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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 653 Research Studies Displayed
Womack DM, Kennedy R, Chamberlin SR
Patients' lived experiences and recommendations for enhanced awareness and use of integrative oncology services in cancer care.
The purpose of this study was to involve patients in understanding improved clinic processes and digital health tools to support patient awareness and use of integrative oncology services. The patients were engaged in participatory design to explore their lived experiences as related to the utilization of integrative oncology services during and after conventional cancer treatment. The researchers held 10 design sessions with individual participants, which began with patient story telling regarding their path to and use of integrative oncology services. Feedback was then requested on the functionality of prototypes of mobile app screens intended to support patient symptom alleviation. The study found that oncology patients are active participants in the management of their symptoms and treatment side effects. Patients who used massage, yoga, and acupuncture reported a need for earlier patient education about those services. The study concluded that clinics can collaborate with patients to identify high priority needs, unmet needs and challenges, guide development of clinic process, and co-produce wellbeing in conventional cancer care.
Citation: Womack DM, Kennedy R, Chamberlin SR . Patients' lived experiences and recommendations for enhanced awareness and use of integrative oncology services in cancer care. Patient Educ Couns 2022 Jul;105(7):2557-61. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2021.11.018..
Keywords: Cancer, Patient Experience, Patient and Family Engagement, Education: Patient and Caregiver
Kerlikowske K, Su YR, Sprague BL
Association of screening with digital breast tomosynthesis vs digital mammography with risk of interval invasive and advanced breast cancer.
The purpose of this study was to compare digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with digital mammography to determine whether DBT was correlated with lower rates of internal invasive cancer and advanced breast cancer, taking into consideration breast density and breast cancer risk. From 2011 through 2018, the researchers studied a cohort of 504,427 women between the ages of 40 and 79 who underwent 375,189 screening DBT exams and 1,003,900 screening digital mammography exams, and who were then followed up for cancer diagnoses between 2011 and 2019 after being identified via linkage to state or regional cancer registries. The median age at the time of screening was 58 years (IQR 50-65 years) and the diagnostic screenings took place at 44 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) facilities in the United States. The study found that among women at low to average risk, or at high risk with almost entirely fatty, scattered fibroglandular densities, or heterogeneously dense breasts, advanced cancer rates were not significantly different for DBT vs digital mammography. There was no significant difference between DBT and digital mammography for interval cancer rates per 1000 exams. Interval invasive cancer rates were also not significantly different among the 413,061 examinations with BCSC 5-year risk of 1.67% or higher (high risk) across breast density categories, or among all the 836,250 examinations with BCSC 5-year risk less than 1.67% (low to average-risk). For the 3.6% of women with extremely dense breasts and at high risk of breast cancer (13,291 examinations in the DBT group and 31,300 in the digital mammography group) advanced cancer rates per 1000 examinations were significantly lower for DBT vs digital mammography, but not for women at low to average risk (10,611 examinations in the DBT group and 37,796 in the digital mammography group). The researchers reported that there was no significant difference in the 96.4% of women with extremely dense breasts not at high risk, heterogeneously dense breasts, or nondense breasts, and concluded that screening with DBT vs digital mammography was associated with a significantly lower risk of advanced breast cancer among the 3.6% of women with extremely dense breasts and at high risk of breast cancer, and was not associated with a significant difference in risk of interval invasive cancer.
Citation: Kerlikowske K, Su YR, Sprague BL . Association of screening with digital breast tomosynthesis vs digital mammography with risk of interval invasive and advanced breast cancer. JAMA 2022 Jun 14;327(22):2220-30. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.7672..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Screening, Women, Mammogram, Imaging, Risk
Tsang M, DeBoer RJ, Garrett SB
Decision-making about clinical trial options among older patients with metastatic cancer who have exhausted standard therapies.
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential reasons for and responses to older adults’ under enrollment in phase 1 cancer clinical trials. The researchers conducted 101 in-depth qualitative interviews with 39 adults aged 65 and older with advanced cancer and asked about their experiences with the trials. The data was analyzed to identify the participants’ understanding of clinical research, their perceptions of early phase trials, and their experiences with enrollment in the trials. The study found that participants over the age of 70 were less enthusiastic about participation in clinical trials, although they did not mention age as a limitation to participation. Findings indicated that participation in clinical trials was an interactive, ongoing process, in which older adults relied on their oncologist for guidance and discussion. The researchers concluded that older adults rely on their oncologist to navigate the perceived complexities of phase 1 trial enrollment, and that acknowledgement of those complexities via shared decision-making can help prevent under-enrollment.
Citation: Tsang M, DeBoer RJ, Garrett SB . Decision-making about clinical trial options among older patients with metastatic cancer who have exhausted standard therapies. J Geriatr Oncol 2022 Jun;13(5):594-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jgo.2022.01.012..
Keywords: Elderly, Cancer, Decision Making, Quality of Life
Sanchez JI, Shankaran V, Unger JM
Disparities in post-operative surveillance testing for metastatic recurrence among colorectal cancer survivors.
This population-based study assesses individual- and neighborhood-level factors associated with receipt of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and computer tomography (CT) surveillance testing. Using SEER-Medicare data to identify beneficiaries diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) stages II-III, they found that, overall, 78% and 58% of CRC survivors received CEA and CT testing, respectively. Further, Medicare-Medicaid dual coverage was associated with 39% lower odds of receipt of CEA tests among non-Hispanic Whites, while Blacks with dual coverage had almost two times the odds of receiving CEA tests compared to Blacks without dual coverage. Although this study did not find significant differences in receipt of initial CEA and CT surveillance testing across racial/ethnic groups, the assessment of the factors that measure access to care suggests differences in access to these procedures within racial/ethnic groups.
Citation: Sanchez JI, Shankaran V, Unger JM . Disparities in post-operative surveillance testing for metastatic recurrence among colorectal cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv 2022 Jun;16(3):638-49. doi: 10.1007/s11764-021-01057-z..
Keywords: Disparities, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer
Liu MA, Keeney T, Papaila A
Functional status and survival in older nursing home residents with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a SEER-Medicare analysis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between activities of daily living (ADL) impairment and overall survival in patients 65 and older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving care in nursing homes from 2011 to 2015. The researchers examined the association between ADL scores and overall survival among 3,174 patients who received systemic cancer chemotherapy or immunotherapy within 3 months of NSCLC diagnosis; and among patients who did not receive any treatment. The study found that the ADL score was associated with increased risk of death. One standard deviation increase in the ADL score was associated with lower overall survival rate among treated and untreated patients The median overall survival was 3.1 months for patients with an ADL score of less than 14, 2.8 months for patients with an ADL score between 14 and 17, 2.3 months for patients with ADL score between 18-19, and 1.8 months for patients with ADL score of 20+. The researchers concluded that the ADL assessment may be a useful clinical tool in nursing home adults aged 65 and older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
Citation: Liu MA, Keeney T, Papaila A . Functional status and survival in older nursing home residents with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a SEER-Medicare analysis. JCO Oncol Pract 2022 Jun;18(6):e886-e95. doi: 10.1200/op.21.00460..
Keywords: Elderly, Nursing Homes, Cancer: Lung Cancer, Cancer
Mobley EM, Moke DJ, Milam J
Interventions to address disparities and barriers to pediatric cancer survivorship care: a scoping review.
This scoping review’s aim was to demonstrate evidence-based approaches to alleviate barriers and decrease disparities among childhood cancer survivors. A literature review identified 16 proposed strategies to address disparities and barriers endorsed by professional organizations including 9 clinical practice guidelines, 4 policy statements, and 3 recommendations. Twenty-seven published studies evaluated an intervention; however these evaluated interventions were not well aligned with the proposed strategies endorsed by professional organizations. Interventions most commonly evaluated survivorship care plans (n = 11), or models of care (n = 11) followed by individual survivorship care services (n= 9). Interventions predominantly targeted patients rather than providers or systems.
Citation: Mobley EM, Moke DJ, Milam J . Interventions to address disparities and barriers to pediatric cancer survivorship care: a scoping review. J Cancer Surviv 2022 Jun;16(3):667-76. doi: 10.1007/s11764-021-01060-4..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Disparities, Cancer
Ellsworth BL, Metz AK, Mott MM
Review of cancer-specific quality measures promoting the avoidance of low-value care.
The purpose of this study was to explore cancer quality measures to identify and describe those that encourage the avoidance of caner overtreatment and low-value care. The study also aimed to identify gaps that could direct the future development of cancer-specific quality measures. The researchers collected, reviewed, and identified 313 quality measures encouraging the avoidance of low-value cancer care, from six leading quality measures organizations. Of the 313 quality measures identified, 55 (18%) focused on avoidance of low-value care. Quality measure most likely to focus on low-value care included: 13 end-of-life care measures (50%); 12 breast cancer care measures (18%); 9 lung cancer care measures (31%); 8 colon cancer care measures (20%); 5 prostate cancer care measures (38%); and 4 general cancer care measures (3%). The study concluded that the majority of cancer quality measures are not aimed at avoiding cancer over-treatment and low value care, and existing recommendations have not been incorporated in the field.
Citation: Ellsworth BL, Metz AK, Mott MM . Review of cancer-specific quality measures promoting the avoidance of low-value care. Ann Surg Oncol 2022 Jun;39(6):3750-62. doi: 10.1245/s10434-021-11303-4..
Keywords: Cancer, Quality Measures, Quality Indicators (QIs), Quality of Care, Value
Roberson ML, Nichols HB, Olshan AF
Trends in surgical treatment of early-stage breast cancer reveal decreasing mastectomy use between 2003 and 2016 by age, race, and rurality.
The authors sought to examine trends in the surgical treatment of breast cancer by age, rurality, and among Black women in a populous, racially diverse, state in the Southeastern United States of America. Using data from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry, they found declining mastectomy rates in the early 2000s in a Southern US state with a racially and geographically diverse population. These decreasing trends were consistent among key subgroups affected by cancer inequities, including Black and White rural women.
Citation: Roberson ML, Nichols HB, Olshan AF . Trends in surgical treatment of early-stage breast cancer reveal decreasing mastectomy use between 2003 and 2016 by age, race, and rurality. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 Jun;193(2):445-54. doi: 10.1007/s10549-022-06564-w..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Women, Surgery, Racial / Ethnic Minorities, Rural Health
Jin MC, Hsin G, Ratliff J
Modifiers of and disparities in palliative and supportive care timing and utilization among neurosurgical patients with malignant central nervous system tumors.
This study analyzed a cohort of privately insured patients with malignant brain or spinal tumors derived from the Optum Clinformatics Datamart Database to investigate health disparities and access and utilization of palliative care and supportive services. The authors introduced a novel construct, “provider patient racial diversity index” (provider pRDI) which is a measure of the proportion of non-white minority patients a provider encounters to approximate a provider's patient demographics and suggest a provider's cultural sensitivity and exposure to diversity. Their analysis demonstrated low rates of palliative care, home health, and social work services among racial minority patients, with Hispanics having the lowest likelihood of engagement with all three categories of supportive services. Patients who saw providers categorized into high provider pRDI (categories II and III) were increasingly more likely to interface with supportive care services and at an earlier point in their disease courses.
Citation: Jin MC, Hsin G, Ratliff J . Modifiers of and disparities in palliative and supportive care timing and utilization among neurosurgical patients with malignant central nervous system tumors. Cancers 2022 May 23;14(10). doi: 10.3390/cancers14102567..
Keywords: Palliative Care, Disparities, Cancer
Loo S, Mullikin K, Robbins C
Patient navigator team perceptions on the implementation of a citywide breast cancer patient navigation protocol: a qualitative study.
This study’s goal was to assess the implementation of the 2018 Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP), an evidence-based patient navigation intervention aimed at addressing breast cancer care disparities, across six Boston hospitals. Patient navigator team member perspectives regarding implementation barriers and facilitators one-year post-study implementation were assessed. Seventeen interviews were conducted with patient navigators, patient navigator supervisors, and designated clinical champions. The following benefits were identified by participants: 1) increased networking and connections for navigators across clinical sites (Cosmopolitanism), 2) formalization of the patient navigation process (Goals and Purpose, Access to Knowledge and Information, and Relative Advantage), and 3) flexibility within the TRIP intervention that allowed for diversity in implementation and use of TRIP components across sites (Adaptability). Barriers included documentation requirements and the structured patient follow up guidelines that did not always align with the timeline of existing site navigation processes.
Citation: Loo S, Mullikin K, Robbins C . Patient navigator team perceptions on the implementation of a citywide breast cancer patient navigation protocol: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res 2022 May 21;22(1):683. doi: 10.1186/s12913-022-08090-3..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Evidence-Based Practice
Lowry KP, Bissell MCS, Miglioretti DL
Breast biopsy recommendations and breast cancers diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The authors sought to examine breast biopsy recommendations and breast cancers diagnosed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic by mode of detection and women's characteristics. Using data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, they found that there were substantially fewer breast biopsies with cancer diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic from March to September 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, with Asian and Hispanic women experiencing the largest declines followed by Black women.
Citation: Lowry KP, Bissell MCS, Miglioretti DL . Breast biopsy recommendations and breast cancers diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Radiology 2022 May;303(2):287-94. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2021211808..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Diagnostic Safety and Quality
Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Perdue LA
Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
This evidence summary reviewed the benefits and harms of aspirin in primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention to accompany the final recommendation and evidence review of the US Preventive Services Task Force. A literature review was conducted of English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of low-dose aspirin compared with placebo or no intervention in primary prevention populations. Aspirin was found not to be significantly associated with reductions in CVD mortality or all-cause mortality. There was limited trial evidence on benefits for CRC, with the findings highly variable by length of follow-up and statistically significant only when considering long-term observational follow-up beyond randomized trial periods. Low-dose aspirin was associated with significant increases in total major bleeding and in site-specific bleeding.
Citation: Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Perdue LA . Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2022 Apr 26;327(16):1585-97. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.3337..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Dehmer SP, O'Keefe LR, Evans CV
Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated modeling study for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The purpose of the study was to develop, model, and report estimates of the harms from and benefits of the use of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC.) The researchers developed and used a simulation model to provide estimates for hypothetical United States cohorts of men and women between the ages of forty and seventy-nine years without a previous history of elevated bleeding risks or CVD, and up to a 20% 10-year risk for a CVD event. The model focused on the routine, lifetime use of low-dose aspirin with 5-year intervals of no use between 65 and 85 years of age. The study’s primary outcome was lifetime net benefit which was measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs.) Harms included an increase in nonfatal intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal bleeding, and benefits included a reduction in nonfatal ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. The study found that the estimated lifetime net quality-adjusted life-years was positive for men and women with 5% or more 10-year CVD risk when they started use between the ages of 40-59 years, and for men and women with 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk when starting between the ages of 60 and 69 years. The estimated lifetime net life-years were mostly negative for those starting low-dose aspirin use between 60 and 79 years of age. Five-year intervals of stopping use between 65 and 85 years of age did not provide a significant advantage to lifetime use. The researchers concluded that the routine, lifetime use of low-dose aspirin may benefit several population groups, with the largest estimated benefit in those with greater 10-year CVD risk who begin routine, low-dose aspirin dosage at younger ages.
Citation: Dehmer SP, O'Keefe LR, Evans CV . Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: updated modeling study for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2022 Apr 26;327(16):1598-607. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.3385..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Prevention, Cardiovascular Conditions, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Prevention, Evidence-Based Practice
Rosenberg SM, Gierisch JM, Revette AC
"Is it cancer or not?" A qualitative exploration of survivor concerns surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ.
This study investigated the impact of a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosis by engaging self-identified patients regarding their experience. Findings showed that, in a large, national sample, participants with a history of DCIS reported confusion and concern about the diagnosis and treatment, which caused worry and significant uncertainty.
Citation: Rosenberg SM, Gierisch JM, Revette AC . "Is it cancer or not?" A qualitative exploration of survivor concerns surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer 2022 Apr 15;128(8):1676-83. doi: 10.1002/cncr.34126..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Decision Making, Women, Patient-Centered Healthcare, Clinician-Patient Communication, Patient and Family Engagement, Communication
Kukhareva PV, Caverly TJ, Li H
Inaccuracies in electronic health records smoking data and a potential approach to address resulting underestimation in determining lung cancer screening eligibility.
The authors sought to characterize EHR smoking data issues and to propose an approach to addressing these issues using longitudinal smoking data. They found that over 80% of evaluated records had inaccuracies, including missing packs-per-day or years-smoked, outdated data, missing years-quit, and a recent change in packs-per-day resulting in inaccurate lifetime pack-years estimation. Further, addressing these issues by using longitudinal data enabled the identification of 49.4% more patients potentially eligible for lung cancer screening.
Citation: Kukhareva PV, Caverly TJ, Li H . Inaccuracies in electronic health records smoking data and a potential approach to address resulting underestimation in determining lung cancer screening eligibility. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022 Apr 13;29(5):779-88. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocac020..
Keywords: Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Technology (HIT), Screening, Cancer: Lung Cancer, Cancer
Taylor K, Diaz A, Nuliyalu U
Association of dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility with outcomes and spending for cancer surgery in high-quality hospitals.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether treatment at high-quality hospitals mitigates dual-eligibility-associated disparities in outcomes and spending for cancer surgery. Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older who underwent colectomy, rectal resection, lung resection, or pancreatectomy were evaluated. The findings indicate that, even among the highest-quality hospitals, dual-eligibility patients had poorer outcomes and higher spending. Dually eligible patients were more likely to be discharged to a facility and thus incurred higher post-acute care costs. Although treatment at high-quality hospitals is associated with reduced differences in outcomes, dual-eligibility patients remain at high risk for adverse post-operative outcomes as well as increased readmissions and post-acute care use.
Citation: Taylor K, Diaz A, Nuliyalu U . Association of dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility with outcomes and spending for cancer surgery in high-quality hospitals. JAMA Surg 2022 Apr;157(4):e217586. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2021.7586..
Keywords: Cancer, Surgery, Medicare, Medicaid, Outcomes, Hospitals
Snyder C, Choi Y, Smith KC
Realist review of care models that include primary care for adult childhood cancer survivors.
The authors conducted a realist review to describe how models of care that include primary care and relevant resources could be effective for adult survivors of childhood cancer. The variables from this program theory found most consistently in the literature included oncology vs primary care specialty, survivor and provider knowledge, provider comfort treating childhood cancer survivors, communication and coordination between and among providers and survivors, and delivery/receipt of prevention and surveillance of late effects.
Citation: Snyder C, Choi Y, Smith KC . Realist review of care models that include primary care for adult childhood cancer survivors. JNCI Cancer Spectr 2022 Mar 2;6(2). doi: 10.1093/jncics/pkac012..
Keywords: Cancer, Primary Care, Primary Care: Models of Care
Fernandez JR, Richmond J, Nápoles AM
Everyday discrimination and cancer metaphor preferences: the mediating effects of needs for personal significance and cognitive closure.
This study examined the relationship between discrimination and preferences for cancer battle metaphors versus journey metaphors. Four-hundred twenty-seven cancer patients completed an online survey. Question items included on every day discrimination, need for personal significance, need for cognitive closure, and preference for cancer scenarios using battle or journey metaphors. Discrimination was associated with battle metaphor preferences through serial mediation when discrimination was not associated to race. When discrimination was associated with race, it was directly associated with journey metaphor preferences and the serial medication was nonsignificant. The single mediation model was strongest for non-Hispanic White participants and varied across racial/ethnic groups.
Citation: Fernandez JR, Richmond J, Nápoles AM . Everyday discrimination and cancer metaphor preferences: the mediating effects of needs for personal significance and cognitive closure. SSM Popul Health 2022 Mar;17:100991. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100991..
Keywords: Cancer, Racial / Ethnic Minorities
Saulsberry L, Liao C, Huo D
Hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer: financial risk and expenditures in the United States, 2008 to 2017.
This study examined the costs of hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HF-WBI) compared with conventional whole breast irradiation (CF-WBI) and investigated the influences of patient characteristics and commercial insurance on HF-WBI use. This retrospective study used private employer-sponsored insurance claims to obtain a pooled cross-sectional evaluation of radiation therapy in patients with commercial insurance from 2008 to 2017. The study population included female patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and whole breast irradiation. A total of 15,869 women received HF-WBI, and 59,328 CF-WBI. A higher proportion of college graduates and greater mixed racial composition was associated with increased HF-WBI use. Mean insurer-paid radiation therapy expenditures were significantly lower for HB-WBI versus CF-WBI (adjusted difference $6375). Mean patient out-of-pocket expenditures for HF-WBI was $139 less than for CF-WBI. Geographic variation existed across the United States with no consistent relationship between HF-WBI use and correspondent average cost differences.
Citation: Saulsberry L, Liao C, Huo D . Hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer: financial risk and expenditures in the United States, 2008 to 2017. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2022 Mar;112(3):654-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.10.005..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Healthcare Costs, Women
Brajcich BC, Benson AB, Gantt G
Management of colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from a statewide multidisciplinary cancer collaborative.
J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar;125(4):560-63. doi: 10.1002/jso.26758.
Citation: Brajcich BC, Benson AB, Gantt G . Management of colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from a statewide multidisciplinary cancer collaborative. J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar;125(4):560-63. doi: 10.1002/jso.26758..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Colorectal Cancer, Cancer, Guidelines, Evidence-Based Practice, Healthcare Delivery
Watterson TL, Stone JA, Gilson A
Impact of CancelRx on discontinuation of controlled substance prescriptions: an interrupted time series analysis.
The purpose of this study was to assess how controlled substance medication discontinuations were communicated over time, before and after the implementation of CancelRx. Data were collected from a midwestern academic health system’s electronic health record and pharmacy platform for 12 months prior to and for 12 months post CancelRx implementation. Findings showed that, after CancelRx implementation, there was an immediate and significant increase in the number of controlled substance medications that were successfully discontinued at the pharmacy once they were discontinued in the clinic. This change was sustained in the year following CancelRx and did not revert to pre-CancelRx levels. The health IT functionality was able to complete discontinuation tasks and potentially to reduce workload for clinic staff.
Citation: Watterson TL, Stone JA, Gilson A . Impact of CancelRx on discontinuation of controlled substance prescriptions: an interrupted time series analysis. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2022 Feb 25;22(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s12911-022-01779-9..
Keywords: Cancer, Medication, Health Information Technology (HIT), Provider: Pharmacist
Radhakrishnan A, Reyes-Gastelum D, Abrahamse P
Physician specialties involved in thyroid cancer diagnosis and treatment: implications for improving health care disparities.
The authors sought to characterize providers involved in diagnosing and treating thyroid cancer. Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer from the Georgia and Los Angeles County Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries were surveyed. The authors found that, among thyroid cancer patients, 40.6% reported being informed of their diagnosis by their surgeon, 37.9% by their endocrinologist, and 13.5% by their primary care physician (PCP). The researchers concluded that PCPs were involved in thyroid cancer diagnosis and treatment, and their involvement was greater among older patients and patients of minority race/ethnicity.
Citation: Radhakrishnan A, Reyes-Gastelum D, Abrahamse P . Physician specialties involved in thyroid cancer diagnosis and treatment: implications for improving health care disparities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Feb 17;107(3):e1096-e105. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab781..
Keywords: Cancer, Disparities, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Practice Patterns, Quality Improvement, Quality of Care
Reese TJ, Schlechter CR, Kramer H
Implementing lung cancer screening in primary care: needs assessment and implementation strategy design.
This study explored the implementation of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) in primary care. The study’s two goals included exploring the implementation of lung cancer screening primary care in the context of integrating a decision aid into the electronic health record and a designing of implementation strategies that target hypothesized mechanics of change and context-specific barriers. The two phases included a Qualitative Analysis phase including semi-structured interviews with primary care physicians to elicit key task behaviors, and an Implementation Strategy Design phase consisting of defining implementation strategies and hypothesizing causal pathways to improve screening with a decision aid. Fourteen interviews were conducted and out of that 3 key task behaviors and four behavioral determinants emerged. Strategies included increasing provider self-efficacy toward performing shared decision making and using the decision aid, improving provider performance expectancy, increasing social influence, and addressing key facilitators to using the decision aid.
Citation: Reese TJ, Schlechter CR, Kramer H . Implementing lung cancer screening in primary care: needs assessment and implementation strategy design. Transl Behav Med 2022 Feb 16;12(2):187-97. doi: 10.1093/tbm/ibab115..
Keywords: Cancer: Lung Cancer, Cancer, Primary Care, Screening, Implementation, Decision Making
Wallis CJD, Huang LC, Zhao Z
Association between pelvic nodal radiotherapy and patient-reported functional outcomes through 5 years among men undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: an assessment of the Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (C
In this study, the investigators sought to compare functional outcomes for men receiving prostate and pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy, longitudinally over 5 years. The investigators concluded that there were no clinically important differences in disease-specific or general health-related quality of life with the addition of pelvic irradiation to prostate radiotherapy, supporting the use of pelvic radiotherapy when it may be of clinical benefit, such as men with increased risk of nodal involvement.
AHRQ-funded; HS022640; HS019356.
Citation: Wallis CJD, Huang LC, Zhao Z . Association between pelvic nodal radiotherapy and patient-reported functional outcomes through 5 years among men undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: an assessment of the Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (C Urol Oncol 2022 Feb;40(2):56.e1-56.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.04.035..
Keywords: Cancer: Prostate Cancer, Cancer, Men's Health, Comparative Effectiveness, Outcomes, Evidence-Based Practice, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Quality of Life
Carpenter K, Scavotto M, McGovern A
Early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer.
This study assessed early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer. The cohort included parents of children receiving cancer treatment at Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. The parents were surveyed about their knowledge of their child’s likelihood of eight late effects. Only 11 out of 96 parents correctly identified all their child’s risk for the eight late effects. Five of eight effects were the median number of correctly identified late effect risks. Among the 21 parents whose children were at risk for ototoxicity, 95% correctly identified this risk. Conversely, parents were less knowledgeable about risks of second malignancy, cardiac toxicity, neurocognitive impairment, and infertility.
Citation: Carpenter K, Scavotto M, McGovern A . Early parental knowledge of late effect risks in children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 Feb;69(2):e29473. doi: 10.1002/pbc.29473..
Keywords: Children/Adolescents, Cancer, Risk, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Health Literacy