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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 198 Research Studies Displayed
Chen H, Upadhyay N, Lyu N
Association of primary and behavioral health integrated care upon pediatric mental disorder treatment.
This study’s objective was to examine whether linkage with mental health (MH) treatment differed across 3 different integrated care agreements (ICAs) following diagnosis for Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) given by primary care providers (PCPs) in the pediatric setting. The ICAs were categorized as PCPs who practiced alone (non-co-located); PCPs practiced with specialist outside the practice but co-located at the practice site; and employed specialists who were co-located. A total of 4203 incident ADHD and 298 incident MDD diagnoses were identified, of which 74% of ADHD cases and 67% of MDD cases received treatment within 90 days of diagnosis. Children with ADHD were twice as likely to receive treatment if they were diagnosed by non-co-located or co-affiliated PCPs than those diagnosed by non-co-located PCPs. Those treated children were also 2 times more likely to receive guideline recommended psychotherapy and treated at the diagnosing site versus elsewhere.
Citation: Chen H, Upadhyay N, Lyu N . Association of primary and behavioral health integrated care upon pediatric mental disorder treatment. Acad Pediatr 2021 Sep-Oct;21(7):1187-94. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2021.05.021..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Behavioral Health, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Primary Care, Healthcare Delivery, Depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Jennissen S, Connolly Gibbons MB, Crits-Christoph P
Insight as a mechanism of change in dynamic therapy for major depressive disorder.
This study’s goal was to investigate change in insight into maladaptive interpersonal patterns over the course of psychotherapy, as well as the specificity of insight as a change mechanism in dynamic treatments. Participants received up to 16 sessions of either cognitive or dynamic therapy for major depressive disorder in a randomized clinical trial. Results provided support for insight as a change factor in dynamic therapies. Better self-understanding of dysfunctional interaction patterns could help patients to find more adaptive ways of behaving, to form more satisfying relationships, and to improve their depression.
Citation: Jennissen S, Connolly Gibbons MB, Crits-Christoph P . Insight as a mechanism of change in dynamic therapy for major depressive disorder. J Couns Psychol 2021 Jul;68(4):435-45. doi: 10.1037/cou0000554..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health
Wilkinson ST, Kitay BM, Harper A
Barriers to the implementation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): results from a nationwide survey of ECT practitioners.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for major depressive disorder; yet, its use is confined to <1% of individuals with this disorder. In this study, the authors aimed to examine barriers to ECT from the perspective of the provider. The investigators concluded that coordinated efforts to overcome identified barriers may allow ECT to be more broadly implemented. Investments in education may increase the number of competent practitioners.
Citation: Wilkinson ST, Kitay BM, Harper A . Barriers to the implementation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): results from a nationwide survey of ECT practitioners. Psychiatr Serv 2021 Jul;72(7):752-57. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.202000387..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Treatments
Adams LB, Baxter SLK, Lightfoot AF
Refining Black men's depression measurement using participatory approaches: a concept mapping study.
This study’s goal was to look at why prevalence of depression is lower for Black males despite cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and risk factors. For Black men, emotional vulnerability is often seen as a sign of weakness which may potentially mask the timely identification of mental health needs in this population. The authors use concept mapping, which is a structured mixed methods approach to determine how stakeholders of Black men’s health conceptualize their depressive symptoms. Thirty-six stakeholders comprised of Black men, Black women, and primary care providers participated in separate stakeholder groups in 2018. Participants generated 68 characteristics of Black men’s depression reflected in six conceptual clusters: 1) physical states; 2) emotional states; 3) diminished drive; 4) internal conflicts; 5) communication with others; and 6) social pressures. Using a content analysis approach, they found that items comprising the “social pressures” cluster were not reflected in any common depression scales.
Citation: Adams LB, Baxter SLK, Lightfoot AF . Refining Black men's depression measurement using participatory approaches: a concept mapping study. BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 22;21(1):1194. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11137-5..
Keywords: Men's Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Depression, Behavioral Health, Diagnosis
Levis B, Benedetti A, Ioannidis JPA
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores do not accurately estimate depression prevalence: individual participant data meta-analysis.
The authors compared PHQ-9 ≥10 prevalence to Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID) major depression prevalence and assessed whether an alternative PHQ-9 cutoff could more accurately estimate prevalence. They found that PHQ-9 ≥10 substantially overestimated depression prevalence, as there was too much heterogeneity to correct statistically in individual studies.
Citation: Levis B, Benedetti A, Ioannidis JPA . Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores do not accurately estimate depression prevalence: individual participant data meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 2020 Jun;122:115-28.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.02.002..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Diagnosis
Ruaño G, Tortora J, Robinson S
Subanalysis of the CYP-GUIDES trial: CYP2D6 functional stratification and operational timeline selection.
CYP-GUIDES (Cytochrome Psychotropic Genotyping Under Investigation for Decision Support) was a Randomized Controlled Trial comparing 2 outcomes in hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder treated according to the patient's CYP2D6 genotype and functional status versus standard psychotropic therapy. In this paper, the authors described a subanalysis of the CYP-GUIDES trial. They concluded that there was an effect of pharmacogenetic clinical decision support that reduced length of stay in patients with CYP2D6 subfunctional status and reduced prescribing of CYP2D6 substrate dependent drugs.
Citation: Ruaño G, Tortora J, Robinson S . Subanalysis of the CYP-GUIDES trial: CYP2D6 functional stratification and operational timeline selection. Psychiatry Res 2021 Mar;297:113571. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113571..
Keywords: Clinical Decision Support (CDS), Depression, Genetics, Medication, Behavioral Health
Kuperberg M, Katz D, Greenebaum SLA
Psychotic symptoms during bipolar depressive episodes and suicidal ideation.
Researchers examined the relationship between psychotic symptoms during a depressive episode and suicidal ideation in bipolar patients. Psychotic symptoms in adult, depressed outpatients with bipolar disorder (BD) in a comparative effectiveness study of quetiapine versus lithium were assessed via Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms Scale (BISS); depressive episodes were assessed via Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The researchers found that, while a small proportion of bipolar disorder outpatients had current symptoms of psychosis during their depressive episode, those who did were more likely to endorse active suicidal thoughts, including suicide methods and plans.
Citation: Kuperberg M, Katz D, Greenebaum SLA . Psychotic symptoms during bipolar depressive episodes and suicidal ideation. J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 1;282:1241-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.12.184..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Risk
Kohler-Forsberg O, Sylvia LG, Fung V
Adjunctive antidepressant treatment among 763 outpatients with bipolar disorder: findings from the Bipolar CHOICE and LiTMUS trials.
The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants. In this large cohort of outpatients with bipolar disorder, findings showed that clinically indicated and guideline-based adjunctive antidepressant treatment was not associated with lower depressive symptoms or higher mania symptoms.
Citation: Kohler-Forsberg O, Sylvia LG, Fung V . Adjunctive antidepressant treatment among 763 outpatients with bipolar disorder: findings from the Bipolar CHOICE and LiTMUS trials. Depress Anxiety 2021 Feb;38(2):114-23. doi: 10.1002/da.23069..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Antidepressant, Medication, Comparative Effectiveness, Evidence-Based Practice, Outcomes
Munger Clary HM, Croxton RD, Snively BM
Neurologist prescribing versus psychiatry referral: examining patient preferences for anxiety and depression management in a symptomatic epilepsy clinic sample.
The objective of this study was to determine patient preference for anxiety and/or depression prescribing by neurologists versus psychiatry referral among an adult epilepsy clinic sample of symptomatic patients. Findings showed that most patients indicated a preference for neurologists to prescribe for anxiety or depression symptoms in the epilepsy clinic. Care models involving neurologist prescribing for anxiety and depression symptoms merit further investigation and potential adoption in clinical practice.
Citation: Munger Clary HM, Croxton RD, Snively BM . Neurologist prescribing versus psychiatry referral: examining patient preferences for anxiety and depression management in a symptomatic epilepsy clinic sample. Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jan;114(Pt A):107543. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107543..
Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, Behavioral Health, Neurological Disorders
Rapp AM, Chavira DA, Sugar CA
Incorporating family factors into treatment planning for adolescent depression: perceived parental criticism predicts longitudinal symptom trajectory in the Youth Partners in Care trial.
This study aimed to clarify the predictive significance of youth perceptions of parental criticism assessed using a brief measure designed to enhance clinical utility. The investigators hypothesized that high perceived parental criticism would be associated with more severe depression over 18-months of follow-up. The investigators concluded that results did support perceived parental criticism as a predictor of youth depression outcomes over 18-months.
Citation: Rapp AM, Chavira DA, Sugar CA . Incorporating family factors into treatment planning for adolescent depression: perceived parental criticism predicts longitudinal symptom trajectory in the Youth Partners in Care trial. J Affect Disord 2021 Jan 1;278:46-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.028..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Depression, Behavioral Health, Care Management
Bobo WV, Ryu E, Petterson TM
Bi-directional association between depression and HF: an electronic health records-based cohort study.
This study examined whether heart failure (HF) patients were more likely to be diagnosed with depression, or patients with depression were more likely to be diagnosed with HF. This retrospective cohort study utilized electronic health records (EHRs) from a large healthcare system in 2006 for adults who received primary care services. The EHR identified 10,649 people with depression, and 5,911 people with HF between 2006 to 2018. In the depression cohort there were 2,024 newly diagnosed occurrences of HF, and 944 occurrences of newly diagnosed depression in the HF cohort over 4-6 years of follow-up. There was a significantly higher risk of developing HF in the depression cohort than vice versa.
Citation: Bobo WV, Ryu E, Petterson TM . Bi-directional association between depression and HF: an electronic health records-based cohort study. J Comorb 2020 Jan-Dec;10:2235042x20984059. doi: 10.1177/2235042x20984059..
Keywords: Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Depression, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Chronic Conditions
Liu FF, Lew A, Andes E
Implementation strategies for depression and anxiety screening in a pediatric cystic fibrosis center: a quality improvement project.
The objective of this study was to share key strategies that led to successful mental health screening (MHS) implementation in one pediatric cystic fibrosis center and to report implementation and screening outcomes. Results showed that leveraging coproduction to address stakeholder needs led to successful implementation of a sustainable MHS process.
Citation: Liu FF, Lew A, Andes E . Implementation strategies for depression and anxiety screening in a pediatric cystic fibrosis center: a quality improvement project. Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Dec;55(12):3328-36. doi: 10.1002/ppul.24951..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Respiratory Conditions, Chronic Conditions, Depression, Anxiety, Behavioral Health, Screening, Implementation, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Diagnosis
Radovic A, Odenthal K, Flores AT
Prescribing technology to increase uptake of depression treatment in primary care: a pre-implementation focus group study of SOVA (Supporting Our Valued Adolescents).
Supporting Our Valued Adolescents (SOVA) is a web-based technology intervention designed to increase depression and anxiety treatment uptake by adolescents in the context of an anonymous peer community with an accompanying website for parents. With a goal of informing the design of a hybrid effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial, we conducted a pre-implementation study in two primary care practices to guide implementation strategy development. We conducted focus groups with primary care providers (PCPs) at three different timepoints with PCPs (14 total) from two community practices.
Citation: Radovic A, Odenthal K, Flores AT . Prescribing technology to increase uptake of depression treatment in primary care: a pre-implementation focus group study of SOVA (Supporting Our Valued Adolescents). J Clin Psychol Med Settings 2020 Dec;27(4):766-82. doi: 10.1007/s10880-019-09669-5.
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Depression, Anxiety, Behavioral Health, Primary Care, Health Information Technology (HIT), Implementation
Guglielminotti J, Li G
Exposure to general anesthesia for cesarean delivery and odds of severe postpartum depression requiring hospitalization.
This retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of general anesthesia use in cesarean delivery versus neuraxial anesthesia on maternal mental health. Cesarean deliveries performed in New York State hospitals between 2006 and 2013 were included. Exclusion criteria included having more than 1 cesarean delivery during the study period, residing outside of New York State, and having a general anesthetic for other surgery or delivery in the year before or after the index case. The primary outcome looked at was severe postpartum depression (PPD), and secondary outcomes were suicidal ideation, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The majority of cesareans used neuraxial anesthesia and only 8% (34,356) had general anesthesia. Severe PPD requiring hospitalization occurred in 1158 women with 60% identified during readmission. General anesthesia was found to be associated with a 54% increased odds of PPD, and a 91% increased odds of suicidal ideation or self-inflicted injury. There was insufficient evidence for increased risk of anxiety orders.
Citation: Guglielminotti J, Li G . Exposure to general anesthesia for cesarean delivery and odds of severe postpartum depression requiring hospitalization. Anesth Analg 2020 Nov;131(5):1421-29. doi: 10.1213/ane.0000000000004663..
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Pregnancy, Women, Depression, Behavioral Health, Surgery, Risk, Hospitalization, Medication, Adverse Drug Events (ADE), Adverse Events
Orth J, Li Y, Simning A
Severe behavioral health manifestations in nursing homes: associations with service availability?
The objective of this study was to examine associations between availability of behavioral health (BH) services and the presence of severe depression, suicidal ideation (SI), and severe aggressive behaviors (ABs) among nursing home (NH) residents. 2017 survey data on BH service availability was obtained from 1,051 NHs and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) to identify long-term stay residents in these facilities (n = 101,238). Odds of severe depression were 21% higher when NHs reported inadequate BH staff education as well as 13% higher for SI and 10% higher for severe ABs among residents in facilities reporting inadequate facility infrastructure. Facility-level factors such as staffing, training, and turnover were also statistically significant associations with these severe BH manifestations.
Citation: Orth J, Li Y, Simning A . Severe behavioral health manifestations in nursing homes: associations with service availability? J Am Geriatr Soc 2020 Nov;68(11):2643-49. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16772..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Long-Term Care, Depression, Behavioral Health, Access to Care
Fung V, Price M, Nierenberg AA
Assessment of behavioral health services use among low-income Medicare beneficiaries after reductions in coinsurance fees.
This study looked at outcomes from reducing behavioral health care Medicare coinsurance from 50% to 20% from 2009 to 2013. The sample of patients looked at included some diagnosed with SMI (serious mental illness) including schizophrenia, bipolar, or major depressive disorder). Data analysis was performed on 793,275 beneficiaries with SMI in 2008 and compared them with costs in 2013. The mean adjusted out-of-pocket costs for outpatient behavioral care decreased from $132 annually to $64, but the number of visits only increased slightly. No association was found between cost-sharing reductions and changes in behavioral health care visits.
Citation: Fung V, Price M, Nierenberg AA . Assessment of behavioral health services use among low-income Medicare beneficiaries after reductions in coinsurance fees. JAMA Netw Open 2020 Oct;3(10):e2019854. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19854..
Keywords: Medicare, Health Insurance, Depression, Behavioral Health, Low-Income, Healthcare Costs, Healthcare Utilization
Baik D, Liu J, Cho H
Factors related to biological sex differences in engagement with healthcare providers in persons living with HIV.
Investigators conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from four projects focused on improving health outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLWH). They found that male patients displayed negative association between depression and engagement with healthcare providers and positive association between engagement with healthcare providers and medication adherence, while female patients showed no association between any of these factors. Anxiety and stigma were not significantly associated with medication adherence. They concluded that adherence interventions for PLWH should be tailored by biological sex.
Citation: Baik D, Liu J, Cho H . Factors related to biological sex differences in engagement with healthcare providers in persons living with HIV. AIDS Behav 2020 Sep;24(9):2656-65. doi: 10.1007/s10461-020-02823-3..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Sex Factors, Patient and Family Engagement, Patient Adherence/Compliance, Depression, Behavioral Health, Medication
Katon JG, Callegari LS, Bossick AS
Association of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder with receipt of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uterine fibroids: findings from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
Researchers sought to examine whether depression and PTSD are associated with minimally invasive hysterectomy (MIH). Studying veterans with uterine fibroids undergoing hysterectomy in the Department of Veterans Affairs between 2012 and 2014, they found that veterans with depression or PTSD were more likely that those without to have a MIH, possibly owing to smaller uterine size, suggesting that they may be undergoing hysterectomy earlier in the disease process. They recommended further research to understand whether this reflects high-quality, patient-centered care.
Citation: Katon JG, Callegari LS, Bossick AS . Association of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder with receipt of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uterine fibroids: findings from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Womens Health Issues 2020 Sep-Oct;30(5):359-65. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2020.06.005..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Women, Veterans
Bolstad CJ, Moak R, Brown CJ
Neighborhood disadvantage is associated with depressive symptoms but not depression diagnosis in older adults.
This study tested how neighborhood disadvantage (ND) relates to depressive symptomology and diagnosis to assess for neighborhood disparities in mental health care cross-sectionally. Using data from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, the investigators found living in the high and mid-ND tertiles to be associated with depressive symptomology, yet ND had no significant relation to depression diagnosis. They concluded that older adults living in high and mid-disadvantaged neighborhoods may be more likely to experience depressive symptomology but not receive a diagnosis, indicating a possible disparity in mental health care.
Citation: Bolstad CJ, Moak R, Brown CJ . Neighborhood disadvantage is associated with depressive symptoms but not depression diagnosis in older adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Aug 8;17(16). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17165745..
Keywords: Elderly, Depression, Behavioral Health, Diagnosis, Disparities, Socioeconomic Factors
Darling KE, Ranzenhofer LM, Hadley W
Negative childhood experiences and disordered eating in adolescents in a weight management program: the role of depressive symptoms.
This cross-sectional study examined the association between stressful life events and weight-related outcomes including weight status, disordered eating behaviors, and insulin sensitivity in treatment-seeking adolescents with overweight and obesity. The authors were also looking at the potential mediating role of depression. The study included 170 adolescents (mean age 14.8, 62% female) enrolled in an interdisciplinary weight management program. Findings were that stressful childhood experiences were significantly related to weight status and disordered eating but not insulin sensitivity. Depressive symptoms were related to stressful experiences and disordered eating patterns but not weight status or insulin sensitivity.
Citation: Darling KE, Ranzenhofer LM, Hadley W . Negative childhood experiences and disordered eating in adolescents in a weight management program: the role of depressive symptoms. Eat Behav 2020 Aug;38:101402. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2020.101402..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Obesity: Weight Management, Obesity, Stress, Depression, Behavioral Health, Trauma
Rhee TG, Olfson M, Sint K
Characterization of the quality of electroconvulsive therapy among older Medicare beneficiaries.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an important therapy for treatment-resistant depression and is especially effective for elderly individuals with depression. This study provides the first US nationally representative description of ECT in the elderly. The investigators concluded that despite substantial evidence of efficacy, ECT use remained rare among elderly patients with depression.
Citation: Rhee TG, Olfson M, Sint K . Characterization of the quality of electroconvulsive therapy among older Medicare beneficiaries. J Clin Psychiatry 2020 Jul 7;81(4). doi: 10.4088/JCP.19m13186.
Keywords: Elderly, Medicare, Depression, Behavioral Health, Treatments, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Gliklich RE, Leavy MB, Cosgrove L
AHRQ Author: Berliner E
Harmonized outcome measures for use in depression patient registries and clinical practice.
This project’s goal was to develop a minimum set of standardized outcome measures relevant to both patients and clinicians that can be collected in depression registries and clinical practice. A multi-stakeholder panel categorized the 27 identified measures using AHRQ's supported Outcome Measures Framework. The panel then identified 10 broadly relevant measures and harmonized definitions for these measures. These harmonized measures represent a minimum set of outcomes that are relevant to clinicians and patients and appropriate for use in depression research and clinical practice.
AHRQ-authored; AHRQ-funded; 290201400004C.
Citation: Gliklich RE, Leavy MB, Cosgrove L . Harmonized outcome measures for use in depression patient registries and clinical practice. Ann Intern Med 2020 Jun 16;172(12):803-09. doi: 10.7326/m19-3818..
Keywords: Registries, Depression, Behavioral Health, Outcomes, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
Jannat-Khah DP, Khodneva Y, Bryant K
Depressive symptoms do not discriminate: racial and economic influences between time-varying depressive symptoms and mortality among REGARDS participants.
This study examined whether time-varying depressive symptoms (TVDS) predict mortality and if racial and income differences moderate the association in a large cohort. The cohort from the REGARDS study was used to look at that determination. The REGARDS study used community-dwelling U.S. adults aged 45 years or older. They found that there was similar and statistically significant differences with white, black, and low-income ($35,000 or less) participants for the association between TVDS and mortality. High-income participants were found to have a lower hazard.
Citation: Jannat-Khah DP, Khodneva Y, Bryant K . Depressive symptoms do not discriminate: racial and economic influences between time-varying depressive symptoms and mortality among REGARDS participants. Ann Epidemiol 2020 Jun;46:31-40.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.04.004..
Keywords: Depression, Behavioral Health, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer, Low-Income, Socioeconomic Factors, Mortality
Erim DO, Bennett AV, Gaynes BN
Associations between prostate cancer-related anxiety and health-related quality of life.
This study followed prostate cancer patients who were enrolled in the cohort study North Cancer Prostate Cancer Comparative Effectiveness & Survivorship Study (NC ProCess) from January 2011 and June 2013. A 1-year follow-up survey was done to assess prostate cancer-related anxiety (PCRA) in the cohort. The researchers were interested in the association between PCRA and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The risk of probable depression was significantly higher in participants with clinically significant PCRA compared with those without it.
Citation: Erim DO, Bennett AV, Gaynes BN . Associations between prostate cancer-related anxiety and health-related quality of life. Cancer Med 2020 Jun;9(12):4467-73. doi: 10.1002/cam4.3069..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Anxiety, Quality of Life, Men's Health, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Depression, Evidence-Based Practice
Davoudian PA, Wilkinson ST
Clinical overview of NMDA-R antagonists and clinical practice.
This study examines the promise of new therapies for treatment of depression, which is only treatable about half the time with medication. Recent research has found that therapies that target the glutamatergic system, especially NMDA receptor antagonists have shown efficacy in several clinical trials. The authors specifically discuss treatment using ketamine as well as other newer compounds that have also shown recent promise in clinical trials.
Citation: Davoudian PA, Wilkinson ST . Clinical overview of NMDA-R antagonists and clinical practice. Adv Pharmacol 2020;89:103-29. doi: 10.1016/bs.apha.2020.04.004..
Keywords: Antidepressant, Medication, Depression, Behavioral Health, Treatments