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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 325 Research Studies Displayed
Vaghani V, Wei L, U
Validation of an electronic trigger to measure missed diagnosis of stroke in emergency departments.
Diagnostic errors are major contributors to preventable patient harm. In this study, the investigators validated the use of an electronic health record (EHR)-based trigger (e-trigger) to measure missed opportunities in stroke diagnosis in emergency departments (EDs). The investigators concluded that a symptom-disease pair-based e-trigger identified missed diagnoses of stroke with a modest positive predictive value, underscoring the need for chart review validation procedures to identify diagnostic errors in large data sets.
AHRQ-funded; HS017820; HS024459.
Citation: Vaghani V, Wei L, U . Validation of an electronic trigger to measure missed diagnosis of stroke in emergency departments. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Sep 18;28(10):2202-11. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocab121..
Keywords: Stroke, Cardiovascular Conditions, Emergency Department, Diagnosis, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Medical Errors, Adverse Events
Hua CL, Thomas KS, Bunker J
Changes in the agreement between the Minimum Data Set and hospital Medicare claims measures of dementia.
The objective of this study was to examine the agreement between a clinical Minimum Data Set measure of dementia and a diagnosis of dementia documented on a hospital claim across three points in time. A second objective was to examine the extent to which the agreement varied by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Findings showed that hospital claims for patients aged 66–75 were less likely to be accurate than those for other age groups and suggests that physicians do not always look for signs of dementia in younger adults. Additionally, Asian patients were less likely to have a diagnosis of dementia documented during hospitalization, which could be related to language barriers between patients and clinicians.
Citation: Hua CL, Thomas KS, Bunker J . Changes in the agreement between the Minimum Data Set and hospital Medicare claims measures of dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Sep;69(9):2672-75. doi: 10.1111/jgs.17201..
Keywords: Elderly, Dementia, Neurological Disorders, Diagnosis, Medicare
Goyal MK, Chamberlain JM, Webb M
Racial and ethnic disparities in the delayed diagnosis of appendicitis among children.
The objective of this 3-year multicenter retrospective cohort study of children was to determine if there are race/ethnicity differences in rates of appendiceal perforation, delayed diagnosis of appendicitis, and diagnostic imaging during prior visit(s). Delayed diagnosis was defined as having at least one emergency department (ED) visit within 7 days preceding the appendicitis diagnosis. Out of 7,298 patients diagnosed with appendicitis and documented race/ethnicity, 2,567 had appendiceal perforation. Non-Hispanic (NH) Black children had a higher likelihood of perforation (36.5% versus 34.9%) then non-Hispanic whites. They also were over twice as likely to have delayed diagnosis (4.7% versus 2.0%). Eighty-nine patients (43.2%) patients with delayed diagnosis had abdominal imaging during the prior visits. However, NH-Black children were less likely to have any imaging (28.2% versus 46.2%) or definitive imaging (10.3% versus 35.9%).
Acad Emerg Med 2021 Sep;28(9):949-56. doi: 10.1111/acem.14142.
Citation: Goyal MK, Chamberlain JM, Webb M . Racial and ethnic disparities in the delayed diagnosis of appendicitis among children. Acad Emerg Med 2021 Sep;28(9):949-56. doi: 10.1111/acem.14142..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Diagnosis
Michelson KA, Reeves SD, Grubenhoff JA
Clinical features and preventability of delayed diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis.
In this case-control study, researchers sought to determine clinical features associated with delayed diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis, to assess the frequency of preventable delay, and to compare delay outcomes. They found that delayed appendicitis was associated with initially milder symptoms but worse outcomes. Their findings suggest that a majority of delayed diagnoses were at least possibly preventable and that many of the studied patients did not undergo indicated imaging, suggesting an opportunity to prevent delayed diagnosis of appendicitis in some children.
Citation: Michelson KA, Reeves SD, Grubenhoff JA . Clinical features and preventability of delayed diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug;4(8):e2122248. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.22248..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Diagnosis, Prevention, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Byhoff E, Paulus JK, Guardado R
Healthcare workers' perspectives on coronavirus testing availability: a cross sectional survey.
This article describes a survey that was conducted during the first wave of the COVID pandemic during March-August 2020 of hospital workers on their perceptions of, access to, and receipt of COVID testing. A survey was given to all hospital employees in a single academic medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. A total of 2543 employees responded to the survey. Respondents were mostly female (76%), white (55%), with the mean age being 40 years. They were nurses (27%), administrators (22%), and patient support roles (22%) of which 56% of respondents wanted COVID testing. Age, full-time status, employment tenure, changes in quality of life, changes in job duties, and worries about enough sick paid leave were associated with testing. Nurses were more likely to want testing than administrators and patient support staff.
Citation: Byhoff E, Paulus JK, Guardado R . Healthcare workers' perspectives on coronavirus testing availability: a cross sectional survey. BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jul 21;21(1):719. doi: 10.1186/s12913-021-06741-5..
Keywords: COVID-19, Diagnosis, Provider: Health Personnel, Public Health
Thomas TW, Golin C, Samuel-Hodge CD
Race and gender differences in abnormal blood glucose screening and clinician response to prediabetes: a mixed-methods assessment.
The projected three-fold increase in diabetes burden by 2060 in the United States will affect certain race and gender groups disproportionately. The objective of this mixed-methods study was to assess differences in prediabetes screening and clinician response to prediabetes by patient race and gender. The investigators found that qualitatively, physicians reported a non-systematic approach to prediabetes screening and follow-up care related to: 1) System-level barriers to screening and treatment; 2) Implicit bias; 3) Patient factors; and 4) Physician preferences for prediabetes treatment.
AHRQ-funded; HS025561; HS000032.
Citation: Thomas TW, Golin C, Samuel-Hodge CD . Race and gender differences in abnormal blood glucose screening and clinician response to prediabetes: a mixed-methods assessment. Prev Med 2021 Jul;148:106587. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106587..
Keywords: Diabetes, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Screening, Diagnosis
Shipe ME, Haddad DN, Deppen SA
Modeling the impact of delaying the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer during COVID-19
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has led surgical societies to recommend delaying diagnosis and treatment of suspected lung cancer for lesions less than 2 cm. The COVID-19 infection rate at which immediate operative risk exceeds benefit is unknown. Delaying diagnosis can lead to disease progression, but the impact of this delay on mortality is unknown. In this study, the investigators sought to model immediate versus delayed surgical resection in a suspicious lung nodule less than 2 cm.
Citation: Shipe ME, Haddad DN, Deppen SA . Modeling the impact of delaying the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer during COVID-19 Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jul;112(1):248-54. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.08.025..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Lung Cancer, Cancer, Diagnosis, Case Study, Risk
Cifra CL, Sittig DF, Singh H
Bridging the feedback gap: a sociotechnical approach to informing clinicians of patients' subsequent clinical course and outcomes.
This paper discusses challenges to the development of systems for effective patient outcome feedback to improve diagnosis and proposes the application of a sociotechnical approach using health information technology (HIT) to support the implementation of such systems. It discusses current barriers to effective clinician feedback, reasons for them, and features of potential IT solutions. Evaluation and implementation of the feedback process within a sociotechnical health system are then discussed. The authors use an eight-dimension sociotechnical model for studying health IT by authors Sittig and Singh. The eight dimensions are hardware and software; clinical content; human–computer interface; people; workflow and communication; organisational policies and procedures; external rules, regulations and pressures; and system measurement and monitoring. A table is included that shows the potential considerations for each dimension.
AHRQ-funded; 33201500022I; HS027363.
Citation: Cifra CL, Sittig DF, Singh H . Bridging the feedback gap: a sociotechnical approach to informing clinicians of patients' subsequent clinical course and outcomes. BMJ Qual Saf 2021 Jul;30(7):591-97. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2020-012464..
Keywords: Health Information Technology (HIT), Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Diagnosis, Patient Safety, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Adams LB, Baxter SLK, Lightfoot AF
Refining Black men's depression measurement using participatory approaches: a concept mapping study.
This study’s goal was to look at why prevalence of depression is lower for Black males despite cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and risk factors. For Black men, emotional vulnerability is often seen as a sign of weakness which may potentially mask the timely identification of mental health needs in this population. The authors use concept mapping, which is a structured mixed methods approach to determine how stakeholders of Black men’s health conceptualize their depressive symptoms. Thirty-six stakeholders comprised of Black men, Black women, and primary care providers participated in separate stakeholder groups in 2018. Participants generated 68 characteristics of Black men’s depression reflected in six conceptual clusters: 1) physical states; 2) emotional states; 3) diminished drive; 4) internal conflicts; 5) communication with others; and 6) social pressures. Using a content analysis approach, they found that items comprising the “social pressures” cluster were not reflected in any common depression scales.
Citation: Adams LB, Baxter SLK, Lightfoot AF . Refining Black men's depression measurement using participatory approaches: a concept mapping study. BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 22;21(1):1194. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11137-5..
Keywords: Men's Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Depression, Behavioral Health, Diagnosis
Levis B, Benedetti A, Ioannidis JPA
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores do not accurately estimate depression prevalence: individual participant data meta-analysis.
The authors compared PHQ-9 ≥10 prevalence to Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID) major depression prevalence and assessed whether an alternative PHQ-9 cutoff could more accurately estimate prevalence. They found that PHQ-9 ≥10 substantially overestimated depression prevalence, as there was too much heterogeneity to correct statistically in individual studies.
Citation: Levis B, Benedetti A, Ioannidis JPA . Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores do not accurately estimate depression prevalence: individual participant data meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 2020 Jun;122:115-28.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.02.002..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Diagnosis
Cifra Cifra, CL Dukes, KC Ayres, et al.
Referral communication for pediatric intensive care unit admission and the diagnosis of critically ill children: a pilot ethnography.
This pilot study’s goal was to determine the feasibility of using focused ethnography to understand the relationship between referral communication and the diagnostic process for critically ill children. Findings showed that focused ethnography in the pediatric intensive care unit is feasible to investigate relationships between clinician referral communication and the diagnostic process for critically ill children.
Citation: Cifra Cifra, CL Dukes, KC Ayres, et al.. Referral communication for pediatric intensive care unit admission and the diagnosis of critically ill children: a pilot ethnography. J Crit Care 2021 Jun;63:246-49. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.09.011..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Communications, Critical Care, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Diagnosis, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Zachrison KS, Li S, Reeves MJ
Strategy for reliable identification of ischaemic stroke, thrombolytics and thrombectomy in large administrative databases.
Administrative data are frequently used in stroke research. Ensuring accurate identification of patients who had an ischaemic stroke, and those receiving thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is critical to ensure representativeness and generalisability. In this study, the investigators examined differences in patient samples based on mode of identification, and proposed a strategy for future patient and procedure identification in large administrative databases.
Citation: Zachrison KS, Li S, Reeves MJ . Strategy for reliable identification of ischaemic stroke, thrombolytics and thrombectomy in large administrative databases. Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Jun;6(2):194-200. doi: 10.1136/svn-2020-000533..
Keywords: Stroke, Cardiovascular Conditions, Diagnosis
Michelson KA, Neuman MI, Pruitt CM
Height of fever and invasive bacterial infection.
This study evaluated the association of higher fevers with invasive bacterial infection (IBI) among febrile infants ≤60 days of age. Maximum temperatures of febrile infants with IBI were compared to infants without IBI. The median temperature was higher for infants with IBI (38.8°C) compared to those without IBI (38.4°C). Temperatures ranges of 39°C-39.4°C and 39.5°C-39.9°C were associated with a higher likelihood of IBI, although 30.4% of febrile infants with IBI had maximum temperatures <38.5°C.
AHRQ-funded; HS026006; HS026503.
Citation: Michelson KA, Neuman MI, Pruitt CM . Height of fever and invasive bacterial infection. Arch Dis Child 2021 Jun;106(6):594-96. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-318548..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Infectious Diseases, Diagnosis, Risk
Overstreet DS, Michl AN, Penn TM
Temporal summation of mechanical pain prospectively predicts movement-evoked pain severity in adults with chronic low back pain.
The objective of this study was to determine whether quantitative sensory tests of endogenous pain inhibition and facilitation prospectively predict movement-evoked pain and chronic low back pain severity self-reported on a validated questionnaire. Through surveys using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, findings suggested that a pro-nociceptive pain modulatory balance characterized by enhanced pain facilitation may be an important driver of movement-evoked pain severity and poor physical function in individuals with chronic low back pain.
Citation: Overstreet DS, Michl AN, Penn TM . Temporal summation of mechanical pain prospectively predicts movement-evoked pain severity in adults with chronic low back pain. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 10;22(1):429. doi: 10.1186/s12891-021-04306-5..
Keywords: Back Health and Pain, Pain, Chronic Conditions, Diagnosis
Campbell JI, Sandora TJ, Haberer JE
A scoping review of paediatric latent tuberculosis infection care cascades: initial steps are lacking.
This literature review looked at current studies on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric latent tuberculosis infection (TB infection), commonly known as the TB infection care cascade. The authors conducted a systematic search of several medical databases and included articles and meeting abstracts that studied children and adolescents 21 years or younger who were screened for or diagnosed with TB infection. They identified 146 studies examining steps in the pediatric TB infection care cascade, including 31 in children living in low- and middle-income countries. Most literature described the final cascade step, which is treatment initiation to completion. Strengths and gaps were identified and future research in examining cascade steps upstream of treatment initiation was recommended.
Citation: Campbell JI, Sandora TJ, Haberer JE . A scoping review of paediatric latent tuberculosis infection care cascades: initial steps are lacking. BMJ Glob Health 2021 May;6(5). doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004836..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Diagnosis, Treatments, Care Management, Evidence-Based Practice
Huda A, Castaño A, Niyogi A
A machine learning model for identifying patients at risk for wild-type transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy.
Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy, an often-unrecognized cause of heart failure, is now treatable with a transthyretin stabilizer. It is therefore important to identify at-risk patients who can undergo targeted testing for earlier diagnosis and treatment, prior to the development of irreversible heart failure. In this study, the investigators showed that a random forest machine learning model could identify potential wild-type transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy using medical claims data.
Citation: Huda A, Castaño A, Niyogi A . A machine learning model for identifying patients at risk for wild-type transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy. Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2725. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22876-9..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Neurological Disorders, Diagnosis, Risk
Asti L, Hopley C, Avelis C
The potential clinical and economic value of a human papillomavirus primary screening test that additionally identifies genotypes 31, 45, 51, and 52 individually.
This study looked at the potential clinical and economic value of a human papillomavirus (HPV) primary screening test that additionally identified genotypes 31,45,51, and 52 along with genotypes 16 and 18. The authors developed a Markov model of the HPV disease course and evaluated the clinical and economic value of HPV primary screening with Onclarity. Currently HPV primary screening results in 25,194 invasive procedures and 48 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases per 100,000 women. Screening with extended genotyping and later screening women with certain genotypes averted 903 to 3163 invasive procedures and results in 0 to 3 more ICC cases compared with current primary screening tests. Extended genotyping was cost effective when costing $75 and cost saving when costing $43. When the probabilities of disease progression increased 2-4 times, it was not cost-effective because it resulted in more ICC cases and accrued fewer quality-adjusted life-years.
Citation: Asti L, Hopley C, Avelis C . The potential clinical and economic value of a human papillomavirus primary screening test that additionally identifies genotypes 31, 45, 51, and 52 individually. Sex Transm Dis 2021 May;48(5):370-80. doi: 10.1097/olq.0000000000001327.
Keywords: Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases, Screening, Diagnosis, Genetics, Cancer: Cervical Cancer, Cancer, Women
Woo K, Adams V, Wilson P
Identifying urinary tract infection-related information in home care nursing notes.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in home care but not easily captured with standard assessment. This study aimed to examine the value of nursing notes in detecting UTI signs and symptoms in home care. The investigators found that information in nursing notes was often overlooked by stakeholders and not integrated into predictive modeling for decision-making support. They indicate that their findings highlighted the value of nursing notes in early risk identification and care guidance.
AHRQ-funded; R01 HS024723.
Citation: Woo K, Adams V, Wilson P . Identifying urinary tract infection-related information in home care nursing notes. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 May;22(5):1015-21.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.010..
Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Home Healthcare, Diagnosis
Goldfarb N, Lowes MA, Butt M
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Area and Severity Index Revised (HASI-R): psychometric property assessment.
This study’s objective was to assess the reliability and validity of the Hidradenitis suppurative (HS) Area and Severity Index Revised (HASI-R) tool to assess HS severity. This tool incorporates signs of inflammation and body surface area involved while current tools to measure severity relies on lesion counts, which are time-consuming and unreliable. Measurement properties of HASI-R were evaluated. Twenty raters evaluated 15 HS patients in a hospital-based ambulatory dermatology clinic. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the HASI-R and its components were assessed, as well as its construct and known-groups validity. The HASI-R was found to have moderate inter-rater reliability and the highest intra-rater reliability of all HS severity assessment tools. It also had good construct validity and demonstrated known-groups validity.
Citation: Goldfarb N, Lowes MA, Butt M . Hidradenitis Suppurativa Area and Severity Index Revised (HASI-R): psychometric property assessment. Br J Dermatol 2021 May;184(5):905-12. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19565..
Keywords: Skin Conditions, Diagnosis
Srivastava S, Clark B, Landy-Schmitt C
Repetitive and self-injurious behaviors in children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
Citation: Srivastava S, Clark B, Landy-Schmitt C . Repetitive and self-injurious behaviors in children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May;51(5):1748-58. doi: 10.1007/s10803-020-04617-x..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Neurological Disorders, Diagnosis
Rauscher GH, Murphy AM, Qiu Q
The "sweet spot" revisited: optimal recall rates for cancer detection with 2D and 3D digital screening mammography in the Metro Chicago Breast Cancer Registry.
The authors examined the trade-offs for higher recall rates in terms of biopsy recommendations and cancer detection in mammography in a single large health care organization. 2D analog, 2D digital, and 3D digital mammography screenings among women 40-79 years old with cancer follow-up were examined. They found that the results of their investigation were in contrast to those of a recent study suggesting appropriateness of higher recall rates. They concluded that optimal cancer detection appeared to be in the recall rate range of 7-9% for both 2D digital mammography and 3D tomosynthesis.
Citation: Rauscher GH, Murphy AM, Qiu Q . The "sweet spot" revisited: optimal recall rates for cancer detection with 2D and 3D digital screening mammography in the Metro Chicago Breast Cancer Registry. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Apr;216(4):894-902. doi: 10.2214/ajr.19.22429.
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Mammogram, Screening, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Diagnosis, Women, Prevention
Wayne MT, Molling D, Wang XQ
Measurement of sepsis in a national cohort using three different methods to define baseline organ function.
In 2017, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a new surveillance definition of sepsis, the adult sepsis event (ASE), to better track sepsis epidemiology. The objective of this study was to understand how sepsis identification and outcomes differed when using the best laboratory values during hospitalization versus methods that used historical lookbacks to define baseline organ function.
Citation: Wayne MT, Molling D, Wang XQ . Measurement of sepsis in a national cohort using three different methods to define baseline organ function. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Apr;18(4):648-55. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202009-1130OC..
Keywords: Sepsis, Diagnosis
Davis K, Wilbur K, Metzger S
Symptom and needs assessment screening in oncology patients: alternate outreach methods during COVID-19.
This initiative’s goal was to develop alternate outreach methods to cancer patients without access to an electronic portal during COVID-19. The authors implemented a standardized telephone outreach process targeting patients without active electronic portal accounts to improve remote symptom monitoring. A total of 172 screens were completed, identifying 110 needs for 63 individuals. Twenty-eight patients completed patient enrollment, with outreach calls capturing a higher percentage of Black patients (34%) and older adults age 61-80 years old (69%) compared to portal users.
Citation: Davis K, Wilbur K, Metzger S . Symptom and needs assessment screening in oncology patients: alternate outreach methods during COVID-19. J Psychosoc Oncol 2021;39(3):452-60. doi: 10.1080/07347332.2021.1890663..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer, Access to Care, Telehealth, Health Information Technology (HIT), Diagnosis
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction: diagnosis and management.
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the most common cause of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis. Although associated with obstruction of the kidney, the natural history is variable, ranging from spontaneous resolution to progressive loss of function over the first few years of life. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature focused on the prenatal and postnatal evaluation of infants with prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis suspicious for UPJO.
Citation: Vemulakonda VM . Ureteropelvic junction obstruction: diagnosis and management. Curr Opin Pediatr 2021 Apr 1;33(2):227-34. doi: 10.1097/mop.0000000000000994..
Keywords: Newborns/Infants, Pregnancy, Diagnosis
Jones OT, Calanzani N, Saji S
Artificial intelligence techniques that may be applied to primary care data to facilitate earlier diagnosis of cancer: systematic review.
This study’s objective was a systematic review of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques that might facilitate earlier diagnosis of cancer and could be applied to primary care electronic health record (EHR) data. Findings showed that AI techniques have been applied to EHR-type data to facilitate early diagnosis of cancer, but their use in primary care settings is still at an early stage of maturity. Further evidence is needed on their performance using primary care data, implementation barriers, and cost-effectiveness before widespread adoption into routine primary care clinical practice can be recommended.
Citation: Jones OT, Calanzani N, Saji S . Artificial intelligence techniques that may be applied to primary care data to facilitate earlier diagnosis of cancer: systematic review. J Med Internet Res 2021 Mar 3;23(3):e23483. doi: 10.2196/23483..
Keywords: Cancer, Diagnosis, Primary Care, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT)