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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 92 Research Studies Displayed
Hou Y, Bushnell CD, Duncan PW
Hospital to home transition for patients with stroke under bundled payments.
In this paper, the authors describe COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS), a comprehensive transitional care intervention focused on discharge from the acute care setting to home. The COMPASS care model is aligned with the incentive structures and essential components of bundled payments in terms of care coordination, patient assessment, patient and family involvement, and continuity of care. They concluded that ongoing evaluation will inform the design of incorporating COMPASS-like transitional care interventions into a stroke bundle.
AHRQ-funded; R01 HS025723.
Citation: Hou Y, Bushnell CD, Duncan PW . Hospital to home transition for patients with stroke under bundled payments. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Aug;102(8):1658-64. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2021.03.010..
Keywords: Transitions of Care, Stroke, Cardiovascular Conditions, Rehabilitation, Care Coordination
Okado I, Pagano I, Cassel K
Perceptions of care coordination in cancer patient-family caregiver dyads.
The authors examined cancer patients and their family caregivers' perspectives of care coordination (CC) using a dyadic research design. They found that a subgroup of family caregivers reported poorer perception of CC than patients, suggesting that those family caregivers and providers may benefit from intervention. They concluded that further understanding of patient-family caregiver dyads' perspectives of CC can inform development of strategies to integrate family caregivers into the cancer care team, develop effective CC interventions for family caregivers, and contribute to improved quality and value of cancer care.
Citation: Okado I, Pagano I, Cassel K . Perceptions of care coordination in cancer patient-family caregiver dyads. Support Care Cancer 2021 May;29(5):2645-52. doi: 10.1007/s00520-020-05764-8..
Keywords: Cancer, Caregiving, Care Coordination, Quality of Care
Kuo YF, Agrawal P, Chou LN
Assessing association between team structure and health outcome and cost by social network analysis.
Researchers sought to assess the impact of team structure composition and degree of collaboration among various providers on process and outcomes of primary care. Their findings showed that highly connected primary care practices with high collaborative care and less top-down MD-centered authority have lower odds of hospitalization, fewer emergency room admissions, and lower total spending. They concluded that these findings likely reflect better communication and more coordinated care of older patients.
Citation: Kuo YF, Agrawal P, Chou LN . Assessing association between team structure and health outcome and cost by social network analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Apr;69(4):946-54. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16962..
Keywords: Elderly, Teams, Healthcare Delivery, Primary Care, Primary Care: Models of Care, Care Coordination
Feinberg E, Kuhn J, Eilenberg JS
Improving family navigation for children with autism: a comparison of two pilot randomized controlled trials.
This study looked at impacts of a modification to a pilot program called Family Navigation to help low-income, minority children needing autism-related diagnostic services receive those services. An advisory group recommended modifications to recruitment criteria and study conditions. 40 parent-child dyad participants were randomized between the two pilots to receive usual care (UC) or modified FN. Participant enrollment, satisfaction with clinical care, and timely completion of the diagnostic assessment were compared. Recruitment improved significantly with the modified protocol (4.8% vs. 19.5%) and no participants were excluded from study enrollment compared to the first pilot (43.6%). Families in the second pilot were more likely to complete diagnostic assessment and report greater satisfaction with clinical care.
AHRQ-funded; HS022155; HS022242.
Citation: Feinberg E, Kuhn J, Eilenberg JS . Improving family navigation for children with autism: a comparison of two pilot randomized controlled trials. Acad Pediatr 2021 Mar;21(2):265-71. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2020.04.007..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Autism, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Care Coordination, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Low-Income, Patient and Family Engagement, Chronic Conditions
Ozkaynak M, Valdez R, Hannah K
Understanding gaps between daily living and clinical settings in chronic disease management: qualitative study.
This study’s objective was to characterize gaps from the patient’s perspective between health-related activities across home-based and clinical settings in the management of chronic conditions. Patients were recruited from an anticoagulation clinic of an urban, western mountain system and primary interviews were conducted with 39 patients and 4 providers. The causes of gaps included clinician recommendations not fitting into patients’ daily routines; recommendations not fitting into a patients’ living contexts; and no information transfer across settings. Consequences of these gaps included increased cognitive and physical workload on the patient, poor patient satisfaction, and compromised adherence to the therapy plan.
Citation: Ozkaynak M, Valdez R, Hannah K . Understanding gaps between daily living and clinical settings in chronic disease management: qualitative study. J Med Internet Res 2021 Feb 25;23(2):e17590. doi: 10.2196/17590..
Keywords: Chronic Conditions, Care Management, Care Coordination, Patient Self-Management, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Sather J, Littauer R, Finn E
A multimodal intervention to improve the quality and safety of interhospital care transitions for nontraumatic intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Regionalization of care has increased interhospital transfers (IHTs) of nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to specialized centers yet exposes patients to the latent risks inherent to IHT. In this study, the researchers examined how a multimodal quality improvement intervention affected quality and safety measures for patients with ICH or SAH exposed to IHT.
Citation: Sather J, Littauer R, Finn E . A multimodal intervention to improve the quality and safety of interhospital care transitions for nontraumatic intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2021 Feb;47(2):99-106. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2020.10.003..
Keywords: Transitions of Care, Hospitals, Patient Safety, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Care Coordination
Wang G, Wignall J, Kinard D
An implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans for children with medical complexity.
In this study, the investigators aimed to iteratively refine an implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans (LCPs) for children with medical complexity (CMC). They conducted iterative 1-on-1 design sessions with CMC caregivers (ie, parents/legal guardians) and providers between August 2017 and March 2019. The investigators concluded that utilizing the management strategies, described in the article, when implementing cloud-based LCPs had the potential to improve team-based care across settings.
Citation: Wang G, Wignall J, Kinard D . An implementation model for managing cloud-based longitudinal care plans for children with medical complexity. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Jan 15;28(1):23-32. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa207..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Implementation, Chronic Conditions, Care Management, Care Coordination, Health Information Exchange (HIE), Health Information Technology (HIT), Teams
Desai AD, Wang G, Wignall J
User-centered design of a longitudinal care plan for children with medical complexity.
This study’s goal was to determine content priorities and design preferences for a longitudinal care plan (LCP) among caregivers and healthcare providers who care for children with complex medical conditions (CMC) in acute care settings. Thirty iterative one-on-one design sessions with 10 caregivers and 20 providers were conducted. There was high within-group variability in content preferences among caregivers compared to provider groups. The authors identified 6 design preferences: a familiar yet customizable layout, a problem-based organization schema, linked content between sections, a table layout for most sections, a balance between unstructured and structured data fields, and use of family-centered terminology.
Citation: Desai AD, Wang G, Wignall J . User-centered design of a longitudinal care plan for children with medical complexity. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2020 Dec 9;27(12):1860-70. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa193..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Chronic Conditions, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Care Coordination, Caregiving
Quigley DD, Qureshi N, Masarweh LA
Practice leaders report targeting several types of changes in care experienced by patients during patient-centered medical home transformation.
This study looked at how primary care practices implemented changes during the transition to becoming a patient-centered medical home (PCMH). The authors examined 105 primary care practice leader experiences during PCMH transformation using semi-structured interviews. Practices most commonly targeted changes in care coordination (30%), access to care (25%), and provider communication (24%). Reported areas for PCMH transformation were measured by Clinician & Group CAHPS, PCMH CAHPS, or supplemental CAHPS survey items, including team-based care (35%), providing more on-site services (28%), care management (22%), patient-centered culture (18%), and chronic condition health education (13%). Many PCMH changes are captured by CAHPS survey items, but some are not.
Citation: Quigley DD, Qureshi N, Masarweh LA . Practice leaders report targeting several types of changes in care experienced by patients during patient-centered medical home transformation. J Patient Exp 2020 Dec;7(6):1509-18. doi: 10.1177/2374373520934231..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Primary Care: Models of Care, Primary Care, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient Experience, Care Coordination, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care, Implementation
Guo F, Lin YL, Raji M
Processes and outcomes of diabetes mellitus care by different types of team primary care models.
This study compared processes and outcomes of care provided to older patients with diabetes by primary care teams composed of only primary care physicians (PCPs) versus team care that included nurse practitioners (NPs) or physician assistants (PAs). The authors studied 3,524 primary care practices identified via social network analysis and 306,741 patients aged 66 and older diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in or before 2015 from Medicare data. Outcomes looked for was more adherence to guideline-recommended care including eye examination, hemoglobin A1c test, and nephropathy monitoring. Preventable hospitalizations and high-risk medication prescribing rates were also measured. Patients in the team care practices received more guideline-recommended diabetes care than patients in PCP only teams. Patients in team care practices had a slightly higher likelihood of being prescribed high-risk medications. The likelihood of preventable hospitalizations was similar among all types of practices.
Citation: Guo F, Lin YL, Raji M . Processes and outcomes of diabetes mellitus care by different types of team primary care models. PLoS One 2020 Nov 5;15(11):e0241516. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241516..
Keywords: Elderly, Teams, Primary Care: Models of Care, Healthcare Delivery, Outcomes, Care Coordination, Practice Patterns
Lindly OJ, Martin AJ, Lally K
A profile of care coordination, missed school days, and unmet needs among Oregon children with special health care needs with behavioral and mental health conditions.
In order to inform Oregon's Title V needs assessment activities, researchers sought to characterize the state's subpopulation of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) with behavioral and mental health conditions (B/MHC) and to determine associations of care coordination with missed school days and unmet needs for this subpopulation. They found that among Oregon CSHCN with B/MHC, 48.9% missed 4 or more school days, 25% had one or more unmet health services need, and 14.8% had one or more unmet family support services need. They concluded that their approach to identify Oregon CSHCN with B/MHC may be adopted by other states endeavoring to improve health for this vulnerable subpopulation.
Citation: Lindly OJ, Martin AJ, Lally K . A profile of care coordination, missed school days, and unmet needs among Oregon children with special health care needs with behavioral and mental health conditions. Community Ment Health J 2020 Nov;56(8):1571-80. doi: 10.1007/s10597-020-00609-4..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Disabilities, Behavioral Health, Care Coordination, Healthcare Delivery
Shannon EM, Schnipper JL, Mueller SK
Identifying racial/ethnic disparities in interhospital transfer: an observational study.
Interhospital transfer (IHT) is often performed to provide patients with specialized care. Racial/ethnic disparities in IHT have been suggested but are not well-characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and IHT. The investigators found that Black and Hispanic patients had lower odds of IHT, largely explained by a higher likelihood of being hospitalized at urban teaching hospitals. Racial/ethnic disparities in transfer were demonstrated at community hospitals, in certain geographic regions and among patients with specific diseases.
Citation: Shannon EM, Schnipper JL, Mueller SK . Identifying racial/ethnic disparities in interhospital transfer: an observational study. J Gen Intern Med 2020 Oct;35(10):2939-46. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06046-z..
Keywords: Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Disparities, Transitions of Care, Hospitals, Care Coordination
Berry JG, Glaspy T, Eagan B
Pediatric complex care and surgery comanagement: preparation for spinal fusion.
This study assessed the impact of preoperative comanagement with complex care pediatricians (CCP) on children with neuromuscular scoliosis undergoing spinal fusion surgery. A chart review of 79 children aged 5-21 years undergoing spinal fusion Jan. 2014-June 2016 was conducted at a children’s hospital. Cerebral palsy (64%) was the most common neuromuscular condition with the mean age of surgery of 14 years. Thirty-nine children had a preoperative CCP evaluation a median 63 days before the preanesthesia visit. More organ systems were affected by coexisting conditions in children with CCP evaluation than those without an evaluation. The rate of last-minute care coordination activities required for surgical clearance as well as last-minute development of new preoperative plans were lower for children with CCP evaluation than those without.
Citation: Berry JG, Glaspy T, Eagan B . Pediatric complex care and surgery comanagement: preparation for spinal fusion. J Child Health Care 2020 Sep;24(3):402-10. doi: 10.1177/1367493519864741..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Surgery, Care Management, Care Coordination
Callister C, Jones J, Schroeder S
Caregiver experiences of care coordination for recently discharged patients: a qualitative metasynthesis.
Caregivers of patients often provide key support for patients after hospitalization. This qualitative metasynthesis described caregiver perspectives about care coordination for patients discharged from the hospital. A literature search of Ovid Medline and CINAHL completed on May 23, 2018, identified 1,546 studies. Twelve articles were included in the final metasynthesis. Caregiver perspectives about care coordination were compiled into overall themes.
Citation: Callister C, Jones J, Schroeder S . Caregiver experiences of care coordination for recently discharged patients: a qualitative metasynthesis. West J Nurs Res 2020 Aug;42(8):649-59. doi: 10.1177/0193945919880183..
Keywords: Caregiving, Care Coordination, Hospital Discharge, Home Healthcare
White EM, Kosar CM, Rahman M
Trends in hospitals and skilled nursing facilities sharing medical providers, 2008-16.
Hospitals and skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) face increasing pressure to improve care coordination and reduce unnecessary readmissions. One strategy to accomplish this is to share physicians and advanced practice clinicians, so that the same providers see patients in both settings. Using 2008-16 Medicare claims, the investigators found that as SNFs moved increasingly toward using SNF specialists, there was a steady decline in the number of facilities sharing medical providers and in the proportion of SNF primary care delivered by provider practices with both hospital and SNF clinicians (hospital-SNF practices).
AHRQ-funded; T32 HS000011.
Citation: White EM, Kosar CM, Rahman M . Trends in hospitals and skilled nursing facilities sharing medical providers, 2008-16. Health Aff 2020 Aug;39(8):1312-20. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01502..
Keywords: Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Care Coordination, Healthcare Delivery
Amar-Dolan LG, Horn MH, O'Connell B B
"This is how hard it is". family experience of hospital-to-home transition with a tracheostomy.
This study explores the experience of family caregivers of children and young adults with a tracheostomy during the transition from hospital to home care. Researchers sought to identify the specific unmet needs of families to direct future interventions. Using semi-structured interviews, they found a need for family-centered discharge processes including coordination of care and teaching focused on emergency preparedness.
Citation: Amar-Dolan LG, Horn MH, O'Connell B B . "This is how hard it is". family experience of hospital-to-home transition with a tracheostomy. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020 Jul;17(7):860-68. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201910-780OC..
Keywords: Transitions of Care, Home Healthcare, Caregiving, Patient Experience, Care Coordination, Hospital Discharge, Hospitals, Children/Adolescents, Patient-Centered Healthcare
Campbell Britton M, Petersen-Pickett J, Hodshon B
Mapping the care transition from hospital to skilled nursing facility.
Researchers used process mapping to illustrate the sequence of events involved with hospital discharge and admission to a skilled nursing facility (SNF). These transitions are often associated with breakdowns in communication that may place patients at risk for adverse events. A quality improvement (QI) team worked with frontline staff at an academic medical center and two local SNFs in the northeastern United States. The final process map included care management, medicine, nursing, admissions and physical therapy service staff. The process map showed numerous activities that need to be coordinated between care teams, and highlighted specific opportunities for improving communication between different teams.
Citation: Campbell Britton M, Petersen-Pickett J, Hodshon B . Mapping the care transition from hospital to skilled nursing facility. J Eval Clin Pract 2020 Jun;26(3):786-90. doi: 10.1111/jep.13238..
Keywords: Transitions of Care, Care Coordination, Quality Improvement, Communications, Hospital Discharge, Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Quality of Care
Nembhard IM, Buta E, Lee YSH
A quasi-experiment assessing the six-months effects of a nurse care coordination program on patient care experiences and clinician teamwork in community health centers.
The authors assessed effects of adding care coordination formally to nurses’ roles on care experiences of high-risk patients and clinician teamwork during the first 6 months of use. They conducted a quasi-experimental study in which changes in staff and patient experiences at six community health center practice locations that introduced the added-role approach for high-risk patients were compared to changes in six locations without the program in the same health system. They found that there were some positive effects of adding care coordination to nurses' role within 6 months of implementation, suggesting value in this improvement strategy. They concluded that addressing compatibility between coordination and other job demands is important when implementing this approach to coordination.
Citation: Nembhard IM, Buta E, Lee YSH . A quasi-experiment assessing the six-months effects of a nurse care coordination program on patient care experiences and clinician teamwork in community health centers. BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Feb 24;20(1):137. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-4986-0..
Keywords: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), Care Coordination, Nursing, Patient Experience, Community-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Outpatient Care, Teams
Heeringa J, Mutti A, Furukawa MF
AHRQ Author: Furukawa MF
Horizontal and vertical integration of health care providers: a framework for understanding various provider organizational structures.
The authors conducted a narrative review of 10 years of literature to identify definitional components of key organizational structures in the United States. They found that U.S. policymakers seek to promote provider integration and coordination. They conclude that emerging evidence suggested that organizational structures, composition, and other characteristics influence cost and quality performance. They recommend future research to examine systematically the role of organizational structure in cost and quality outcomes.
Citation: Heeringa J, Mutti A, Furukawa MF . Horizontal and vertical integration of health care providers: a framework for understanding various provider organizational structures. Int J Integr Care 2020 Jan 20;20(1):2. doi: 10.5334/ijic.4635.
Keywords: Healthcare Systems, Healthcare Delivery, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Care Coordination, Organization and Administration, Policy
Rosa TD, Possin KL, Bernstein A
Variations in costs of a collaborative care model for dementia.
Care coordination programs can improve patient outcomes and decrease healthcare expenditures; however, implementation costs are poorly understood. In this study, the investigators evaluated the direct costs of implementing a collaborative dementia care program. They found that care team navigators caseload was an important driver of service cost. They provide strategies for maximizing caseload without sacrificing quality of care and discuss current barriers to broad implementation that can inform new reimbursement policies.
Citation: Rosa TD, Possin KL, Bernstein A . Variations in costs of a collaborative care model for dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 Dec;67(12):2628-33. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16076.
Keywords: Dementia, Healthcare Costs, Care Coordination, Elderly, Care Management, Implementation, Teams
Derrett S, Gunter KE, Samaranayaka A
Development and testing of the Provider and Staff Perceptions of Integrated Care (PSPIC) Survey.
The authors developed and tested a 21-item questionnaire titled Provider and Staff Perceptions of Integrated Care Survey. The questionnaire was sent to 2,936 providers and staff at 100 federally qualified health centers and other clinics in Midwestern U.S. States, of which 2,604 were deemed eligible. Four mailings were conducted with a 30% response rate from 97 health centers. Four latent factors were suggested: Teams and Care Continuity, Patient Centeredness, Coordination with External Providers, and Coordination with Community Resources.
Citation: Derrett S, Gunter KE, Samaranayaka A . Development and testing of the Provider and Staff Perceptions of Integrated Care (PSPIC) Survey. Med Care Res Rev 2019 Dec;76(6):807-29. doi: 10.1177/1077558717745936..
Keywords: Provider, Care Coordination, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Teams
Sobotka SA, Lynch E, Quinn MT
Unmet respite needs of children with medical technology dependence.
Children with medical technology dependency (MTD) require a medical device to compensate for a vital body function and substantial nursing care. As such, they require constant high-level supervision. Respite care provides caregivers with a temporary break, and is associated with reduced stress; however, there are often barriers. The study utilizes mixed methodology with the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) and semistructured interviews with state-wide care coordinators to understand the gap for respite care services.
Citation: Sobotka SA, Lynch E, Quinn MT . Unmet respite needs of children with medical technology dependence. Clin Pediatr 2019 Oct;58(11-12):1175-86. doi: 10.1177/0009922819870251..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Medical Devices, Disabilities, Caregiving, Home Healthcare, Care Coordination
Campbell Britton M, Hodshon B, Chaudhry SI
Implementing a warm handoff between hospital and skilled nursing facility clinicians.
This study focused on increasing better communication during transfers from hospitals and skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Warm handoffs between hospital and SNF physicians was implemented. Participation in warm handoffs gradually increased – starting at 15.78% in stage 1 and increasing to 46.89% in stage 3. A total of 2417 patient discharges were included in this study.
Citation: Campbell Britton M, Hodshon B, Chaudhry SI . Implementing a warm handoff between hospital and skilled nursing facility clinicians. J Patient Saf 2019 Sep;15(3):198-204. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000529..
Keywords: Communications, Patient Safety, Hospital Discharge, Transitions of Care, Care Coordination, Hospitals, Nursing Homes
AHRQ Author: Bierman AS
Preventing and managing multimorbidity by integrating behavioral health and primary care.
People with multimorbidity are especially challenged in navigating fragmented health systems designed to treat diseases rather than people. The harms associated with this fragmentation, such as adverse events resulting from conflicting treatments and increased costs, have been well documented. As a result, there have been renewed calls for more patient-centered care, with a particular emphasis on the importance of the integration of primary care and behavioral health as fundamental for achieving this goal. This paper discusses preventing and managing multimorbidity by integrating behavioral health and primary care.
AHRQ author - Bierman
Citation: Bierman AS . Preventing and managing multimorbidity by integrating behavioral health and primary care. Health Psychol 2019 Sep;38(9):851-54. doi: 10.1037/hea0000787..
Keywords: Care Coordination, Healthcare Delivery, Behavioral Health, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Primary Care
Timbie JW, Kranz AM, Mahmud A
Federally qualified health center strategies for integrating care with hospitals and their association with measures of communication.
Federally qualified health centers have aligned clinical services and systems with local hospitals, but little is known about the specific care integration strategies health centers use or their impact on care. In this study, a research team examined the use of strategies by health centers to integrate care with hospitals and emergency departments (EDs) and their association with performance on measures of health center-hospital communication.
Citation: Timbie JW, Kranz AM, Mahmud A . Federally qualified health center strategies for integrating care with hospitals and their association with measures of communication. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2019 Sep;45(9):620-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2019.06.004..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Hospitals, Communications, Emergency Department, Care Coordination, Healthcare Delivery