative Effectiveness, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Community-Acquired Infections, Infectious Diseases, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Evidence-Based Practice
Koh MJ, Merrill MH, Koh MJ
Comparative outcomes for mature T and NK/T-cell lymphomas in people with and without HIV and to AIDS-defining lymphomas.
Citation: Koh MJ, Merrill MH, Koh MJ . Comparative outcomes for mature T and NK/T-cell lymphomas in people with and without HIV and to AIDS-defining lymphomas. Blood Adv 2022 Mar 8;6(5):1420-31. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006208.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Comparative Effectiveness, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice
Aboumatar H, Pitts S, Sharma R
Patient engagement strategies for adults with chronic conditions: an evidence map.
Existing research indicates that patient and family engagement (PFE) in health care is necessary for improving outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the evidence on PFE strategies for adults with chronic conditions and identify the areas where additional research is needed. The authors searched existing databases, including CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, and PubMed, for data between January 2015 and September 2021, to identify systematic reviews on strategies for engaging patients with chronic conditions. The study also included their caregivers. Strategies were categorized into the following levels: direct patient care, health system, and community-policy. The authors discovered 131 reviews of direct patient care strategies, 5 reviews of health system strategies, and no reviews of community-policy strategies. The study concluded that there is much more available evidence on the effects of direct patient care strategies on PFE than on the effects of the health system or community policy strategies. In addition, the evidence map created by the researchers focused on reviews which did not provide details of individual chronic disease interventions. The authors concluded that the evidence map created provides awareness of the research gaps related to efforts to improve patient and family engagement for patients with chronic conditions.
Citation: Aboumatar H, Pitts S, Sharma R . Patient engagement strategies for adults with chronic conditions: an evidence map. Syst Rev 2022 Mar 5;11(1):39. doi: 10.1186/s13643-021-01873-5..
Keywords: Patient and Family Engagement, Chronic Conditions, Evidence-Based Practice
Starnes LS, Krehnbrink M, Carroll AR
A pain in the neck: an adolescent with neck pain.
This case study involves a 15-year-old boy who presents with several years of intermittent neck pain, which has acutely worsened during the past 4 days. Patient history, diagnosis (Salmonella osteomyelitis.), and treatment are explored.
Citation: Starnes LS, Krehnbrink M, Carroll AR . A pain in the neck: an adolescent with neck pain. Pediatr Rev 2022 Mar;43(3):174-77. doi: 10.1542/pir.2020-004168..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Infectious Diseases, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Case Study, Evidence-Based Practice
Bergman ZR, Usher M, Olson A
Comparison of outcomes and process of care for patients treated at hospitals dedicated for COVID-19 care vs other hospitals.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mortality rate and complications associated with treatment at the COVID-19-dedicated hospitals. Findings showed that, in this cohort study, COVID-19-dedicated hospitals in Minnesota had multiple benefits, including providing high-volume repetitive treatment and isolating patients with the infection. This experience suggests improved in-hospital mortality for patients treated at dedicated hospitals.
AHRQ-funded; HS026732; HS026379.
Citation: Bergman ZR, Usher M, Olson A . Comparison of outcomes and process of care for patients treated at hospitals dedicated for COVID-19 care vs other hospitals. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Mar;5(3):e220873. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.0873..
Keywords: COVID-19, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes, Healthcare Delivery, Hospitals
Richardson JE, Rasmussen LV, Dorr DA
Generating and reporting electronic clinical quality measures from electronic health records: strategies from EvidenceNOW cooperatives.
This study’s goal was to characterize strategies that seven regional cooperatives participating in the EvidenceNOW initiative developed to generate and report electronic health record (EHR)-based electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) for quality improvement (QI) in small-to-medium-sized practices. Findings showed that cooperatives ultimately generated and reported eCQMs using hybrid strategies because they determined that neither EHRs alone nor centralized sources alone could operationalize eCQMs for QI. In order to attain this goal, cooperatives needed to devise solutions and utilize resources that often are unavailable to typical small-to-medium-sized practices.
Citation: Richardson JE, Rasmussen LV, Dorr DA . Generating and reporting electronic clinical quality measures from electronic health records: strategies from EvidenceNOW cooperatives. Appl Clin Inform 2022 Mar;13(2):485-94. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1748145..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Quality of Care, Evidence-Based Practice, Primary Care
Brajcich BC, Benson AB, Gantt G
Management of colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from a statewide multidisciplinary cancer collaborative.
J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar;125(4):560-63. doi: 10.1002/jso.26758.
Citation: Brajcich BC, Benson AB, Gantt G . Management of colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from a statewide multidisciplinary cancer collaborative. J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar;125(4):560-63. doi: 10.1002/jso.26758..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Healthcare Delivery
Bierman AS, Tong ST, McNellis RJ
AHRQ Author: Bierman AS, Tong ST, McNellis RJ
Realizing the dream: the future of primary care research.
In this article, the authors discussed the primary care research central to successful primary care transformation and to realizing the vision of a high-performing US health system to serve effectively all Americans and their communities while advancing health equity.
Citation: Bierman AS, Tong ST, McNellis RJ . Realizing the dream: the future of primary care research. Ann Fam Med 2022 Mar-Apr;20(2):170-74. doi: 10.1370/afm.2788..
Keywords: Primary Care, Healthcare Delivery, Evidence-Based Practice, Healthcare Systems, Learning Health Systems, Patient-Centered Healthcare
Harris S, Farah W, Snitchler C. S, Farah W, Snitchler C
AHRQ Author: Harris S
Screening and interventions to prevent dental caries in children younger than five years.
This case study concerns Hispanic parents new to a practice who bring in their two children, two years of age and four months of age, for routine wellness visits. The parents have questions about dental care for their children. Three case study questions are provided along with answers. Bonus digital content provides an information sheet with a Clinical Summary of the USPSTF Recommendation.
Citation: Harris S, Farah W, Snitchler C. S, Farah W, Snitchler C . Screening and interventions to prevent dental caries in children younger than five years. Am Fam Physician 2022 Mar;105(3):299-300..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Dental and Oral Health, Screening, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Case Study
Lin E, Uhler LM, Finley EP
Incorporating patient-reported outcomes into shared decision-making in the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study protocol.
This article describes a US-based 2-year, two-site hybrid type 1 study to assess clinical effectiveness and implementation of a machine learning-based patient decision aid integrating patient-reported outcomes and clinical variables to support shared decision-making for patients with knee osteoarthritis considering total knee replacement. Study results will be disseminated through conference presentations, publications and professional societies.
Citation: Lin E, Uhler LM, Finley EP . Incorporating patient-reported outcomes into shared decision-making in the management of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study protocol. BMJ Open 2022 Feb 21;12(2):e055933. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055933..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Decision Making, Arthritis, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Orthopedics, Health Information Technology (HIT), Evidence-Based Practice
Wallis CJD, Huang LC, Zhao Z
Association between pelvic nodal radiotherapy and patient-reported functional outcomes through 5 years among men undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: an assessment of the Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (C
In this study, the investigators sought to compare functional outcomes for men receiving prostate and pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy, longitudinally over 5 years. The investigators concluded that there were no clinically important differences in disease-specific or general health-related quality of life with the addition of pelvic irradiation to prostate radiotherapy, supporting the use of pelvic radiotherapy when it may be of clinical benefit, such as men with increased risk of nodal involvement.
AHRQ-funded; HS022640; HS019356.
Citation: Wallis CJD, Huang LC, Zhao Z . Association between pelvic nodal radiotherapy and patient-reported functional outcomes through 5 years among men undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: an assessment of the Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (C Urol Oncol 2022 Feb;40(2):56.e1-56.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.04.035..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Men's Health, Comparative Effectiveness, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Quality of Life
Mabry-Hernandez IR, Legg M
AHRQ Author: Mabry-Hernandez IR
Behavioral counseling interventions for healthy weight and weight gain in pregnancy.
This AHRQ-authored Putting Prevention Into Practice (PPIP) article is a quiz on the Behavioral Counseling Interventions for Healthy Weight and Weight Gain in Pregnancy U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation. Three questions are included with the answers and references at the end of the quiz. The questions are 1) Under what circumstances should physicians offer behavioral interventions; 2) What is the recommended gestational weight gain for the case study patient; and 3) Which of the 3 approaches to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy are correct for the patient?
Citation: Mabry-Hernandez IR, Legg M . Behavioral counseling interventions for healthy weight and weight gain in pregnancy. Am Fam Physician 2022 Feb;105(2):187-88..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Pregnancy, Prevention, Women, Case Study, Evidence-Based Practice
Hysong Hysong, Arredondo K, Hughes AM
An evidence-based, structured, expert approach to selecting essential indicators of primary care quality.
The purpose of this article was to illustrate the application of an evidence-based, structured performance measurement methodology to identify, prioritize, and generate new measures of health care quality, using primary care as a case example. Subject matter experts identified three fundamental objectives: access, patient-health care team partnerships, and technical quality. The authors indicated that their article provides an actionable guide to applying their Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System, which can be adapted to the needs of various industries, including measure selection and modification from existing data sources, and proposing new measures.
Citation: Hysong Hysong, Arredondo K, Hughes AM . An evidence-based, structured, expert approach to selecting essential indicators of primary care quality. PLoS One 2022 Jan 18;17(1):e0261263. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261263..
Keywords: Primary Care, Evidence-Based Practice, Quality Improvement, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality Measures, Quality of Care
Menon K, Schlapbach LJ, Akech S
Criteria for pediatric sepsis-a systematic review and meta-analysis by the Pediatric Sepsis Definition Taskforce.
This meta-analysis conducted by the Pediatric Sepsis Definition Taskforce determined the associations of demographic, clinical, laboratory, organ dysfunction, and illness severity variable values with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock in children with infection; and multiple organ dysfunction or death in children with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock. Criteria for included studies were case-control studies, cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials in children greater than or equal to 37-week-old postconception to 18 years with suspected or confirmed infection, which included the terms "sepsis," "septicemia," or "septic shock" in the title or abstract. One hundred and six studies met eligibility criteria of which 81 were included. Sixteen studies provided data for the sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock outcome and 71 studies for the mortality outcome. Significant and consistent associations with mortality were demonstrated in children with sepsis/severe sepsis/septic shock, chronic conditions, oncologic diagnosis, use of vasoactive/inotropic agents, mechanical ventilation, serum lactate, platelet count, fibrinogen, procalcitonin, multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score, Pediatric Index of Mortality-3, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality score.
Citation: Menon K, Schlapbach LJ, Akech S . Criteria for pediatric sepsis-a systematic review and meta-analysis by the Pediatric Sepsis Definition Taskforce. Crit Care Med 2022 Jan;50(1):21-36. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0000000000005294..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Sepsis, Evidence-Based Practice
Penfold RB, Thompson EE, Hilt RJ
Development of a symptom-focused model to guide the prescribing of antipsychotics in children and adolescents: results of the first phase of the Safer Use of Antipsychotics in Youth (SUAY) Clinical Trial.
The purpose of this study was to develop a new approach to prescribing guidelines as part of a pragmatic trial, Safer Use of Antipsychotics in Youth (SUAY; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03448575), which supports prescribers in delivering high-quality mental health care to youths. Prescribing guidelines are often ignored because they do not incorporate the real-world availability of first-line psychosocial treatments, comorbid conditions, and clinical complexity. The investigators indicated that their approach addressed some of these concerns.
AHRQ-funded; HS026001; HS023258.
Citation: Penfold RB, Thompson EE, Hilt RJ . Development of a symptom-focused model to guide the prescribing of antipsychotics in children and adolescents: results of the first phase of the Safer Use of Antipsychotics in Youth (SUAY) Clinical Trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2022 Jan;61(1):93-102. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2021.04.010..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Medication, Behavioral Health, Patient Safety, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice
Choi KR, Bhakta B, Knight EA
Patient outcomes after applied behavior analysis for autism spectrum disorder.
The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of service receipt and patient outcomes for children receiving applied behavior analysis (ABA) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in an integrated health care system in which commercially insured children were covered by a state autism mandate. Findings showed that, in a health system implementation of ABA for children with ASD, there were high rates of ABA discontinuation and low ABA dosing. These challenges may diminish the potential benefits of ABA, even with mandated commercial insurance coverage.
Citation: Choi KR, Bhakta B, Knight EA . Patient outcomes after applied behavior analysis for autism spectrum disorder. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2022 Jan;43(1):9-16. doi: 10.1097/dbp.0000000000000995..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Autism, Behavioral Health, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Tracer H, Mohnot S
Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In this “Putting Prevention Into Practice An Evidence-Based Approach”, the authors provide a case study with questions and answers related to Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Citation: Tracer H, Mohnot S . Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Am Fam Physician 2022 Jan 1;105(1):73-74..
Am Fam Physician 2022 Jan 1;105(1):73-74..
Keywords: Diabetes, Screening, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Case Study
Lin JS, Hoffman L, Bean SI
Addressing racism in preventive services: methods report to support the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The purpose of this report was to articulate the definitional and conceptual issues around racism and health inequity and to describe how racism and health inequities are currently addressed in preventive health. An audit was conducted assessing published literature on policy and position statements addressing racism, a subset of cancer and cardiovascular topics in USPSTF reports, recent systematic reviews on interventions to reduce health inequities, and societies, organizations, agencies, and funding bodies to gather information about how they address racism and health equity. Findings showed that racism is complex and pervasive, operates at multiple interrelated levels, and exerts negative effects on other social determinants and health and well-being through multiple pathways. The most directly relevant and immediately useful guidance identified is that from the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group.
Citation: Lin JS, Hoffman L, Bean SI . Addressing racism in preventive services: methods report to support the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2021 Dec 21;326(23):2412-20. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.17579..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Social Determinants of Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Research Methodologies, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice