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Research Studies is a monthly compilation of research articles funded by AHRQ or authored by AHRQ researchers and recently published in journals or newsletters.
Results1 to 25 of 403 Research Studies Displayed
Kramer RD, Higgins JA, Everett B
A prospective analysis of the relationship between sexual acceptability and contraceptive satisfaction over time.
This analysis examined the relationship between contraceptive method and sex life satisfaction. Eligible participants were individuals in the HER Salt Lake Contraceptive Initiative who switched contraceptive methods and continued their new method for at least 1 month and completed all relevant surveys. Primary predictor variables included changes in sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and perceived impact of the contraceptive method of sex life at one month. The sample included 1879 individuals. At 3 months 52.1% of participants were completely satisfied with their contraceptive method, 30.7% were somewhat satisfied, and 6.2% were completely dissatisfied. Patients at 3 months who said the method improved their sex life “a lot” had 7.7 times increased odds of greater satisfaction at 3 months than patients who said their contraceptive method made their sex life “a lot” worse at 1 month. Patients whose method improved their sex life a “little” had 5.88 times increased odds of greater satisfaction. Experiencing less or no vaginal bleeding was significantly associated with increased satisfaction.
Citation: Kramer RD, Higgins JA, Everett B . A prospective analysis of the relationship between sexual acceptability and contraceptive satisfaction over time. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;226(3):396.31-96.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.10.008..
Keywords: Sexual Health, Women
Dude AM, Schueler K, Schumm LP
Preconception care and severe maternal morbidity in the United States.
This study’s objective was to measure the association between preconception care and the odds of severe maternal morbidity among women with Medicaid using a secondary analysis of Medicaid claims using Medicaid Analytic Extract files. Findings showed that contraceptive services in the year before conception and routine exams for women with chronic disease were associated with decreased odds of severe maternal morbidity or death for Medicaid enrollees.
Citation: Dude AM, Schueler K, Schumm LP . Preconception care and severe maternal morbidity in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2022 Mar;4(2):100549. doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100549..
Keywords: Maternal Care, Pregnancy, Women, Labor and Delivery, Sexual Health
Saulsberry L, Liao C, Huo D
Hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer: financial risk and expenditures in the United States, 2008 to 2017.
This study examined the costs of hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HF-WBI) compared with conventional whole breast irradiation (CF-WBI) and investigated the influences of patient characteristics and commercial insurance on HF-WBI use. This retrospective study used private employer-sponsored insurance claims to obtain a pooled cross-sectional evaluation of radiation therapy in patients with commercial insurance from 2008 to 2017. The study population included female patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and whole breast irradiation. A total of 15,869 women received HF-WBI, and 59,328 CF-WBI. A higher proportion of college graduates and greater mixed racial composition was associated with increased HF-WBI use. Mean insurer-paid radiation therapy expenditures were significantly lower for HB-WBI versus CF-WBI (adjusted difference $6375). Mean patient out-of-pocket expenditures for HF-WBI was $139 less than for CF-WBI. Geographic variation existed across the United States with no consistent relationship between HF-WBI use and correspondent average cost differences.
Citation: Saulsberry L, Liao C, Huo D . Hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer: financial risk and expenditures in the United States, 2008 to 2017. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2022 Mar;112(3):654-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.10.005..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Healthcare Costs, Women
Do high-deductible health plans affect price paid for childbirth?
The purpose of this study was to test whether out-of-pocket costs and negotiated hospital prices for childbirth change after enrollment in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) and whether price effects differ in markets with more hospitals. Administrative medical claims data from three large commercial insurers with plans in all U.S. states was provided by the Health Care Cost Institute. Findings showed that prices for childbirth in markets with more hospitals decreased after HDHP switch due to lower hospital prices for HDHPs relative to prices at those same hospitals for non-HDHPs.
Citation: Cliff BQ . Do high-deductible health plans affect price paid for childbirth? Health Serv Res 2022 Feb;57(1):27-36. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13702..
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Health Insurance, Healthcare Costs, Women
Roman LA, Raffo JE, Strutz K
The impact of a population-based system of care intervention on enhanced prenatal care and service utilization among Medicaid-insured pregnant women.
Enhanced prenatal/postnatal care home visiting programs for Medicaid-insured women have significant positive impacts on care and health outcomes. However, enhanced prenatal care participation rates are typically low, enrolling <30% of eligible women. This study investigated the impacts of a population-based systems approach on timely enhanced prenatal care participation and other healthcare utilization. The investigators concluded that a population systems approach improved selected enhanced prenatal care participation and service utilization for Medicaid-insured women in a county population, those in practices with established clinical-community linkages, and Black women.
Citation: Roman LA, Raffo JE, Strutz K . The impact of a population-based system of care intervention on enhanced prenatal care and service utilization among Medicaid-insured pregnant women. Am J Prev Med 2022 Feb;62(2):e117-e27. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.08.012..
Keywords: Maternal Care, Pregnancy, Medicaid, Women
Mabry-Hernandez IR, Legg M
AHRQ Author: Mabry-Hernandez IR
Behavioral counseling interventions for healthy weight and weight gain in pregnancy.
This AHRQ-authored Putting Prevention Into Practice (PPIP) article is a quiz on the Behavioral Counseling Interventions for Healthy Weight and Weight Gain in Pregnancy U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation. Three questions are included with the answers and references at the end of the quiz. The questions are 1) Under what circumstances should physicians offer behavioral interventions; 2) What is the recommended gestational weight gain for the case study patient; and 3) Which of the 3 approaches to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy are correct for the patient?
Citation: Mabry-Hernandez IR, Legg M . Behavioral counseling interventions for healthy weight and weight gain in pregnancy. Am Fam Physician 2022 Feb;105(2):187-88..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Pregnancy, Prevention, Women, Case Study, Evidence-Based Practice
Schapira L, Zheng Y, Gelber SI
Trajectories of fear of cancer recurrence in young breast cancer survivors.
This prospective cohort study examined the effects of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) among 965 young women enrolled in the Young Women’s Breast Cancer Study who are ≤40 years and had been diagnosed with stage 0 to stage III breast cancer. These women completed the 3-item Lasry Fear or Recurrence Index survey. Five FCR trajectories were identified with a majority of participants having moderate or high FCR that improved over time. A total of 6.9% participants had moderate FCR that worsened, and 21.7% had a high FCR at baseline that didn’t go lower throughout the study. White women had higher odds of being in a trajectory that improved over time than non-White women. One-third of women with severe FCR did not improve or worsened over 5 years after diagnosis. The authors indicated these women may require targeted mental health intervention.
Citation: Schapira L, Zheng Y, Gelber SI . Trajectories of fear of cancer recurrence in young breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2022 Jan 15;128(2):335-43. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33921..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Women
Cham S, Landrum MB, Keating NL
Use of germline BRCA testing in patients with ovarian cancer and commercial insurance.
The authors examined commercially insured populations to identify patient-, physician-, and practice-level characteristics associated with ovarian cancer testing rates. They found that only 33.9% of patients with commercial insurance were tested during the time period studied. Medical and gynecologic oncologists had similar rates of testing, while other physicians tested less often. Although independent practices often lack access to genetic counselors, women in this study had insurance coverage for in-person and telephonic counseling.
Citation: Cham S, Landrum MB, Keating NL . Use of germline BRCA testing in patients with ovarian cancer and commercial insurance. JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jan 4;5(1):e2142703. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.42703..
Keywords: Cancer: Ovarian Cancer, Cancer, Screening, Genetics, Health Insurance, Women
Kho RM, Desai VB, Schwartz PE
Endometrial sampling for preoperative diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma.
This retrospective cohort study examined the effectiveness of endometrial sampling for preoperative detection of uterine leiomyosarcoma in women undergoing hysterectomy, identified factors associated with missed diagnosis, and compared the outcomes of patients who had a preoperative diagnosis with those patients who had a missed diagnosis. A total of 79 patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma were included in the study. Of those patients, 46 (58.2%) were diagnosed preoperatively and 33 postoperatively. The groups were similar in age, race/ethnicity, bleeding symptoms, and comorbidities. Women who had endometrial sampling performed with hysteroscopy had a higher likelihood of preoperative diagnosis. Patients with localized stage (vs distant stage) or tumor size >11 cm were less likely to be diagnosed preoperatively.
Citation: Kho RM, Desai VB, Schwartz PE . Endometrial sampling for preoperative diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2022 Jan;29(1):119-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jmig.2021.07.004.
Keywords: Cancer, Diagnostic Safety and Quality, Surgery, Women
Fendrick AM, Dalton VK, Tilea A
Out-of-pocket costs for colposcopy among commercially insured women from 2006 to 2019.
The objective of this study was to describe out-of-pocket costs for colposcopy and related services among age-appropriate, commercially insured women from 2006 to 2019. Findings suggested that out-of-pocket costs for colposcopy were very common and significant and have increased over time. Reported out-of-pocket costs for cervical cancer screening-related care, such as office visits, were not included, thus the findings may underestimate patients’ total financial burden.
Citation: Fendrick AM, Dalton VK, Tilea A . Out-of-pocket costs for colposcopy among commercially insured women from 2006 to 2019. Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;139(1):113-15. doi: 10.1097/aog.0000000000004582..
Keywords: Healthcare Costs, Colonoscopy, Screening, Cancer: Cervical Cancer, Cancer, Prevention, Women
Williams D, Stout MJ, Rosenbloom JI
Preeclampsia predicts risk of hospitalization for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Preeclampsia is associated with increased risk of future heart failure (HF), but the relationship between preeclampsia and HF subtypes are not well-established. The objective of this analysis was to identify the risk of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) following a delivery complicated by preeclampsia/eclampsia. The investigators concluded that preeclampsia/eclampsia was an independent risk factor for future hospitalizations for HFpEF.
Citation: Williams D, Stout MJ, Rosenbloom JI . Preeclampsia predicts risk of hospitalization for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Dec 7;78(23):2281-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.09.1360..
Keywords: Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Heart Disease and Health, Cardiovascular Conditions, Hospitalization, Risk, Labor and Delivery, Pregnancy, Women
Mills J, Mohnot S
AHRQ Author: Mills J
Screening for gestational diabetes.
This “Putting Prevention into Practice: An Evidence Based Approach” paper is a case study with questions and answers related to a patient with gestational diabetes.
Citation: Mills J, Mohnot S . Screening for gestational diabetes. Am Fam Physician 2021 Dec 1;104(6):641-42..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Diabetes, Pregnancy, Screening, Prevention, Women, Evidence-Based Practice, Guidelines, Case Study
Tobin JN, Cassells A, Weiss E
Integrating cancer screening and mental health services in primary care: protocol and baseline results of a patient-centered outcomes intervention study.
Citation: Tobin JN, Cassells A, Weiss E . Integrating cancer screening and mental health services in primary care: protocol and baseline results of a patient-centered outcomes intervention study. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2021;32(4):1907-34. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2021.0173..
Keywords: Patient-Centered Healthcare, Cancer, Behavioral Health, Primary Care, Depression, Women, Screening
Alagoz O, Lowry KP, Kurian AW
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer mortality in the US: estimates from collaborative simulation modeling.
This study’s objective was to project the impact of COVID-19 on future breast cancer mortality between 2020 and 2030. Three established Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network breast cancer models were used to model reductions in mammography screening use, delays in symptomatic cancer diagnosis, and reduced use of chemotherapy for women with early-stage disease for the first 6 months of the pandemic with return to prepandemic patterns after that time. The models project by 2030 950 cumulative excess breast cancers deaths related to reduced screening, 1314 deaths associated with delayed diagnosis of symptomatic cases, and 151 deaths associated with reduced chemotherapy use in women with hormone positive, early-stage cancer.
Citation: Alagoz O, Lowry KP, Kurian AW . Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer mortality in the US: estimates from collaborative simulation modeling. J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Nov 2;113(11):1484-94. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djab097..
Keywords: COVID-19, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Mortality, Women
Bowles EJA, O'Neill SC, Li T
Effect of a randomized trial of a web-based intervention on patient-provider communication about breast density.
This study evaluated a personalized web-based intervention between women and their providers designed to improve breast cancer risk communication. This randomized trial included women aged 40-69 years with 504 women in the control group and 492 women who used the intervention website. The website included information about breast density, personalized breast cancer risk, chemoprevention, and magnetic resonance imaging. Participants self-reported their communication about density with providers at 6 weeks and 12 months. Women in the intervention arm were 2.39 times more likely to report density communication at 6 weeks than the control arm. This effect persisted at 12 months. At 6 weeks the effect was only significant among women who reported versus those who did not report any previous density discussions. A quarter of women in each arm did not have a density conversation at any point during the study.
Citation: Bowles EJA, O'Neill SC, Li T . Effect of a randomized trial of a web-based intervention on patient-provider communication about breast density. J Womens Health 2021 Nov;30(11):1529-37. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2021.0053.
Keywords: Communication, Women, Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Health Information Technology (HIT)
Butler AM, Durkin MJ, Keller MR
Risk of antibiotic treatment failure in premenopausal women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection.
This study compared treatment outcomes for various antibiotics in premenopausal women with uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). The authors compared treatment with fluoroquinolones (first-line), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) (first-line), nitrofurantoin (first-line), narrow-spectrum β-lactams (non-first-line), and amoxicillin/ampicillin (non-recommended). Over 1.1 million patient outcomes were analyzed. The risk of treatment failure differed by the antibiotic type, with higher risk associated with TMP/SMX versus nitrofurantoin, and lower or similar risk associated with broad- versus narrow-spectrum β-lactams.
Citation: Butler AM, Durkin MJ, Keller MR . Risk of antibiotic treatment failure in premenopausal women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 Oct;30(10):1360-70. doi: 10.1002/pds.5237..
Keywords: Antibiotics, Medication, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Women
Dominici L, Hu J, Zheng Y
Association of local therapy with quality-of-life outcomes in young women with breast cancer.
Researchers examined the association of surgery with longer-term satisfaction and quality of life (QOL) in young breast cancer survivors. Participants were women 40 years or older who enrolled in the Young Women's Breast Cancer Study. The results suggested that local therapy in young breast cancer survivors is persistently associated with poorer scores in multiple QOL domains, particularly among those treated with mastectomy and radiotherapy, irrespective of breast reconstruction. Socioeconomic stressors also appear to play a role.
Citation: Dominici L, Hu J, Zheng Y . Association of local therapy with quality-of-life outcomes in young women with breast cancer. JAMA Surg 2021 Oct;156(10):e213758. 2021. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2021.3758..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Quality of Life, Women, Surgery
Taylor K, Compton S, Kolenic GE
Financial hardship among pregnant and postpartum women in the United States, 2013 to 2018.
Financial hardship affects health care access and health outcomes among peripartum women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of financial hardship among peripartum women over time and by insurance type and income. The investigators concluded that financial hardship among peripartum women in the United States was common from 2013 to 2018, including 24% of pregnant and postpartum women reporting unmet health care need and 60% reporting health care unaffordability.
AHRQ-funded; HS023784; HS025465.
Citation: Taylor K, Compton S, Kolenic GE . Financial hardship among pregnant and postpartum women in the United States, 2013 to 2018. JAMA Netw Open 2021 Oct;4(10):e2132103. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32103..
Keywords: Pregnancy, Healthcare Costs, Women, Access to Care
Kuijer A, Dominici LS, Rosenberg SM
Arm morbidity after local therapy for young breast cancer patients.
This study assessed patient-reported arm morbidity in the Young Women's Breast Cancer Study (YWS). Participants were over 1300 women with breast cancer diagnosed at age 40 or younger and who were enrolled in the YWS. Findings showed that high rates of self-reported arm morbidity in young breast cancer survivors were reported, particularly in patients receiving axillary lymph node dissection and post-mastectomy radiation therapy. Recommendations included attention to the risks and benefits of differing local therapy strategies for axillary lymph node dissection and post-mastectomy radiation therapy patients.
Citation: Kuijer A, Dominici LS, Rosenberg SM . Arm morbidity after local therapy for young breast cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Oct;28(11):6071-82. doi: 10.1245/s10434-021-09947-3..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Women, Surgery
Zochowski MK, Kolenic GE, Zivin K
Trends in primary cesarean section rates among women with and without perinatal mood and anxiety disorders.
Reducing the rate of cesarean sections among women considered at low risk for delivery by that method is a goal of Healthy People 2030. Prior research suggests that perinatal mood and anxiety disorders increase the risk for cesarean section, but data are limited. This cross-sectional study of commercially insured women examined the relationship between perinatal depression and anxiety disorders and primary (first-time) cesarean section rates, using administrative claims data for US in-hospital deliveries from the period 2008-17.
Citation: Zochowski MK, Kolenic GE, Zivin K . Trends in primary cesarean section rates among women with and without perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. Health Aff 2021 Oct;40(10):1585-91. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2021.00780..
Keywords: Labor and Delivery, Pregnancy, Women, Anxiety
Viswanathan M, Cook Middleton J, Stuebe AM
Maternal, fetal, and child outcomes of mental health treatments in women: a meta‐analysis of pharmacotherapy
The authors systematically reviewed evidence on pharmacotherapy for perinatal mental health disorders. The investigators concluded that evidence from few studies supported the use of pharmacotherapy for perinatal mental health disorders. Although many studies reported on adverse events, they could not rule out underlying disease severity as the cause of the association between exposures and adverse events.
Citation: Viswanathan M, Cook Middleton J, Stuebe AM . Maternal, fetal, and child outcomes of mental health treatments in women: a meta‐analysis of pharmacotherapy Psych Res Clin Pract 2021 Sep;3(3):123-40. doi: 10.1176/appi.prcp.20210001..
Keywords: Behavioral Health, Women, Maternal Care, Pregnancy, Medication, Evidence-Based Practice
Sella T, Poorvu PD, Ruddy KJ
Impact of fertility concerns on endocrine therapy decisions in young breast cancer survivors.
The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can have profound effects on a young woman's family planning and fertility, particularly among women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. In this paper the authors discuss the Young Women's Breast Cancer Study, a multicenter cohort of women aged 40 years or younger and newly diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2016. The investigators concluded that concern about fertility was a contributor to adjuvant ET decisions among a substantial proportion of young breast cancer survivors.
Citation: Sella T, Poorvu PD, Ruddy KJ . Impact of fertility concerns on endocrine therapy decisions in young breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2021 Aug 15;127(16):2888-94. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33596..
Keywords: Cancer: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Women, Pregnancy, Decision Making
Pillay J, Donovan L, Guitard S
Screening for gestational diabetes: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
The objective of this study was to update the 2012 review on screening for gestational diabetes to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. The investigators concluded that direct evidence on screening vs no screening remained limited. One- vs 2-step screening was not significantly associated with improved health outcomes. At or after 24 weeks of gestation, treatment of gestational diabetes was significantly associated with improved health outcomes.
Citation: Pillay J, Donovan L, Guitard S . Screening for gestational diabetes: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2021 Aug 10;326(6):539-62. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.10404..
Keywords: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), Diabetes, Pregnancy, Screening, Evidence-Based Practice, Women, Prevention, Guidelines
Wolgemuth T, Stransky OM, Chodoff A
Exploring the preferences of women regarding sexual and reproductive health care in the context of rheumatology: a qualitative study.
The objective of this study was to explore the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care and counseling needs of young women with rheumatic diseases in the context of their rheumatology care. The investigators concluded that patients strongly desired rheumatologists to play an active role in their SRH, by initiating family planning conversations, providing SRH education in the context of their diseases and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and directly coordinating SRH care with OB/GYNs.
Citation: Wolgemuth T, Stransky OM, Chodoff A . Exploring the preferences of women regarding sexual and reproductive health care in the context of rheumatology: a qualitative study. Arthritis Care Res 2021 Aug;73(8):1194-200. doi: 10.1002/acr.24249..
Keywords: Sexual Health, Women
Calabrese SK, Lane SB, Caldwell A
Electronic dissemination of a web-based video promotes PrEP contemplation and conversation among US women engaged in care at Planned Parenthood.
This study evaluated the acceptability and impact of a web-based PrEP educational video among women (n = 126) by comparing two Planned Parenthood centers: one using a Web Video and the other using standard education tools. Most women reported the video helped them understand better what PrEP is (92%), how it works (93%), and how to take PrEP (92%). One month post-intervention, more women in the Web Video group reported a high level of comfort discussing PrEP with a provider (82% vs 48%) and commonly thinking about PrEP (36.% vs. 4%).
Citation: Calabrese SK, Lane SB, Caldwell A . Electronic dissemination of a web-based video promotes PrEP contemplation and conversation among US women engaged in care at Planned Parenthood. AIDS Behav 2021 Aug;25(8):2483-500. doi: 10.1007/s10461-021-03210-2..
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Sexual Health, Education: Patient and Caregiver, Health Promotion, Prevention, Health Information Technology (HIT), Communication, Women